Take out a piece of paper
Name the Seven Dwarves
Difficulty of Task
• Was the exercise easy or difficult.
It depends on what factors?
•Whether you like Disney movies
•how long ago you watched the movie
•how loud the people are around you when
you are trying to remember
As you might have guessed, the next topic
we are going to examine is…….
Memory
The persistence of learning over time
through the storage and retrieval of
information.
So what was the point of the seven dwarves
exercise?
The Memory process
• Encoding
• Storage
• Retrieval
Encoding
• The processing of information into the
memory system.
Typing info into a computer
Getting a girls name at a party
Storage
• The retention of encoded material over
time.
Pressing Ctrl S and
saving the info.
Trying to remember her name
when you leave the party.
Retrieval
• The process of getting the information out
of memory storage.
Finding your document
and opening it up.
Seeing her the next day
and calling her the wrong
name (retrieval failure).
Turn your paper over.
Now pick out the seven dwarves.
Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy
Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy
Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful
Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop
Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach
Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy
Stubby Poopy
Seven Dwarves
Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory
exercise?
Recall v. Recognition
• With recall- you must retrieve the
information from your memory (fill-in-the
blank tests).
• With recognition- you must identify the
target from possible targets (multiple-choice
tests).
• Which is easier?
Flashbulb Memory
• A clear moment
of an emotionally
significant
moment or event.
Where were you when?
1. You heard about 9/11
2. You heard about the
death of a family member
3. During the OJ chase
Types of Memory
• Sensory Memory:
• Short-Term Memory
• Long-Term Memory
Sensory Memory
• The immediate, initial recording of sensory
information in the memory system.
• Stored just for an instant, and most gets
unprocessed.
Examples:
•You lose concentration in class during a lecture. Suddenly you
hear a significant word and return your focus to the lecture. You
should be able to remember what was said just before the key word
since it is in your sensory register.
•Your ability to see motion can be attributed to sensory memory. An
image previously seen must be stored long enough to compare to
the new image. Visual processing in the brain works like watching
a cartoon -- you see one frame at a time.
•If someone is reading to you, you must be able to remember the
words at the beginning of a sentence in order to understand the
sentence as a whole. These words are held in a relatively
unprocessed sensory memory.
Short-Term Memory
• Memory that holds a few items briefly.
• Seven digits (plus of minus two).
• The info will be stored into long-term or
forgotten.
How do you store things from short-term to long-term?
Rehearsal
You must repeat things over
and over to put them into
your long-term memory.
Working Memory
(Modern day STM)
•
•
Another way of describing the use of
short-term memory is called working
memory.
Working-Memory has three parts:
1. Audio
2. Visual
3. Integration of audio and visual (controls
where your attention lies)
Long-Term Memory
• The relatively permanent and limitless
storehouse of the memory system.
Three Stages of Memory
This is Linda
Linda? Janet?
Tina? Lane?
File Cabinet:
People met at
party
Sensory Short-term Long-term
Memory
Memory
Memory

Storage

Sensory 
&
Input
Attention 
Retrieval
Encoding
How do you encode the info you read in our text?
Getting the information in our
heads!!!!
Two ways to encode information
• Automatic Processing
• Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing
• Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
• You encode space, time and word meaning without
effort.
• Things can become automatic with practice.
For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you will
encode the meaning of what I am saying to you
without any effort.
Effortful Processing
• Encoding that requires attention and
conscious effort.
• Rehearsal is the most common effortful
processing technique.
• Through enough rehearsal, what was
effortful becomes automatic.
Things to remember about Encoding
1. The next-In-Line effect: we seldom
remember what the person has just said or
done if we are next.
2. Information minutes before sleep is
seldom remembered; in the hour before
sleep, well remembered.
3. Taped info played while asleep is
registered by ears, but we do not
remember it.
Spacing Effect
• We encode better
when we study or
practice over time.
• DO NOT
CRAM!!!!!
Exercise 1-Take out a piece of paper
and….
List the U.S. Presidents
The Presidents
Washington
J.Adams
Jefferson
Madison
Monroe
JQ Adams
Jackson
Van Buren
Harrison
Tyler
Polk
Taylor
Fillmore
Pierce
Buchanan
Lincoln
A.Johnson
Grant
Hayes
Garfield
Arthur
Cleveland
Harrison
Cleveland
McKinley
T.Roosevelt
Taft
Wilson
Harding
Coolidge
Hoover
FD.Roosevelt
Truman
Eisenhower
Kennedy
L.Johnson
Nixon
Ford
Carter
Reagan
Bush
Clinton
Bush Jr.
Dean
Short Term Memory
Serial Positioning Effect
• Our tendency to recall best the last and
first items in a list.
Presidents
Recalled
If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would
probably look something like this.
Short-term Memory
•
Exercise 2: Quarter Lists
• Serial-Position Effect:
The tendency to recall more accurately the
first and last items in a series
•
Primacy effect:
Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items
•
Recency effect:
Tendency to recall the last items in a series of items
Encoding exercise
Types of Encoding
• Semantic Encoding: the encoding
of meaning, like the meaning of
words
•Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of
sound, especially the sounds of words.
•Visual Encoding: the encoding of
picture images.
Which type works best?
Self-Reference Effect
• An example of how we
encode meaning very
well.
• The idea that we
remember things (like
adjectives) when they
are used to describe
ourselves.
Peg-word system
Tricks to Encode
• Use imagery: mental pictures
Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Systems for
remembering in which items are related to
easily recalled sets of symbols such as
acronyms, phrases, or jingles
"Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."
Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn,
Uranus, Neptune, Pluto.
Give me some more examples….
Links to examples of mnemonic devices.
Chunking
• Organizing items
into familiar,
manageable units.
• Often it will occur
automatically.
• Exercise 3:
Chunk- from Goonies
GM-CBS-IBM-ATT-CIA-FBI
Storage
How we retain the information we encode
Review the three stage process of
Memory
Storage and Sensory Memory
George Sperling played one of three tones (each tone
corresponding with a row of letters). Then he flashed the
letters for less than a second and the subjects were able to
identify the letters for the corresponding row,
Iconic Memory
• a momentary sensory memory of visual
stimuli, a photograph like quality lasting
only about a second.
• We also have an echoic memory for
auditory stimuli. If you are not paying
attention to someone, you can still recall the
last few words said in the past three or four
seconds.
Storage and Short-Term Memory
• Lasts usually
between 3 to 12
seconds.
• Can store 7 (plus or
minus two) chunks
of information.
• We recall digits
better than letters.
Short-term memory exercise.
Storage and Long-Term Memory
• We have yet to find the limit
of our long-term memory.
• For example, Rajan was
able to recite 31,811 digits
of pi.
• At 5 years old, Rajan would
memorize the license plates
of all of his parents’ guests
(about 75 cars in ten
minutes). He still
remembers the plate
numbers to this day.
How does our brain store long-term
memories?
• Memories do NOT reside in single specific
spots of our brain.
•They are not electrical (if the electrical activity
were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you
would NOT start with a blank slate).
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
• The current theory of how our long-term
memory works.
•Memory has a neural basis.
•LTP is an increase in a synapse’s firing
potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
In other words, if you are trying to remember a phone number, the
neurons are firing neurotransmitter through the synapse. The
neuron gets used to firing in that pattern and essentially learns to
fire in that distinct way. It is a form of rehearsal (but for our
neurons).
Stress and Memory
• Stress can lead to the
release of hormones
that have been
shown to assist in
LTM.
• Similar to the idea of
Flashbulb Memory.
Types of LTM
The Hippocampus
• Damage to the
hippocampus disrupts
our memory.
• Left = Verbal
• Right = Visual and
Locations
• The hippocampus is the
like the librarian for the
library which is our
brain.
Retrieval
How do we recall the information we
thought we remembered?
Lets Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!
Short-term to Long-term
•
Maintenance rehearsal-repetition
but not effective way to place info in
permanent storage
vs.
•
Elaborative rehearsal:
relating new material to
well-known material
(meaningful)
–
Vocabulary
• Activity-Random Items in a Box
Recall versus Recognition
I probably cannot recall the Smurfs,
but can I recognize them?
Lazy Smurf or Lethargic Smurf
Papa Smurf or Daddy Smurf
Handy Smurf or Practical Smurf
Brainy Smurf or Intellectual Smurf
Clumsy Smurf or Inept Smurf
Recognition
• Easiest type of memory
task, involving
identification of objects
or events encountered
before
•
•
Ex: multiple choice questions
Recognize photos of old
classmates easier than recalling
their names
Recall
• Retrieval or reconstruction of
learned material
• More difficult than recognition
(Ex.8-Draw both sides of a penny)
• Recall task-person must
retrieve a syllable with
another syllable serving as a
cue (fill in the blank)
• Meaningful links help
Relearning
• A measure of retention.
Material is usually
relearned more quickly
than it is learned initially
• Ex: Future Psych classes
Retrieval Cues
• Things that help us
remember.
Give out priming worksheet
•We often use a process
called priming (the
activation of associations
in our memory) to help us
retrieve information.
PRIMING EFFECT
• Priming effect occurs when people respond faster or
better to an item if a similar item preceded it.
•For the most part, the priming effect is
considered involuntary and is most likely an
unconscious phenomenon. The priming effect
basically consists of repetition priming and
semantic priming.
Repetition Priming
1. Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier
(quicker) to recognize a face or word if you have
recently seen that same face or word.
Semantic Priming
2. Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is easier
(quicker) to recognize someone or word if you have
just seen someone or a word closely associated.
Ms.Yen
Priming
Exercise 2
Context Effects
• It helps to put yourself back
in the same context you
experienced (encoded)
something.
• If you study on your
favorite chair at home, you
will probably score higher if
you also took the test on the
chair.
Déjà Vu
• That eerie sense that you
have experienced something
before.
• What is occurring is that the
current situation cues past
experiences that are very
Is déjà vu really a
similar to the present oneyour mind gets confused.
glitch in the Matrix?
Mood-Congruent Memory
• The tendency to recall experiences that are
consistent with one's current good or bad
mood.
• If you are depressed, you will more likely
recall sad memories from you past.
• Moods also effect that way you interpret other
peoples behavior
State-Dependent Memory
• Information that is better
retrieved in the
physiological or emotional
state in which it was
encoded and stored, or
learned
• Ex: under the influence,
mood-happy, angry, sad
Forgetting
Encoding Failure
Encoding Failure
• We fail to encode the information.
• It never has a chance to enter our LTM.
Test Your Memory
Which is the real penny?
Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon
• The feeling that information
is stored in memory although
it cannot be readily retrieved
• Incomplete or imperfect
learning
• May not know exact answer but
we know something
Storage Decay
• Even if we encode
something well, we
can forget it.
• Without rehearsal,
we forget thing over
time.
• Ebbinghaus’s
forgetting curve.
Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve
Retrieval Failure
• The memory was encoded and stored, but
sometimes you just cannot access the
memory.
Short-term Memory
• Rote learning: mechanical
associative learning that is
based on repetition
• Interference/Displace: to
cause chunks of information
to be lost from short-term
memory by adding new items
Interference Theory
• We forget material in
short-term and longterm memory because
newly learned material
interferes with it
• Retroactive vs. Proactive
Types of Retrieval Failure
Proactive Interference
• The disruptive
effect of prior
learning on the
recall of new
information.
If you call your new girlfriend your
old girlfriend’s name.
Types of Retrieval Failure
Retroactive Interference
• The disruptive effect of
new learning on the
recall of old
information.
When you finally remember this
years locker combination, you forget
last years.
Motivated Forgetting
• We sometimes revise our own histories.
Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!
Motivated Forgetting
Why does is exist?
One explanation is
REPRESSION:
• in psychoanalytic theory,
the basic defense
mechanism that banishes
anxiety-arousing thoughts,
feelings and memories
from consciousness.
Forgetting
My Trip To Cheesecake Factory
You go to the Cheesecake Factory for dinner. You are
seated at a table with a white tablecloth. You study
the menu. You tell the female server you want
Avocado Egg Rolls, extra sauce, Roadslide Sliders,
Thai Lettuce Wraps, and Chino-Latino Steak
(medium). You also order a Cherry Coke from the
beverage list. A few minutes later the server returns
with your Avocado Egg Rolls. Later the rest of the
meal arrives. You enjoy it all, except the ChinoLatino Steak is a bit overdone.
Cheesecake factory
How did you order the steak?
Was the red tablecloth checkered?
What did you order to drink?
Did a male server give you a menu?
Memory Construction
• We sometimes alter our
memories as we encode
or retrieve them.
• Your expectations,
schemas, environment
may alter your
memories.
Misinformation Effect
• Incorporating misleading information into
one’s memory of an event.
My parents told me for years I met Guidry.
I have the memory- but it never happened!!!
Misinformation Effect
Depiction of Accident
Misinformation Effect
Leading Question: About how fats were the cars
going when they smashed into each other?
Long-term Memories
• How accurate?
• Elizabeth Loftus:
-memories are distorted by
our biases and needs and by
the ways in we
conceptualize our worlds
-schemas
Schemas
• A way of mentally
representing the world,
such as a belief or
expectation, that can
influence perception of
persons, objects, and
situations
Example
•
Loftus:
– Showed video on car crash
– Questionnaire asked how fast the
cars were going at the time of the
crash
– “Smashed” 41 mph
– “Hit”34 mph
– Words “hit” and “smashed” caused
people to organize their knowledge
about the crash in different ways
Eye-Witness Testimony
• Words chosen by an
experimenter and those
chosen by a lawyer
interrogating a witness
can influence the
reconstruction of
memories
Eye-Witness Testimony
• Hypnosis-can amplify and distort
memories
• Identification of criminals-people
pay more attention to clothing rather
than height, weight, facial features
• Improvement-describe what
happened rather than pump witness
with suggestions
Source Amnesia
(Source Attribution)
• Attributing to the
wrong source an
event we have
experienced, heard
about, read about
or imagined.
Infantile Amnesia
• Exercise: Write down your
earliest memory
• Inability to recall events that
occur prior to the age or 2
or 3
– No meaningful stories or
connections
– No reliable use of language to
symbolize or classify events
Anterograde Amnesia
• Failure to remember events
that occur after physical
trauma because of the
effects of the trauma
• H.M.-couldn’t transfer info
from short-term to long-term
Retrograde Amnesia
• Failure to remember
events that occur prior
to physical trauma
because the effects of
the trauma
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Name the Seven Dwarves