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OnGuard: Protecting
America’s Food System
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An affiliation of land- and sea-grant
professionals reducing the impact of
disasters through education.
www.eden.lsu.edu
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Food!
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It’s Everywhere…
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Sometimes We Take
Food for Granted!
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Sometimes
We Don’t
Bob McMillan/ FEMA Photo - From Hurricane Katrina
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Take a Few Minutes…
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Why do we eat?
Why is food important?
What does food mean to you? Your family?
Pair and then “share” your thoughts…
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Food…
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Sustains life
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Growth
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Defines our culture
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Part
of holidays, celebrations
Conclusion
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What else?
• Economic importance of food
• “Comfort” food
• Other?
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Think About all of the Things
That Must Happen…
• To create an egg.
• To get a bowl of fruit
cocktail onto your
table.
• To prepare a meal of
meatloaf, potatoes,
and a fresh, green
vegetable.
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Farm and
Input
Transport
Storage
Areas
Processors
supplier
Distribution
Retail grocer
or restaurant
System
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Small Group Assignment –
Groups of 3-5
• Consider one or two specific food items from
a memorable meal. It could be today’s
breakfast. It could be a recent special event
like a birthday dinner or holiday gathering.
– Draw out a simple diagram or picture to show how your
food item originated and how it got to your plate.
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Consider These Things:
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Where was the food produced or grown?
Where and how did it travel?
Who produced it?
Who transported it?
Who processed it?
Who sold it to you?
Who cooked it?
How many people did this whole process take?
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Wrap Up Point #1
• Our food system is vital to sustain life, yet we
take it for granted.
• While our system is rather amazing, we will
next see why the system is vulnerable and
the things you can do to protect yourself.
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Potential Threats to our Food
System
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Food Safety Risks
• Preventing the risk of foodborne illness.
• “Protecting the food supply from microbial,
chemical, and physical, hazards or
contamination that may occur during all
stages of food production and handlinggrowing, harvesting, processing,
transporting, preparing, distributing and
storing.”
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Dr. Paul Mead and his
Colleagues at the CDC:
• “We estimate that foodborne diseases cause
approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000
hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the
U.S.
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Deaths Due to Foodborne Illness
Salmonella
31.0%
Listeria
28.0%
21.0%
Toxoplasmosis
Other 5.0%
E. coli 0157 3.0%
Campylobacter 5.0%
Norwalk-like 7.0%
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Where Do Microbes Come From?
Agent
# of cases
reservoir
% food
Norwalk-like viruses
9,200,000
man
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Campylobacter spp
1,963,141
poultry
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Salmonella, nontyphoidal
1,341,873
animal
95
Clostridium perfringens
248,520
soil, man, animal
100
Giardia lamblia
200,000
Man, animal
10
Staphylococcal
185,060
man
100
Toxoplasma gondii
112,500
cat
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Shigella spp.
89,648
man
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Yersinia enterocolitica
86,731
pig
90
Escherichia coli O157:H7
62,458
cow
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Mead, et al, Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999:5(5); 607-625
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How do These Numbers Compare With
Other Significant Risks We Face?
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Heart Disease: 696,947
Cancer: 557,271
Stroke: 162,672
Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 124,816
Accidents (unintentional injuries): 106,742
Diabetes: 73,249
Influenza/Pneumonia: 65,681
Alzheimer's disease: 58,866
Nephritis and other kidney diseases: 40,974
Septicemia: 33,865
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National
Center for Health Statistics – Leading causes of death in U.S. in 2002
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We Will Talk More About Foodborne
Illness Prevention in a Few Minutes
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Intentional Threats to Our Food System
• Seems unreal.
• We learned much after
9/11.
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Tommy Thompson – December 2004
• “For the life of me, I cannot understand why the terrorists
have not attacked our food supply because it is so easy to
do,”
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In the Caves of Afghanistan
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Military found interest in food by the terrorists:
– Agricultural/food issues – 700 translated animal and plant
disease documents and journal articles were recovered.
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Most of Us Wonder Why?
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Food system – MAJOR economic impact
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Potential major public health concerns
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A potential tool to instill fear, panic
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Food
system symbolic to U.S. citizens
Conclusion
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Lessons from History
• Poisoning water supplies,
food storage
• Attacks on crops, animals
• Using manure and viper
venom as a bioweapon
• Hurling corpses over
fortress walls
• Using catapults to launch
hornet nests, beehives, and
pots of scorpions
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History
• In our more recent history, agriculture and
food was targeted by countries including the
U.S.
• WWII – Germany: Experimented with FMD,
late blight, wheat rusts, Colorado beetle
(1944)
• 1940-50’s
– Soviet Union developed and stockpiled antiagriculture weapons
• U.S. program in (1941-42)
– Newcastle, fowl plague, FMD, hog cholera,
rice blast, cereal stem rust, wheat scab, late
blight
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The U.S. Program
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Our programs expanded during Korean War
(1950-53) and during the Cold War.
30,000 kilos of wheat stem rust spores
stockpiled, 1951-69
1 ton of rice blast spores developed, 1966
Other crop targets: soybeans, sugar beets,
sweet potatoes, cotton
1969, Richard Nixon closed the American
offensive biological warfare program
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First “Documented” Attack on
our Food in Recent History
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Michigan Hamburger
Contamination – Jan 2003
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Former grocery store worker
poisoned 250 pounds of ground beef
with insecticide. 148 people made ill.
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Randy Jay Bertram, 39, of Byron
Center, pleaded guilty to a charge of
poisoning food with the intent to
cause serious bodily injury.
Prosecutors described him as a
disgruntled employee.
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Contaminated Cattle Feed in
Wisconsin
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The Wisconsin Experience
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Rendered products contaminated with chlordane
Supplied to large feed manufacturer and to
~4,000 farms in four states
Milk and products from farms contaminated
$4 million to dispose of products – 4,000 tons of
feed, 500,000 pounds of fat. Total cost >$250
million.
Who did it?
Note: Incident at Ntl. By-Products, rendering plant supplying product to Purina Mills
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Wrap Up Point #2
• Despite having a bountiful and overall, a very
safe food system, we do have some
challenges. They are:
• Unintentional foodborne illnesses, which are
very preventable.
• The possible threat of an intentional attack to
our food system.
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Optional Activity
• Pick one of the three cases just covered and
investigate or discuss further.
• What were the specific outcomes?
• What were the motives?
• What are the specific things that prevented
these incidents from being larger issues?
• What do you think we have learned from
these incidents that is helpful for the future?
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So What Do We Do?
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Food Safety & Food Defense
Food Industry
Our Government
You
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The Food Industry
• Some powerful
motivations.
• Huge money spent
on brand loyalty.
• It’s hard to win
customers back if
things go bad!
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Optional Activity
• Visit a local food processor, retailer, or food
service company (like a local restaurant).
• Find out what they do to protect people from
foodborne illness.
• Find out what they do to protect people from
an intentional attack to the food
system/supply.
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Government’s Role in the
Partnership
Food Industry
Our Government
You
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Government – HSPD #9
• The United States agriculture and food
systems are vulnerable… America’s
agriculture and food system is an
extensive, open, interconnected, diverse,
and complex structure providing potential
targets for terrorist attacks. We should
provide the best protection possible against
a successful attack on the United States
agriculture and food system, which could
have catastrophic health and economic
effects.
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Many New Regulations and Industry
Guidance Initiatives
• FDA Regulations
– All food processors must be registered.
– Processors must carefully track all imported foods and
ingredients.
– Food industries must keep records.
– FDA has new authorities to step in if something occurs.
• USDA/FSIS
– Works in partnership with FDA.
– Guidelines for security in industry
– Many existing regulations to protect meat, poultry, eggs,
and other products
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Other Agencies Working on Very
Complicated Issue!
Grains
Oils
Cheese
Juices
Vegetables
Bananas
Cocoa
Seafood
Processed Meat
Spices
Fresh Meat
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Optional Activity
• Review one of the food security guidance checklists
from USDA-FSIS or FDA.
• What are the major areas of concern that food
companies work to protect?
• What are some of the specific challenges they face?
• Why is it crucial for all people working within a food
company and within the “food system” that they are
connected with to be working as team members?
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Your Role as a Consumer
Food Industry
Our Government
You
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Good News!!
• The things we do to protect ourselves from
UNINTENTIONAL foodborne illness are also
protective against INTENTIONAL hazards.
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Some Examples…
• Cooking to the correct temperature destroys many
known “biological” agents of concern.
• Washing fresh fruits and vegetables.
• Storing foods properly and securely minimizes their
potential exposure to someone who might wish to
cause harm.
• Reporting products that appear “out of the ordinary”
(strange appearance, odor, color, etc.)
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Recommendation 1: CLEAN
Clean hands,
food-contact surfaces,
fruits and vegetables.
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Wash Your Hands!
Handwashing is the most effective way
to stop the spread of illness.
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How to Wash Hands
1.
Wet hands with WARM
water.
2. Soap and scrub for 20
seconds.
3.
Rinse under clean,
running water.
4. Dry completely using a
clean cloth or paper
towel.
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Clean During Food Preparation
Wash cutting boards,
knives, utensils and
counter tops with hot
soapy water after
preparing each food
and before going on to
the next.
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Avoid Spreading Bacteria
• Use paper towels or clean
cloths to wipe
up kitchen surfaces
or spills.
• Wash cloths often in the
hot cycle of your washing
machine and dry in a hot
dryer.
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Recommendation 2: SEPARATE
Separate raw, cooked,
and
ready-to-eat foods while
shopping, preparing or
storing foods.
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Recommendation 3: COOK
Cook foods to a safe
temperature to kill
microorganisms.
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Chicken and Turkey
Cook chicken and turkey
(whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 165 degrees F.
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Ham
A "cook before eating" ham
should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat
a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F.
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Ground Meats
Cook hamburger, ground beef
and other ground meats to 160 degrees F
and ground poultry to 165 degrees F.
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Leftovers
Reheat leftovers until a temperature
of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product.
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Egg Dishes
Cook egg dishes such as
quiche to 160 degrees F.
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Beef, Lamb & Veal Steaks
Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks
and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness
(145 degrees F for medium rare).
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The ONLY way to know food has
been cooked to a safe internal
temperature is to use a food
thermometer!
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Recommendation 4: CHILL
Chill (refrigerate)
perishable foods promptly
and defrost foods properly.
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The TWO-Hour Rule
Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL
time at room temperature is less than
TWO hours or only ONE hour when
temperature is above 90 degrees F.
Perishable foods include:
• Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu
• Dairy products
• Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables
• Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and
vegetables
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DANGER ZONE
Bacteria multiply rapidly
between
40 and 140 degrees F.
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Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!
A math quiz
How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room
temperature 7 hours?
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Answer: 2,097,152!
Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.
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How About “Defending” Yourself
Against the Threat of Intentional
Food System Threats?
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All of the Same Principles Apply!!
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Report Possible Food Tampering
• Carefully examine all food product
packaging.
• Be aware of the normal appearance of
food containers.
• That way you’ll be more likely to notice if
an outer seal or wrapper is missing.
• Compare a suspect container with others
on the shelf.
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Prompt Action is a Key!
• If something does occur, prompt action by
you, the consumer can save lives!
• Report unusual characteristics of meat,
poultry, and egg products to local health
agency, the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline
at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854), or if
appropriate, law enforcement.
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Additional Steps to Take
• Save packaging materials.
• Write down the food type, the date, other identifying
marks on the package, the location and store where the
food was purchased, the time consumed, and when
symptoms occurred.
• Seek treatment as necessary or immediately if in an atrisk group (the young, elderly, or ill).
• If symptoms persist call your doctor immediately.
• Call your local health department if the suspect food
was served at a large gathering, from a restaurant or
other food service facility, or if it is a commercial
product.
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Optional Activity
• Review additional food tampering guidelines
from FDA.
• Review the two cases that follow.
• Discuss the measures in place to protect
consumers and the important steps
consumers should take.
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Case Study #1
• Debbie shops at a popular local seafood market that
brings in fresh fish from around the world every morning.
• As she is getting ready to grill some fresh Red Snapper
that was flown in from New Zealand, she notices a large
round “puncture” hole in one of the thick fish filets.
• Debbie suspects that it is from a large (thick) needle.
• What should she do?
• What safeguards are in place to protect us from
somebody injecting something bad into imported fish?
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Case Study #2
• Bob and his family run a small dairy farm operation
in the rural northeastern U.S.
• Early in the morning, after milking, Bob is cleaning
up and notices several empty brown bags beside
one of the feed bins near the barn.
• He quickly investigates. The bags are piled
together and a empty pesticide bags. What should
he do?
• What are some of the potential consequences?
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Also – For the People in our
Audience Who Are Farmers…
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water
seed
chemicals
fuel
labor
$$$
transport
storage
feed
info
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Prevention - Biosecurity
• Identify and secure vulnerable
“nodes”
• Keep out harmful agents
• Hygiene (people, equipment,
clothing)
• Regulate visitors
• Animal protocols (like
quarantines)
• Focus on workers and their
role
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Wrap Up Point #3 – It Takes a Team!!
Food Industry
Our Government
You
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Finally…
• Are You Ready??
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As We Saw in Hurricane Katrina…
• Food and water was an issue!!
• Generally, it is assumed that citizens are the first line
of defense.
• We must all plan to be “pioneers” for at least three
days.
• While that’s frightening to think about, YOU are in
the best position to help yourself in times of acute
emergency in many cases.
• Preparedness can be a GREAT activity to bring
families together!
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Guidelines from the American Red Cross
and Department of Homeland Security
• 3-day food and water supply.
• Purchase food that requires no refrigeration,
cooking, water, or special preparation.
• Remember to include infant formula, pet
food, and foods for family members with
special dietary needs.
• Have a manually operated can opener on
hand.
• Periodically use and refresh your supply.
• Store it in a safe spot, in a sealed container,
away from animals.
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Optional Activity
• Review information from FEMA and the Red
Cross related to a family emergency kit.
• Discuss the barriers and challenges in
putting together a kit.
• Make a commitment or promise to others in
your small group about assembling a kit.
• Set a date or deadline for your family to
develop a kit.
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Questions? Comments?
Discussion?
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Photo and Slide Credits
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Select images and/or photos on this page are the copyrighted property of Jupiter
Images, Inc. and are being used with permission under license. These images and/or
photos may not be copied for use in other materials without permission from Jupiter
Images, Inc.
Select images from FEMA, www.fema.gov
Select images from USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Photo Unit
(http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/) and the USDA Online Photo Center
(http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/opclibra.htm)
PowerPoint template(apple and corn template) used with permission under paid license
from PoweredTemplates.
Thank you to the Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health for
use of select materials.
Select food safety education materials used with permission and developed originally by
Alice Henneman, Extension Educator University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension.
Cave images used with permission from University of Georgia, College of Agricultural &
Environmental Sciences, Office of Global Programs.
Global food image used with permission by the University of Minnesota’s National
Center for Food Protection and Defense.
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OnGuard: Protecting America’s Food System