Diana Joyce
[email protected]
Nancy Waldron
[email protected]
Christopher Raye
[email protected]
Tanya Kort
[email protected]
University of Florida
NASP Conference, March 3rd, 2010
All Presentation Materials Including Sample Reports are Available at
http://www.nasponline.org/
1
RtI for Behavioral/Social-Emotional
 20% of students will experience some type of
emotional or behavioral difficulty
 10% of students will have a diagnosable disorder
during their school years
 For many, school is only source of behavioral or
mental health services
 E/BD is 5th largest group under IDEA with largest
increase trend in secondary (ages 12-17)
 Since 1995 students with E/BD have lowest
graduation rate of any disability group
(Burns et al., 1995; USDHHS, 1999, USDOE, 2009)
2
University Research School
• K- 12 Enrollment: 1152 students
• Stable student population
• Racial/Ethnic Composition
51% Caucasian
• 24% African American
• 16% Hispanic
• 5% Multiracial
• 3% Asian
• Free/reduced lunch: 26%
• Highly trained faculty (78% graduate degrees)
•
3
School Improvement
RTI Foundations (2001-2006)
 Reading Initiative (2001-2006)



Enhanced core instructional practices, use of
evidence-based reading intervention programs
Developed standardized progress monitoring
assessments & reporting forms
Blended funding to provide intensive intervention
 Established RtI Leadership Team (2006)


Assessed school needs; changing roles of
instructional support personnel
Professional development leadership team and K-2
teachers
4
Focus of RtI Implementation
Elementary
Year 1
• Reading K-2
• Established grade level Student Success Teams (SST) for data
analysis, problem solving , intervention support
• RtI Leadership Team Meetings
Year 2
• Expanded Reading K-5
Year 3
• Expanded Reading – Language Services Grades K, 1
• Math – Targeted Grades 2, 4
• Writing – Targeted Grade 4
• Revised SST Meetings to 3x year data analysis meetings; 6x
year student progress meetings
• Behavior – Tier 2 targeted student groups; Tier 3 intervention
supports
Year 4
• Expanded Math - Grades 1-5
• Expanded Writing – Grades 4,5
• Behavior– Positive Behavior Support, Kagan Structures; Tier 2
small groups
5
Focus of RtI Implementation
Secondary
Year 1
• Core instruction – Essential Six Literacy Skills
• Intensive Reading Classes
• Established grade level monthly Student Success Teams (SST)
for data review and problem solving
• Behavior – Tier 2 targeted student groups; Tier 3 intervention
support
Year 2
• Middle School Tier 2 small group instruction and Tier 3 small
group Preview in Math
• Mentor Teachers for targeted students in need of Tier 2
supports (check-ins, monitoring progress, home contacts, after
school help sessions)
• Revised SST meetings to 3x year data analysis meetings; 6x year
student progress meetings
• Changing roles of instructional support: in-class coaching,
student accommodations/intervention
• Behavior – Positive Behavior Support; Kagan Structures
6
Problem Solving
I. Define the Problem
Defining Problem/Directly Measure (Achievement/Behaviors)
IV. Evaluate
Was it Effective?
II. Problem Analysis
Identify Contributing
Variables
III. Implement Plan
Progress Monitor and
Modify if Needed
7
RtI Tiered Behavioral Interventions
Tier I
Universal – All
Students
Tier II
Supplemental,
Targeted, ShortTerm
Tier III
Intensive,
Individual, LongTerm
Positive Behavioral Support: Frequent recognition for appropriate behaviors,
proximity control, cueing, build-in appropriate movement opportunities (e.g.,
Kagan Brain Ex.), predictable structure, positively-phrased and highly visible
behavioral expectations.
Embedded Social Curriculum: Instruction in prosocial behavior/attitudes.
Data Screening: School-wide climate survey, ISS/OSS data, incidence mapping,
rating scales for emotional risk and social skills (BESS)
Observations, FBAs, Behavior Plans: Classroom observations to determine
environmental contributors, antecedents, sustaining factors, frequency,
patterns across subjects or time-of-day and task demands, self-monitoring or
reinforcement plans, DRCs
Counseling: Social Skills, Anger Mgmt, Test Anxiety, Friendship Groups
Data Progress Monitoring: Tier II data
Behavior Plans & Counseling Therapy: Individualized, greater frequency
and intensity, often addressing multiple issues simultaneously
Multi-agency Plans: Coordinate w/out-side agencies on counseling, behavioral
plans, meds, family therapy, juvenile justice, etc.
Data Progress Monitoring: Psychological assessment, Tier III data
8
School Psychology Services
Tier I –Primary Prevention
 Screening for children/youth at risk
 Interpretation of school-wide data for positive
behavior supports
 Providing embedded social skills curriculum
and/or PBS programs
 RtI resource for parents, teachers,
administrators, staff
TIER II
 Tier II (Small group, supplemental, short-term)
 Student Success Team
 Define the Problem – Problem Analysis

Records review, observations, interviews, parent conferences
 Implement the Plan



Small group counseling (6-8 weeks)
Individual counseling (12-16 weeks)
Social skills, anger management, anxiety, self-regulation
 Evaluate



Pre-observations for baseline, repeated observations
Pre- and post-counseling BASC, SSRS
SUDS data
10
RtI: SST Behavioral Data Sample
Name
Absent
SSIS
BESS
ISS
OSS
Class Incidents
Parent
Contact
Comments
SST Decision
<5
< 60
< 61
0
0
Anna
2
63
78
0
0
5 angry outbursts (red
face, mean stares,
huffing) over feeling
slighted
3
Parents describe same
behaviors at home with
siblings
Observations, possible TIER II
social skills & anger management
group
Bernard
Cialia
0
0
44
50
44
48
0
0
0
0
-
3
Lacking supplies,
homework, appears dirty,
no coat on cold days, no
lunch, mother hospitalized
depression
Counselor/Teacher talk with
family, possibly provide support
resources contact numbers, donate
supplies
Frederick
4
65
38
0
0
-
-
Few friends, mildly shy
Try friendship group first, possible
social skills later if needed
Henry
Indigo
0
7
42
38
28
45
0
1
0
0
Dumped desk contents 1
out on floor & refused
to work
Parent/Student responsive,
no more incidents, found
out Indigo had bad day
because her dog died
Isolated incident, monitor
attendance
Jyrece
15
42
50
0
0
-
1
knee surgery – fine now,
no more absences
-
Kevin
12
75
70
0
0
-
0
Appears very
sad/withdrawn, sometimes
no appetite, clings to
teacher
Observations, parent interview
about absences/sadness, possible
TIER II counseling, beh plan to
increase peer interactions, discuss
weight w/nurse, monitor lunch
SSIS - Social Skills Improvement System
BESS – Behavioral and Emotional Screening System, T-Scores 10-60 Normal, 61-70 Elevated, 71+ Extremely Elevated
ISS = In-School Suspension, OSS – Out-of-School Suspension, SST = Student Success Team
11
TIER III
 Tier III (Individualized, intensive)
 Define the Problem – Problem Analysis



Formal FBA
Updated review of work & interviews
Parent conferences with developmental history
 Implement the Plan
 Behavior management plans, Behavior contracts, Daily or weekly
behavior report cards to home
 More frequent individual counseling
 May require multi-agency collaboration
 Evaluate



Pre-observations for baseline, repeated observations
Pre- and post-counseling BASC, SSRS
SUDS data
12
Tier III Data Sample 1
 Behavior Plan (2nd grade): Classroom Observations
Argue with Teacher
10
9
8
8
Intervention
x = 1.4
7
Frequency
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
Baseline
x = 5.67
2
2
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
15 minute observation
6
7
0
8
Tier III Data Sample 2
On-Task Behavior
80
78
76
71
70
65
Baseline
x = 41%
Percentage of Time
60
54
52
50
Intervention
x = 69%
43
40
30
28
20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
15 minute observation
14
Tier III Data Sample 3
Percentage of Points Received
 Behavior Report Card (4th grade):Teacher ratings
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
Counseling Begins Week 4
Report Card Changed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Week
Control frustration/anger
Follow directions
Tier IV Eligibility for E/BD
State of Florida Eligibility Criteria Aligning with RtI
 Problem-solving
model
 Assure not lack of
appropriate instruction
 Team decisions
 Evidence-based
interventions have
been implemented
 Evaluation includes:








FBA (if not already completed)
Social/Dev Hx
Observations
Interviews
Review of interventions
Review of academic performance
Assessments to identify
contributing factors
Medical eval if precipitating E/BD
Full copy of the Florida New Rule Developments for RtI:
http://www.fldoe.org/ese/
16
Tier IV Eligibility for E/BD
State of Florida Eligibility Criteria Aligning with RtI
• Internal Factors: sadness, mood swings, erratic behavior or fears, phobias,
excessive worrying, thoughts/feelings inconsistent with actual events,
withdrawal
or
• External Factors: inability maintain personal relationships, chronic disruptive,
physical aggression etc.
and
• Must be present 6 months (not temporary, less than 6 weeks reactions to crisis
or life event)
• Manifest in two or more settings
• Student needs special education
•
Full copy of the Florida New Rule Developments for RtI:
http://www.fldoe.org/ese/
17
Lessons Learned
 Importance of building capacity for implementation
 Importance of professional development
 Generally enough needs to continuously have small groups
targeting: self-regulation, anxiety, anger management etc.
 Behavioral problem-solving team meetings may need to be
more readily available than typical quarterly SST




Importance of including parents
Establish a system for data management
Intervention guides the type of data collected
Do not get discouraged
Questions?
19
Not all Interventions are Created Equal
Disorder
Effective Treatments/Interventions
ADHD
Behavior modification, reinforcement of other behaviors, parent
training, organizers, CBT, medication
Anxiety
CBT, family anxiety management
Depression
CBT, coping skills training, behavioral self-control therapy
OCD
Exposure, response prevention
ODD/CD
Behavioral parent training, anger management, CBT, RET, Timeout, parent-child therapy, problem-solving training
Fears/Phobias
Graduated exposure, modeling, reinforced practice, In-vivo
exposure, CBT, imaginal desensitization, self-calming techniques
Kendall, 2006
20
Behavioral RtI Resources Screening Measures, Interventions
 Tier I
 Behavioral & Emotional Screening System (BESS) http://ags.pearsonassessments.com/
 Positive Behavioral Support www.pbis.org
 Social Learning Curriculum http://www.researchpress.com
 Bullying Prevention Program, Dan Olweus & Susan Limber, Bullying, Prosocial




Behaviors, Conflict, Aggression
http://nrepp.samhsa.gov/
Duchnowski, A. J., Kutash, K., & Romney, S., (2006). Voices from the field: A
blueprint for schools to increase involvement of families who have children with
emotional disturbances. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, The Louis de la
Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child and Family Studies.
http://cfs.fmhi.usf.edu
ACHIEVE: A Collaborative School-based Reform Process, Howard Knoff, Social
Skills, Conflict Resolution, Self-regulation, Positive School Climate,
http://www.projectachieve.info/aboutthedirector.html
SOS Signs of Suicide Prevention Program
http://www.mentalhealthscreening.org
Systematic Screening for Behavioral Disorders http://www.ed.gov/pubs
21
More Behavioral RtI Resources Screening Measures, Interventions
 Tier II - III
 Aggression Replacement Training, Mark Amendola, Anger Control, Aggression,








Moral Reasoning Training www.aggressionreplacementtraining.org
I Can Problem Solve, Myrna Shure, Aggression, Emotionality, Withdrawal,
Rejected www.researchpress.com
Intervention Central, Jim Wright, ADHD, Bullying, Defiance, Peer Tutoring
http://www.interventioncentral.org/
Life Skills Training, Gilbert Botvin, Self-esteem, Social Skills, Substance Abuse,
Social Anxiety, Peer Pressure, www.lifeskillstraining.com
Peace Education Foundation, Conflict Resolution Programs, Peer Mediation, Crisis
Management, http://www.peaceeducation.com
Primary Mental Health Project, Deborah Johnson, Mild Aggression,
Withdrawal, Shyness, Anxious, Poor Classroom Adjustment,
www.childreninstitute.net
Second Step, Violence Prevention Curriculum, http://www.cfchildren.org
Skill Streaming, A. Goldstein & E. McGinnis, Prosocial Skills, Stress Coping,
Friendship Building, Sharing http://www.skillstreaming.com
Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Lynn, N. (2006). School-based mental health: An
empirical guide for decision makers. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.
Louis De la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, Department of Child & Family
Studies, Research & Training Center for Children’s Mental Health.
http://rtckids.fmhi.usf.edu
22
References
Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer,
E. M. Z., & Erkanli, A. (1995). Data watch: Children’s mental health
service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14, 147-159.
Kendall, P. C. (2006). Child and adolescent therapy. New York:
Guilford Press.
U.S. Department of Education (2009). Twenty-eighth annual
report to Congress on the implementation of the individuals with
disabilities education act. Jessup, MD: U.S. Department of
Education.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999).
Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services.
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