CHAPTER 25
India
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
Section 1: Natural
Environments
Section 2: History and
Culture
Section 3: India Today
1
Section 1
Natural Environments
Objectives:
 What
are the major landform regions
and rivers of India?
 Which climate types and resources
does India have?
3
SECTION 1
Natural Environments
Landform Regions and Rivers of India
Himalayas—mountainous, forests, farms,
Kanchenjunga, Kashmir Valley, source of Ganges and
Brahmaputra Rivers
Gangetic Plain—lowland, northeastern India,
farming, rich alluvial soil, Ganges River
Deccan Plateau—old and
eroded; volcanic; farming
with irrigation; Eastern
and Western Ghats;
Narmada, Godavari,
and Krishna
Rivers
4
Section 1
Natural Environments
Climates and resources:
 six
climate types—tropical humid,
tropical wet and dry, arid, semiarid,
humid subtropical, highland
 monsoon—strong influence on
climate
 key resources—soils and rivers
 minerals—coal, iron ore, bauxite, oil,
uranium
5
•India’s
M
o
n
s
o
o
n
s
climate is dominated by
monsoons
•Monsoons blow from the land
toward the sea in winter.
• Monsoons blow from the sea
toward land in the summer
•India’s winters are hot and dry.
•Himalayas form a barrier that
prevents cold air from passing
onto the subcontinent
•The temperature reaches as
high as 110oF during the Indian
winter
•The summer monsoons roar
onto the subcontinent from the
southwest bringing heavy rains
from June to September
•Farmers depend on the rains to
irrigate their land.
•India generates electricity from
the water provided by the
monsoon rains
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Section 2
History and Culture
Objectives:
 What
were the major events and
empires of India’s early history?
 How did European contract affect
India?
 What religions are practiced in India?
 What are some other features of
India’s culture?
8
SECTION 2
History and Culture
Aryan
civilizati
on
Harappan
civilizatio
n
Muslim
invasion
Mauryan Gupta
Empire Empire
300 B.C.
1500
500
B.C.
B.C.
0
Mughal
Empire
Muslim Timur
kingdo invades.
m
Ghandi
assassinat
ed
Independen
ce
Sepoy
Rebellio
n
A..D.400
A.D.
B.C.
1000
Europea
n trade
500
1100
1000
1300
1200
1500
1700
1900
1490
1857
1400
1600
1800
2000
1398
1520
1947
1948
Section 2
History and Culture
European influence:
Traders arrived in 1490s—first
Portuguese, then Dutch, French, and
British.
 Britain defeated France and controlled
India.
 British built infrastructure; taught English;
influenced education, law, and
government.
 Britain partitioned India at independence.

10
11
Section 2
History and Culture
Indian religions:






Hinduism—the main faith, followed by around 80
percent of the population
Islam—largest minority religion, 11–14 percent of
the population, mainly in the north
Christianity—some 20 million followers
Buddhism—originally from India, now followed by
less than 1 percent of the population
Sikhism—combines Muslim and Hindu beliefs
Jainism—strict moral code based on preserving
life
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Section 2
History and Culture
Culture:





many ethnic groups—Aryan descendants,
Dravidians, others
more than 1,000 languages and dialects—Hindi
is national language; English is widely used
typical clothing for hot weather—sari, choli,
lungi, turbans (Sikhs)
food—curry made of many spices; variety
based on climate, crops, regions
festivals—many holidays, including Holi, Pongal
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Ganges starts in Himalayas
Great waterway in India
 Depended
on for drinking water
and fish
 Irrigate crops
 Trade and transportation route
In Rome
 Statue
representing 4 great rivers
 1 is of the river-god Ganges
 Built in 1612
In India
Hinduism’s
holy river
Called the “Mother Ganges”
or goddess Ganga
Section 3
India Today
Objectives:
 What
are the main features of India’s
economy?
 How does life in India’s villages
compare to life in its cities?
 What challenges does India face
today?
22
Section 3
India Today
India’s economy
India’s economy is highly varied,
ranging from subsistence farming to
high technology.
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SECTION 3
India Today
Agriculture
• basis of economy
• 25 percent of GDP
• 50 percent of land area
• rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane,
sorghum, peanuts, sesame
seeds, mangoes
• small farms
• depend on monsoon
• Green Revolution
Cottage industries
• work in the home
• employs millions of people,
particularly women
• silk fabrics, wooden statues,
silver and gold lace, other
handicrafts
India’s
Economy
Commercial
manufacturing
High-tech businesses
• concentrated in Bangalore
• workers part of growing middle
class
• textiles leading export
• jute
• steel mills
• durable goods such as
diesel engines and cars
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Section 3
India Today
India’s economy—Agriculture
 Farming
is the key—25 percent of
GDP, more than half of the land
area.
 major crops—rice, wheat, tea,
sugarcane, sorghum
 Many farms are small.
 moving toward food-grain selfsufficiency
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Section 3
India Today
India’s economy—Industry
 ranks
tenth in industrial production
 many cottage industries—weaving,
crafts
 large-scale production—textiles, jute
products, steel
 high-tech computer industry in
Bangalore
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Section 3
India Today
Comparing village and city life:
Most Indians live in villages, but cities are
growing rapidly.
 Villages are small, with few services; cities
are enormous, with smog, noise, and
congestion.
 Many city-dwellers live modern, middleclass lives; villagers live a more traditional
lifestyle.
 Most people in villages and cities are poor,
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though urban poor live in giant slums.

Section 3
India Today
Challenges:
 population
growth and related
problems—poverty, health, education
 environmental damages—water,
forests, wildlife
 tensions with Pakistan (Kashmir,
water) and China (borders)
 ethnic conflicts—Hindus, Muslims,
Sikhs
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CHAPTER 25