KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA, MUZAFFARPUR Social Science A.P. SHARMA TGT(S. Sc.) Topic :- Role of Women in Freedom struggle of India Women of the freedom struggle India has for a long time produced of most as feckless female as she did male ones. Unlike in most other civilizations and contrary to popular belief, Indian women played politically and socially important roles since times unknown. HERE is a look at a few such forgotten women heroes of the Indian freedom struggle. Women’s participation in India’s freedom struggle began as early as 1817 when BHIMA BAI HOLKAR fought bravely against thebritish colonel and defeated them in gorilla warfare. In 1824 rani Channama of kittur resisted armed might of the east indian company. The role played by women in the Great Revilt of 1987 invited the administration even leaders of the revolt Rani of Ramgarh, Rani Jindan Kaur etc. daringly led their troops into the battlefield. Kamala Nehru Kamala Nehru Kamala Nehru was the wife of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Brought up in a traditional Hindu Brahmin family, she felt alienated amongst the more Westernized Nehru`s. It was only with the involvement of the Nehru`s in the national movement, did she emerge into the forefront. Kamala Nehru gave full support to her husband in his desire to work actively for the freedom struggle. In the Non Cooperation movement of 1921, she organized groups of women in Allahabad and picketed shops selling foreign cloth and liquor. When her husband was arrested to prevent him delivering a "seditious" public speech, she went in his place to read it out. She was twice arrested by British authorities.She played a prominent part in organizing the No Tax Campaign in United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Kamala Nehru took part in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Among other activities, Kamala set up a hospital in the premises of Swaraj Bhavan. She defied the advice of doctors, family and friends to lead processions, picket foreign cloth shops and visited women in their homes to convince them to join the struggle for Independence. Kamala Nehru and her associates wore only khadi clothes and made bonfires of imported goods. As Kamala was the member of Desh Sevika Sangh, she joined others in picketing foreign cloth shops Sister Nivedita Sister Nivedita Her real name was Miss Margaret Noble. Sister Nivedita was one of the hosts of foreign women who were attracted towards Swami Vivekananda and Hindu philosophy. Born in Ireland on 28 October 1867, she arrived in India in January 1898, in search of truth. She was impressed by the ideals of Womanhood in India. She once remarked that India was the land of great women. She, however, felt that Indian women needed, to cultivate among themselves a wider and broader concept of the nation, so that they could participate along with men in building a free and strong nation. She propagated for the cause of India throughout America and Europe. Swami Vivekananda described her as a real Lioness. Rabindranath Tagore regarded her as Lok-Mata whose name is very familiar in Bengal. Her writings on Indian history and philosophy, on religious customs, festivals, her lectures on multi faceted subjects, her travel interactions with eminent persons have given a new depth, and added a new dimension, to the socio-cultural history of India. Lakshmibai Lakshmibai Rani of Jhansi (1835-1858), a leader of the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Born in varanasi in nothern India, Lakshmibai was married to Gangadhar Rao, the ruler of Jhansi. The Raja died in 1853, learning no direct male their, but had adopted a son without the consent of the British East India Company. Lord Dalhousie annexed the state under “doctrine of lapse, incurring rani’s emmity. When Jhansi fell, she joined the rebel leader Jantia Tope to fight at Kalpi. When Kalphi, too, fell to the British, they escaped to the forest and captured gwalor fort in, 1858. Here, supported by the Gwalior forces, she continued to fight the British until shot dead during a battle close to the fort. She Romanticized as a heroine and freedom fighter, and apparently gaining the respect of her enemies for her bravery. She resulted in considerable loss of life and frutalities on both sides. Sarojini Naidu Naidu, Sarojini (1879-1949), Indian poet and prominent figure in the Indian independence struggle. Naidu was born into a Bengali Brahmin family in Hyderabad, India; her father was a scientist and her mother a poet, and she grew up surrounded by artists, intellectuals, and revolutionaries. A brilliant student, she entered Madras University at the age of 12, about which time, also, she began to write poetry. In 1895, she was sent to England, studying at King's College, London and Girton College, Cambridge, before a breakdown in health forced her to abandon her studies and return home. During this period, nevertheless, she came into contact with some of the great literary figures of the day, and formed particular friendships with Edmund Gosse and Arthur Symons. On her return to India in 1898, she married Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin. She soon came into contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, and Annie Besant. Encouraged by Gokhale, she entered politics and, with her remarkable powers of oratory, soon emerged as an admired leader. She campaigned vigorously for women's rights and for improvement in the conditions of workers. Ill health took her back to England, where she was fired by the enthusiasm of the young Muhammad Ali Jinnah, then an ardent Indian nationalist who had founded the London Indian Students' Association. By 1918, after the death of Gokhale and her meeting with Gandhi, she had become an important figure in the nationalist movement, actively participating in Gandhi's civil disobedience campaign and travelling widely across the country promoting HinduMuslim unity and the nationalist cause as well as continuing her fight for the rights of women and the depressed classes. In 1919, she returned to London as part of the Home Rule Deputation, becoming involved in the woman suffrage movement while there. During the 1920s she travelled to South Africa and represented In 1925, Sarojini Naidu became the first Indian woman to be elected President of the Indian National Congress. She took part in the round table conferences in London in the 1930s and, continuing her active participation in Gandhi's satyagrahas, was jailed on several occasions by the British. Deeply disappointed by the partition of India with independence, ending her hopes for Hindu-Muslim unity, and by the assassination of Gandhi, she nevertheless accepted the Governorship of United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh), a post she held till her death in 1949 at Lucknow. Her published poetic works include The Golden Threshold (1905), The Bird of Time (1912), The Broken Wing (1917), Selected Poems (1930), The Sceptred Flute (1937, edition with introduction by Joseph Auslander), and The Feather of the Dawn (1961). Many of her speeches have also been published. Annie Besant British Mystic Annie Besantworked in the Indian Nationalist movement in India. From 1907 to 1933 she was President of the Theosophical Society, a mystical organization that followed elements of Eastern religions. Annie Besant Besant, Annie (1847-1933), British theosophist and nationalist leader in India, born in London. Besant became interested in socialist and free-thought movements early on, and wrote pamphlets defending them. She became closely associated with the British social reformer Charles Bradlaugh and later with the Fabian Society. She and Bradlaugh republished an old pamphlet, The Fruits of Philosophy, which advocated birth control; for this, they were brought to trial on a charge of obscenity. In 1889 she joined the Theosophical Society, serving as president from 1907 until her death. Shortly after joining the society Besant moved to India, where she later became a leader of a Hindu nationalist movement. She founded Central Hindu College at Vārānasi in 1898 and organized the Indian Home Rule League, becoming president in 1916. She was elected president of the Indian National Congress in 1917, and general secretary of the National Convention of India in 1923. Besant lectured frequently on theosophy and in 1926 travelled widely with her Indian protégé Jiddu Krishnamurti, whom she declared to be the new Messiah. Her works include Reincarnation (1892), The Basis of Morality (1915), A World Religion (1916), and India, Bond or Free? (1926). Aruna Asaf Ali Aruna Asaf Ali was born as Aruna Ganguly on July 16 1908 at Kalka (Haryana) in an orthodox Hindu Bengali family. Aruna Asaf Ali was a legendary heroine of India`s freedom struggle. Her first major political action was during the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 when she addressed public meetings and led processions. British Government charged her for being a "vagrant" and sentenced her to one year`s imprisonment. When political prisoners were released in the aftermath of Gandhi-Irwin pact, Aruna was not released. But a public agitation in favour of her release, forced British government to release her. She was again arrested in 1932 and put in Tihar Jail. In Tihar Jail she went on a hunger strike against the treatment done towards political prisoners. Her protest caused an improvement in conditions, but she herself was moved to lonely imprisonment in Ambala. Aruna Asaf Ali was a dedicated sociologist. She was elected the first Mayor of Delhi. She devoted her entire life for the betterment of the country without any selfish means. Her contribution in liberating Goa had tremendous impact in achieving the freedom for Goans. She was a true patriot. The Bharat Ratna was honoured to Aruna Asaf Ali with a stamp issued by the Indian Postal Service in 1998. Madam Bhikaji Cama Madam Bhikaji Cama Madam Cama was born on 24th September 1861 to rich Parsi parents. Young Bhikaji received good English education, but from the beginning she was a rebel, and a nationalist. She had good flair to learn languages and became expert in arguing her country`s cause in different circles at a young age. She fought for the freedom of the country till the last in her own way, and helped many revolutionaries with money and materials. Madame Bhikaji always believed that British had looted India, and practiced worst form of imperialism. She had thousand and one reasons to show how India was kept in abject poverty by the British to help them to become the most powerful country in the world of that period. Bhikaji Cama always stood for swaraj or self-rule. She fought for unity of Hindus and Muslims. She continued financing revolutionaries in and out of India. British were not happy with her activities and there was a plan to finish her off. Madam Cama also fought for the cause of women. She published many books on Indian freedom struggle, which had writings against the British rule Sister of JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU, and leader of CONGRESS party of India. Mrs. Pandit was first women to having been appointed minister in the political history of India. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit Vijayalakshmi came from a prominent family. Her father Motilal Nehru was the president of Congress, and brother Jawaharlal Nehru went on to become India`s Prime Minister. She was inspired by the persona of Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and impressed by Sarojini Naidu. She entered the Non Co-operation Movement to fight against the British rule. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit represented India in many of the conferences abroad. She was present in San Francisco when the U.N first met there. She attended numerous public lectures and challenged the British dominated delegates rights to represent India therein. National and international affairs were part of the air she breathed at home and her own interest in these woke up early. At the age of sixteen she wanted to join Annie Besant`s Home Rule League but being too young, she was only allowed to enroll as a volunteer. She was a great fighter and took parts in many of the freedom movement. She was elected to Uttar Pradesh Assembly in 1936. The political career made her India`s first women cabinet minister in 1937.