NE 110 – Introduction to NDT &
Overview of QA/QC;
NDT & QA/QC Certification
Prepared by:
Chattanooga State Community College
• Quality Assurance: “All the planned and systematic
activities implemented within the quality system,
and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate
confidence that an entity will fulfill requirements for
• Quality Control: “Operational techniques and
activities that are used to fulfill requirements for
Comparison of QA and QC
• QA - a program set up by management to
develop procedures to follow to ensure that
standards of quality are being met
• QC – involves the actual testing of products to
uncover defects or to ensure a product meets
design specifications
Key QA/QC Concepts
• Quality auditing – independent review
• Metrology – “science of measurement”
• Root cause analysis – identification of the original
reason for process nonconformance
• Preventive/corrective actions – change enacted to
eliminate nonconformance
• Continual improvement – on-going effort to improve
a process
QA/QC Concentrations
• Civil
– Soil testing, inspection of structural steel or
1st inspectors needed to support new
• Mechanical
– Inspection of valves, pumps, piping systems,
hangers/supports, lubrication systems, etc.
QA/QC Concentrations Continued
• Electrical/I & C
– Need basic understanding of electrical equipment
such as batteries, breakers, transformers, relays,
motors, grounding systems, etc.
– Inspection of raceways, cable trays, wire
• Receipt of equipment
 All QC personnel must be trained in methods of
documentation, reporting, and records
American Society for Quality (ASQ)
• Offers 17 quality certifications
• Web-site provides description and
education/experience requirements for:
CQI (Certified Quality Inspector)
CQE (Certified Quality Engineer)
CQA (Certified Quality Auditor)
CQT (Certified Quality Technician)
CQM/OE (Certified Manager of
Quality/Organizational Excellence)
Certified Quality Inspector
• Description:
performs laboratory procedures
inspects products
measures process performance
records data/prepares formal reports
• Requires two years OJT (with high school diploma or
• Exam topics include:
Mathematics (20%)
Metrology (30%)
Inspection and test (30%)
Quality assurance (20%)
International Organization for Standardization
• International standard-setting body composed of
representatives from various national standards
• Founded in 1947
• Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland
International Organization for Standardization
• ISO derived from the Greek word isos, meaning
“equal” (pronounced the same in all languages)
• Members from 163 countries
• ANSI is the US-representative to ISO
• ISO standards voluntary agreements based on
consensus of international expert opinion
ISO Quality Management Standards
• Provide a model to follow in setting up and operating a
management system
ISO 9000 Family
• An international consensus on good quality management
• ISO 9001:2008 – a set of standardized requirements for a
quality management system against which organizations can
be certified
• Outlines requirements for:
Control of documents/records
Internal audits
Control of nonconforming product/service
Corrective action/preventive action
• ISO 9712 – NDT Qualification and Certification of Personnel
ISO 9001 Criticisms
• Amount of money, time, and paperwork
required for registration
• Certification does not guarantee products
produced are any good (as long as
manufacturing consistent and welldocumented)
• Founded in 1918 to enhance global competitiveness of
U.S. businesses and U.S. quality of life by promoting and
facilitating voluntary consensus standards
• Accredits procedures of standards-developing
• More than 10,000 ANSI standards in publication
ANSI History
ANSI Standards
• ANSI N45.2 series
– QA program standards for design and construction of nuclear
power plants
• ANSI N45.2.6
– Delineates the qualification requirements for persons who
perform inspections, examinations, and test to determine
conformance of safety-related items to specific criteria
– Excludes NDT (covered by SNT-TC-1A)
– Not applicable for purposes other than verifying conformance
– Not applicable to personnel who perform technical specification
surveillance testing
ANSI 45.2.6 Qualification for
• Levels I, II, and III (III is highest level)
• Requires formal training, OJT, and the
satisfactory completion of a written exam
– TVA’s NQAP (Nuclear Quality Assurance
Program) provides alternate qualification
Level I/II Functions
• Level I technicians responsible for:
– Recording of test data
– Implementation of test procedures
• Level II technicians also responsible for:
Planning inspections, including test set-up
Evaluating validity and acceptability of test results
Reporting of test results
Supervision of lower level personnel
Qualification of lower level personnel
Level III Functions
• Level III technicians also responsible for:
– Evaluating the adequacy of programs to train
and test inspection personnel
– Qualification of same level personnel
• American Society for Nondestructive Testing
• “ASNT exists to create a safer world by
promoting the profession and technologies of
nondestructive testing”
• Key Certification Standards:
– SNT-TC-1A, “Personnel Qualification and Certification
in Nondestructive Testing”
– ANSI/ASNT CP-189, “ASNT Standard for Qualification
and Certification of Nondestructive Testing
NDT Certification
• Standards detail minimum training, education, and
experience requirements
• Require employers to establish a procedure for
certification of NDT personnel (called a “written
• Qualification vs. Certification
• 6 Levels of Qualification (CP-189): Trainee, Level I,
Level II Limited, Level II, Level III, NDT Instructor
NDT Certification Requirements
• Level I or II certification usually provided by
• For certification, individuals must pass:
– General written exam
– Specific written exam addressing equipment,
procedures, techniques, codes, etc. for the
– Practical exam (demonstration of test and recording
of results)
• Level III certification requirements may require
testing by ASNT or ASME
• Air Transportation Association, a trade organization
for U.S. airlines
• Founded in 1936
• Two ATA documents serve as guidelines for the
training of inspection personnel
– ATA Specification 105, Guidelines for Training and
Qualifying Personnel in Non-Destructive Testing
– ATA Specification 107, Visual Inspection Personnel
Training and Qualification Guide for FAR Part 121 Air
• Aerospace Industries Association, represents
major manufacturers of commercial, military,
and business aircraft and spacecraft
• Established in 1919
• NAS 410, Certification & Qualification Of
Nondestructive Test Personnel – replaces MILSTD-410E (military test standard)
• NAS 999, Nondestructive Inspection of
Advanced Composite Structure

Statics and Strength of Materials