1 OnGuard: Protecting America’s Food System 2 An affiliation of land- and sea-grant professionals reducing the impact of disasters through education. www.eden.lsu.edu 3 Food! 4 It’s Everywhere… 5 Sometimes We Take Food for Granted! 6 Sometimes We Don’t Bob McMillan/ FEMA Photo - From Hurricane Katrina 7 Take a Few Minutes… • • • • Why do we eat? Why is food important? What does food mean to you? Your family? Pair and then “share” your thoughts… 8 Food… 1 Sustains life 2 Growth 3 Defines our culture 4 Part of holidays, celebrations Conclusion 9 What else? • Economic importance of food • “Comfort” food • Other? 10 Think About all of the Things That Must Happen… • To create an egg. • To get a bowl of fruit cocktail onto your table. • To prepare a meal of meatloaf, potatoes, and a fresh, green vegetable. 11 Farm and Input Transport Storage Areas Processors supplier Distribution Retail grocer or restaurant System 12 Small Group Assignment – Groups of 3-5 • Consider one or two specific food items from a memorable meal. It could be today’s breakfast. It could be a recent special event like a birthday dinner or holiday gathering. – Draw out a simple diagram or picture to show how your food item originated and how it got to your plate. 13 Consider These Things: • • • • • • • • Where was the food produced or grown? Where and how did it travel? Who produced it? Who transported it? Who processed it? Who sold it to you? Who cooked it? How many people did this whole process take? 14 Wrap Up Point #1 • Our food system is vital to sustain life, yet we take it for granted. • While our system is rather amazing, we will next see why the system is vulnerable and the things you can do to protect yourself. 15 Potential Threats to our Food System 16 Food Safety Risks • Preventing the risk of foodborne illness. • “Protecting the food supply from microbial, chemical, and physical, hazards or contamination that may occur during all stages of food production and handlinggrowing, harvesting, processing, transporting, preparing, distributing and storing.” 17 Dr. Paul Mead and his Colleagues at the CDC: • “We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the U.S. 18 Deaths Due to Foodborne Illness Salmonella 31.0% Listeria 28.0% 21.0% Toxoplasmosis Other 5.0% E. coli 0157 3.0% Campylobacter 5.0% Norwalk-like 7.0% 19 Where Do Microbes Come From? Agent # of cases reservoir % food Norwalk-like viruses 9,200,000 man 40 Campylobacter spp 1,963,141 poultry 80 Salmonella, nontyphoidal 1,341,873 animal 95 Clostridium perfringens 248,520 soil, man, animal 100 Giardia lamblia 200,000 Man, animal 10 Staphylococcal 185,060 man 100 Toxoplasma gondii 112,500 cat 50 Shigella spp. 89,648 man 20 Yersinia enterocolitica 86,731 pig 90 Escherichia coli O157:H7 62,458 cow 85 Mead, et al, Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999:5(5); 607-625 20 How do These Numbers Compare With Other Significant Risks We Face? • • • • • • • • • • Heart Disease: 696,947 Cancer: 557,271 Stroke: 162,672 Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 124,816 Accidents (unintentional injuries): 106,742 Diabetes: 73,249 Influenza/Pneumonia: 65,681 Alzheimer's disease: 58,866 Nephritis and other kidney diseases: 40,974 Septicemia: 33,865 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics – Leading causes of death in U.S. in 2002 21 We Will Talk More About Foodborne Illness Prevention in a Few Minutes 22 Intentional Threats to Our Food System • Seems unreal. • We learned much after 9/11. 23 Tommy Thompson – December 2004 • “For the life of me, I cannot understand why the terrorists have not attacked our food supply because it is so easy to do,” 24 In the Caves of Afghanistan • Military found interest in food by the terrorists: – Agricultural/food issues – 700 translated animal and plant disease documents and journal articles were recovered. 25 Most of Us Wonder Why? 1 Food system – MAJOR economic impact 2 Potential major public health concerns 3 A potential tool to instill fear, panic 4 Food system symbolic to U.S. citizens Conclusion 26 Lessons from History • Poisoning water supplies, food storage • Attacks on crops, animals • Using manure and viper venom as a bioweapon • Hurling corpses over fortress walls • Using catapults to launch hornet nests, beehives, and pots of scorpions 27 History • In our more recent history, agriculture and food was targeted by countries including the U.S. • WWII – Germany: Experimented with FMD, late blight, wheat rusts, Colorado beetle (1944) • 1940-50’s – Soviet Union developed and stockpiled antiagriculture weapons • U.S. program in (1941-42) – Newcastle, fowl plague, FMD, hog cholera, rice blast, cereal stem rust, wheat scab, late blight 28 The U.S. Program • • • • • Our programs expanded during Korean War (1950-53) and during the Cold War. 30,000 kilos of wheat stem rust spores stockpiled, 1951-69 1 ton of rice blast spores developed, 1966 Other crop targets: soybeans, sugar beets, sweet potatoes, cotton 1969, Richard Nixon closed the American offensive biological warfare program 29 First “Documented” Attack on our Food in Recent History 30 Michigan Hamburger Contamination – Jan 2003 • Former grocery store worker poisoned 250 pounds of ground beef with insecticide. 148 people made ill. • Randy Jay Bertram, 39, of Byron Center, pleaded guilty to a charge of poisoning food with the intent to cause serious bodily injury. Prosecutors described him as a disgruntled employee. 31 Contaminated Cattle Feed in Wisconsin 32 The Wisconsin Experience • • • • • Rendered products contaminated with chlordane Supplied to large feed manufacturer and to ~4,000 farms in four states Milk and products from farms contaminated $4 million to dispose of products – 4,000 tons of feed, 500,000 pounds of fat. Total cost >$250 million. Who did it? Note: Incident at Ntl. By-Products, rendering plant supplying product to Purina Mills 33 Wrap Up Point #2 • Despite having a bountiful and overall, a very safe food system, we do have some challenges. They are: • Unintentional foodborne illnesses, which are very preventable. • The possible threat of an intentional attack to our food system. 34 Optional Activity • Pick one of the three cases just covered and investigate or discuss further. • What were the specific outcomes? • What were the motives? • What are the specific things that prevented these incidents from being larger issues? • What do you think we have learned from these incidents that is helpful for the future? 35 So What Do We Do? 36 Food Safety & Food Defense Food Industry Our Government You 37 The Food Industry • Some powerful motivations. • Huge money spent on brand loyalty. • It’s hard to win customers back if things go bad! 38 Optional Activity • Visit a local food processor, retailer, or food service company (like a local restaurant). • Find out what they do to protect people from foodborne illness. • Find out what they do to protect people from an intentional attack to the food system/supply. 39 Government’s Role in the Partnership Food Industry Our Government You 40 Government – HSPD #9 • The United States agriculture and food systems are vulnerable… America’s agriculture and food system is an extensive, open, interconnected, diverse, and complex structure providing potential targets for terrorist attacks. We should provide the best protection possible against a successful attack on the United States agriculture and food system, which could have catastrophic health and economic effects. 41 Many New Regulations and Industry Guidance Initiatives • FDA Regulations – All food processors must be registered. – Processors must carefully track all imported foods and ingredients. – Food industries must keep records. – FDA has new authorities to step in if something occurs. • USDA/FSIS – Works in partnership with FDA. – Guidelines for security in industry – Many existing regulations to protect meat, poultry, eggs, and other products 42 Other Agencies Working on Very Complicated Issue! Grains Oils Cheese Juices Vegetables Bananas Cocoa Seafood Processed Meat Spices Fresh Meat 43 Optional Activity • Review one of the food security guidance checklists from USDA-FSIS or FDA. • What are the major areas of concern that food companies work to protect? • What are some of the specific challenges they face? • Why is it crucial for all people working within a food company and within the “food system” that they are connected with to be working as team members? 44 Your Role as a Consumer Food Industry Our Government You 45 Good News!! • The things we do to protect ourselves from UNINTENTIONAL foodborne illness are also protective against INTENTIONAL hazards. 46 Some Examples… • Cooking to the correct temperature destroys many known “biological” agents of concern. • Washing fresh fruits and vegetables. • Storing foods properly and securely minimizes their potential exposure to someone who might wish to cause harm. • Reporting products that appear “out of the ordinary” (strange appearance, odor, color, etc.) 47 Recommendation 1: CLEAN Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables. 48 Wash Your Hands! Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness. 49 How to Wash Hands 1. Wet hands with WARM water. 2. Soap and scrub for 20 seconds. 3. Rinse under clean, running water. 4. Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel. 50 Clean During Food Preparation Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops with hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next. 51 Avoid Spreading Bacteria • Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. • Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer. 52 Recommendation 2: SEPARATE Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods. 53 Recommendation 3: COOK Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms. 54 Chicken and Turkey Cook chicken and turkey (whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 165 degrees F. 55 Ham A "cook before eating" ham should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F. 56 Ground Meats Cook hamburger, ground beef and other ground meats to 160 degrees F and ground poultry to 165 degrees F. 57 Leftovers Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product. 58 Egg Dishes Cook egg dishes such as quiche to 160 degrees F. 59 Beef, Lamb & Veal Steaks Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness (145 degrees F for medium rare). 60 The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer! 61 Recommendation 4: CHILL Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly. 62 The TWO-Hour Rule Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F. Perishable foods include: • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu • Dairy products • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables 63 DANGER ZONE Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F. 64 Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes! A math quiz How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room temperature 7 hours? 65 Answer: 2,097,152! Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours. 66 How About “Defending” Yourself Against the Threat of Intentional Food System Threats? 67 All of the Same Principles Apply!! 68 Report Possible Food Tampering • Carefully examine all food product packaging. • Be aware of the normal appearance of food containers. • That way you’ll be more likely to notice if an outer seal or wrapper is missing. • Compare a suspect container with others on the shelf. 69 Prompt Action is a Key! • If something does occur, prompt action by you, the consumer can save lives! • Report unusual characteristics of meat, poultry, and egg products to local health agency, the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854), or if appropriate, law enforcement. 70 Additional Steps to Take • Save packaging materials. • Write down the food type, the date, other identifying marks on the package, the location and store where the food was purchased, the time consumed, and when symptoms occurred. • Seek treatment as necessary or immediately if in an atrisk group (the young, elderly, or ill). • If symptoms persist call your doctor immediately. • Call your local health department if the suspect food was served at a large gathering, from a restaurant or other food service facility, or if it is a commercial product. 71 Optional Activity • Review additional food tampering guidelines from FDA. • Review the two cases that follow. • Discuss the measures in place to protect consumers and the important steps consumers should take. 72 Case Study #1 • Debbie shops at a popular local seafood market that brings in fresh fish from around the world every morning. • As she is getting ready to grill some fresh Red Snapper that was flown in from New Zealand, she notices a large round “puncture” hole in one of the thick fish filets. • Debbie suspects that it is from a large (thick) needle. • What should she do? • What safeguards are in place to protect us from somebody injecting something bad into imported fish? 73 Case Study #2 • Bob and his family run a small dairy farm operation in the rural northeastern U.S. • Early in the morning, after milking, Bob is cleaning up and notices several empty brown bags beside one of the feed bins near the barn. • He quickly investigates. The bags are piled together and a empty pesticide bags. What should he do? • What are some of the potential consequences? 74 Also – For the People in our Audience Who Are Farmers… 75 water seed chemicals fuel labor $$$ transport storage feed info 76 Prevention - Biosecurity • Identify and secure vulnerable “nodes” • Keep out harmful agents • Hygiene (people, equipment, clothing) • Regulate visitors • Animal protocols (like quarantines) • Focus on workers and their role 77 Wrap Up Point #3 – It Takes a Team!! Food Industry Our Government You 78 Finally… • Are You Ready?? 79 As We Saw in Hurricane Katrina… • Food and water was an issue!! • Generally, it is assumed that citizens are the first line of defense. • We must all plan to be “pioneers” for at least three days. • While that’s frightening to think about, YOU are in the best position to help yourself in times of acute emergency in many cases. • Preparedness can be a GREAT activity to bring families together! 80 Guidelines from the American Red Cross and Department of Homeland Security • 3-day food and water supply. • Purchase food that requires no refrigeration, cooking, water, or special preparation. • Remember to include infant formula, pet food, and foods for family members with special dietary needs. • Have a manually operated can opener on hand. • Periodically use and refresh your supply. • Store it in a safe spot, in a sealed container, away from animals. 81 Optional Activity • Review information from FEMA and the Red Cross related to a family emergency kit. • Discuss the barriers and challenges in putting together a kit. • Make a commitment or promise to others in your small group about assembling a kit. • Set a date or deadline for your family to develop a kit. 82 Questions? Comments? Discussion? 83 Photo and Slide Credits • • • • • • • • Select images and/or photos on this page are the copyrighted property of Jupiter Images, Inc. and are being used with permission under license. These images and/or photos may not be copied for use in other materials without permission from Jupiter Images, Inc. Select images from FEMA, www.fema.gov Select images from USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Photo Unit (http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/) and the USDA Online Photo Center (http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/opclibra.htm) PowerPoint template(apple and corn template) used with permission under paid license from PoweredTemplates. Thank you to the Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health for use of select materials. Select food safety education materials used with permission and developed originally by Alice Henneman, Extension Educator University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Cave images used with permission from University of Georgia, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Office of Global Programs. Global food image used with permission by the University of Minnesota’s National Center for Food Protection and Defense.