FlightPlan Research
Phase 2 Summary Results
Jim McGee
Global Mapping International
IAMA Conference
May 2006
Background
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Global Mapping International
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Part of and committed to the mission community
Unaffiliated with the mission aviation community
Focus and commitment to research
GMI’s Mission:
Produce and present world-class research that
fuels emerging mission movements and leaders.
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Key Elements of the Project
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Collaboration and involvement sought from all
stakeholders
A visible, open process
Compilation of valuable information for distribution
throughout the mission aviation community
Funding provided from several sources
Third-party analysis and reporting
Phases
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Phase 1:
Document the status, dynamics and trends
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Phase 2:
Explore perceptions, needs, challenges, opportunities
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Phase 3:
Envision and analyze possible & preferable futures
Phase 1: Status & Trends
Phase 1 CD Contents
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Research Report: Status of Mission Aviation
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History
Global Trends
Missiology
Finance
Training
Technology
Strategy/Practice
Phase 1 CD Contents
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Directory of mission aviation service providers
Web directory of mission aviation web sites
Library of 300 mission aviation documents
Key documents
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Dave Bochman
Ed Robinson
Scott Zibell
Key measures
Sample of Phase 1 Info
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National and
global trends
Number of
student pilots
has dropped
41% in past
20 years
Sample of Phase 1 Info
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Sample of Phase 1 Info
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Technical
m.a. staff is
up by 44%
since 1988
Flight hours
are roughly
unchanged
(Chart does
not show all
known orgs)
More Phase 1 Learning (plus)
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Roadless population growing: 1 billion by 2030
Among poorest peoples, mobility not expected
to increase substantially
Building roads often doesn’t give poorest
access to services they need
Economic-valuation models say the value of
time saved is multiplied by a factor of
(significant given rapid population increase)
More Phase 1 Learning (plus)
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Fuel savings from diesel/autofuel aircraft
expected to recoup cost in 4 years of service
Staff attrition at MAF (6.5% annually) is similar
to that of all U.S.-based missions (6.0%)
Projected supply of pilot trainees runs fairly
close to expressed agency need
(but do they reach the field?)
Projected supply of maintenance specialists
runs somewhat short
Phase 2: Perceptions, Needs,
Opportunities, Challenges
Methodology
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Objectives: Gather internal (stakeholder) and
external perspectives
Internal: Interview leaders/representatives
within stakeholder groups to explore key
issues, questions
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Depth interviews
Online focus groups
External: Survey current and potential users of
mission aviation to explore needs, perceptions
What Stakeholders See
Depth Interviews
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40 depth interviews (phone, email)
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15 service providers (10 agencies; senior leaders,
field leaders, pilots, recruiters)
8 trainers/equippers (5 schools, 3 bridge programs)
6 support specialists (4 agencies)
5 donors
4 service users (representing Guatemala, Ecuador,
Cameroon, South Africa, China and PNG)
2 current/former students
Online Discussions
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Discussion Boards
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75 mission-aviation stakeholders
Topical: focusing on questions outlined in Phase 1
Situational: getting reactions to ideas that could
have application for mission aviation, e.g….
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…corporate-NGO partnership for global logistics
…federal giving initiative to give $200 million to faith-based
organizations working in AIDS-ravaged countries
...Islamic competition in community air service
…small-scale tribal tourism operations
…2-year field internship for prospective missionaries
Values
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In relative frequency of mention
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Cooperate with other agencies
Be a missionary first, a pilot second
Empower indigenous peoples by increasing their
access to health/education services
Partner closely with national believers/churches
Leave when appropriate; establish exit parameters
Select appropriate technology for situation
Emphasize safety and safety standards
Seek sustainability, financially and otherwise
Values
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Focus on learning/research/using information
Define and measure effectiveness
Speed the path to the field; show agility on the field
Consider God-honoring business applications
Smaller aircraft have a place
Internships must meet objectives (not just exposure)
Users pay portion of costs
Variety in the enterprise is good
Concerns
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In relative frequency of mention
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Cost of aviation for nationals (and expats)
Government resistance/regulation
Rising operational costs (and currency devaluation)
Students failing to get to field due to cost, debt and
distractions
Supply of students
Insurance costs
Concerns
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Service providers staying too long
Changing technology (training, certification)
Declining funding sources/trends
Avgas supply
Agencies less likely to place missionaries in
isolated locations
Opportunities
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In relative frequency of mention
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Internship opportunities for trainees
Low-tech/simple tech (Steve Saint)
Mission-Business ventures and models
Partnership/consultation with governments on
infrastructure
Cargo capacity – more stuff, fewer trips (Kodiak)
Second-career people/volunteers
Secular schools supplying students
Opportunities
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Humanitarian opportunities in closed places
Airstrip construction in areas where governments
are committed to providing services
Pilots returning from the field (training, promoting)
Tentmaking opportunities for trainees
Need of nationals to learn English
Use of commercial pilots for short-term needs
Navigation technology
Community air service
Opportunities
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Group insurance
Microaviation – small-scale do-it-alls
FBOs lying dormant
Running national training institutions
Needs
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Relative frequency of mention
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Intentionally reduce dependence on expats
Speed the transition to new aircraft
Recruit more people
Help trainees get field ready (skill & finances)
Measure opportunity/effectiveness
Evaluate viability of new tech applications
Market the benefits to users, churches
Needs
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Intentionally seek national administrators
(not just technicians)
Adopt standards across organizations as
appropriate (unity without uniformity)
Understand total cost/investment
Train pilots and trainees on diesel/turbine
Communicate better across agencies
Recruit people with business acumen
What Others See
Internet Survey of Potential Users
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Internet survey of field leaders whose agencies
work among remote peoples
Offline version made available
Languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese
Recruiting sources emphasized global South
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WEA Mission Commission Associates (global)
Ethne 2006 email list (primarily Asia)
Comibam email list (Latin America)
MANI network regional leaders
Internet Survey of Potential Users
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Survey billed as “Remote Peoples and Mission
Transportation Survey” to avoid potential
response bias
40+ data points, including attitude/behavior
ratings, 2 open-ended questions, demographics
Respondents asked to identify themselves by
name and mission organization
119 valid responses from approximately 800
invitations (approx. 15% response)
Involvement with Remote Peoples
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Respondents asked
about relationship
with remote peoples
Those not directly
engaged with remote
peoples were filtered
out, as were aviation
service providers
Reporting based on
82 responses
Demographics
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83% of responses
from people living in
the majority world
Half of respondents
live in Latin America
For most measures,
no bias based on
region of residence
Demographics
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Most respondents
represent missions
active in multiple regions
Demographics
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Mix of nationaloriented and
expat-oriented
missions
Relatively few
missions have
a balance of
missionaries
from both types
of countries
Demographics
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More than half of respondents
from smaller missions;
Nearly 4 in 10 from missions
with more than 100 field staff
Attitudes: Challenges in Ministry
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Top challenges:
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Access
Health/Security Concerns
Attitudes: Use of Big Grant
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Aviation is complex, so
no surprise to see it low
on priority list
Other responses related
to aviation:
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Telecommunications
Transport Services
Attitudes: Transport Problems
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Expense is top problem;
a challenge for aviation
Cargo transport is an
opportunity for aviation
Also, to a lesser degree,
speed, safety & reliability
Behaviors: Travel Modes
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Air travel used moderately, as
is boat and foot travel
Boat use much higher in Latin
America than Africa or Asia
Behaviors: Aviation Usage
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Second half of
survey specific to
aviation
Mission aviation not
seen as available in
many areas
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Unavailable?
Unaware?
1 in 4 missions note
use of aviation at
some level
Attitudes: Barriers to Aviation Use
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Confirms cost issue
and perception of
unavailability
Few have problem
with use of planes
generally
Anticipated Behavior: If Given Aircraft
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2 of 3 missions
would keep a plane
if given one
Only 1 in 8 would
sell it outright rather
than work to keep it
in mission service
Attitudes: Mission Aviation
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In general,
strong
support for
use of
aviation in
mission
Analysis/Ideas
Analysis / Ideas
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Marketing/Communications
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Movement from reactive to proactive, especially
among agencies that have few North Americans
Awareness: Potential users should be aware of the
opportunities to use mission aviation service
Benefits of mission aviation should be more
intentionally communicated to potential users
(transportation consulting)
Grants for marketing could be tied to follow-up
funding based on increases in requests for service
Analysis / Ideas
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Failure to Get to the Field
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With partner approach (schools/bridge/agency), no
one accompanies student through the whole process
Students aren’t sure what they want to do; they need
an advocate/counselor
Potential role for IAMA or others: membership-based
career service for Christian aviation students
Could include internship clearinghouse
Should include commercial options, especially
given expanding nature of “mission”
Analysis / Ideas
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Failure to Remain on the Field
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Missionaries less likely to stay for a full career;
especially an issue for aviation due to initial cost
Lots of roles at home for former field staff, but…
…they can’t be publicized, because the staff are so
needed on the field
Require a portion of support placed in a deferred
fund, with substantial bonuses for extended service
Allow home assignments to be made public and
given honor
Analysis / Ideas
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The Struggle to Integrate Nationals
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Agencies committed to development of national
leaders, but training is a challenge & funding difficult
Meanwhile, agencies note that most people give to
individual aviators, not agencies
Consider expat-national counterpart program
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Expat raises support for self and for counterpart
Churches more likely to provide support w/link to national
Analysis / Ideas
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What to Do With Second-Career Pilots?
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Do something!
Research shows that pilots over 60 are no more
of a risk than those under 35 (though they may not
be able to fly into 15o-slope jungle strips)
Increasing opportunities for short-term or contract
relief work, international flight training, mentoring
As likely to get a decade or more of service from
them as from many younger pilots
Phase 3: Future Scenarios
Process
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Identify and prioritize evaluation criteria
Identify and describe models/scenarios
Evaluate scenarios
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Underlying assumptions
Anticipated/required conditions
Preferability based on criteria
Evaluation Criteria
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Initial set of criteria, based on Phase 2 input:
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Consistency with agency’s mission, vision, calling
Effective use of technology and information
Effective use of staff gifts and talents
Effective partnership with national churches
Effective cooperation/unity with other agencies and senders
Ability to reach/impact many people
Ability to impact areas traditionally closed to Christian work
Ability to address needs that cannot be met otherwise
Long-term viability of strategy
Ability to mobilize human and financial resources
How would you or your agency prioritize these?
What additional criteria would you add?
Potential Models/Scenarios
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The following slides outline a series of potential
models/scenarios for the future of mission
aviation
Most of these have been inspired by
suggestions from mission-aviation
stakeholders
Other models/scenarios may be added;
suggestions are welcomed
Agile Provider
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Summary: Servant of All, using efficiencies of scale to
conduct a wide variety of aviation services, rapidly
deploying and redeploying to maximize existing and
emerging opportunities in a dynamic environment
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Core Activities
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Monitoring/evaluating opportunities
Logistics – managing resources for efficiency & effectiveness
Funding likely to come from many sources
Partnership with ministry and secular entities
Agile Provider
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Extension/Partnership Activities
Ability to establish alternative/subsidiary corporate
structures, as needed
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Coordination with alternative travel modes
Coordination with rural-development initiatives
Credit: Dave Bochman, MAF
Vertically Integrated Agency
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Summary: Servant of the Sending Church, providing
an efficient, integrated path for missionaries focused
on learning and serving within a particular context.
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Core Activities
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Recruiting/Training/Certifying/Deploying
Internship Programs
Scholarship/Debt Management
FBO Management
Vertically Integrated Agency
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Extension/Partnership Activities
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Partnership with Local Churches (short-term
transport, interships, etc.)
FBO investment-opportunity evaluation
Consultant to other agencies
Credit: Don Starlin, Adventist World Aviation
Tribal Mobility Advocate
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Summary: Servant to Indigenous Peoples, assisting in
implementation of aviation and other mobility efforts at
the initiative of local leadership using appropriate
technologies
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Core Activities
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Evaluating/monitoring tribal mobility needs and interests
Connecting needs with appropriate technology
Identifying creative, appropriate financing
Training
Monitoring & Evaluating Effectiveness
Developing Models
Tribal Mobility Advocate
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Extension/Partnership Activities
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Public Advocacy/Awareness
Micro-enterprise Development
Identifying/Opening Markets for Tribal Produce/Goods
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Credit: Steve Saint, I-TEC
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Secular parallel: Survival International
Airdrop/Airlink Services
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Summary: Air-based Servant of Isolated Rural
Peoples, focusing on providing broad access to
services with limited ground-based infrastructure
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Core Activities
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Identifying and communicating opportunities/needs
Manned and unmanned air drop of community development
resources (health, education)
Air-based communication network
Collaborating with national/international entities
Airdrop/Airlink Services
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Extension/Partnership Activities
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Literacy training
Medical missions
Microenterprise development (UAV delivery service)
Telecommunications partnerships
Christian broadcast/content providers
Credit: Robert Nicholls, Airdrop
Volunteer-driven Cost Leader
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Summary: Servant to National Church Initiatives by
providing restored aircraft and human resources,
relying primarily on volunteer and contract labor
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Core Activities:
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Evaluating national needs and initiatives
Acquiring/restoring aircraft
Recruiting experienced volunteer and short-term laborers
Volunteer-driven Cost Leader
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Extension/Partnership Activities:
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Remote maintenance
Short-term trips
Partnership with corporate goodwill programs of
aviation suppliers
Credit: Doug Clements, Wings of Hope
Infrastructure Specialist
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Summary: Servant to community development,
sacrificing overt ministry opportunities to be an
effective partner with national governments and the
international development community.
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Core Activities
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Providing Community Air Service
Providing Consulting Services (to help establish standards &
regulation, criteria for service/evaluation)
Providing Education (training, value of air travel)
Collaborating with National/International Entities
Infrastructure Specialist
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Extension/Partnership Activities
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Community Health
Hospitality Development
Tourism Development
Medical Services Development
Transportation Systems Integration
Credit: Jon Lewis, Partners International
Provider Cooperative
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Summary: Servant of Service Providers, enabling
small and not-so-small operators to gain the
advantages of standardization, collective bargaining,
shared communication, etc.
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Core Activities:
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Developing cooperative membership (recruiting, serving,
informing)
Developing standards and cooperative initiatives
Negotiating with suppliers
Coordinating grant-seeking efforts (shared and independent)
Monitoring activities to limit duplication of effort
Provider Cooperative
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Extension/Partnership Activities:
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Partnering with training institutes to develop aviatordevelopment efficiencies
Potential partnership with a commercial counterpart
Credit: Jon Egeler, MSI & John Armstrong, IAMA
Non-aviation Parallel: Parable Christian Stores
Pioneer Specialist
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Summary: Servant of Pioneer Missions, opening
access to locations where ministry is not yet occurring
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Core Activities:
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Surveying Needs/Opportunities/Sustainability
Assisting in developing initial relationships in coordination with
pioneer mission agencies
Helipad/Airstrip Construction
Efficient Entry/Exit Strategies
Multi-modal transportation logistics
Pioneer Specialist
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Extension/Partnership Activities:
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Network of aviation partners to sustain service
Disaster Assistance (access reconstruction)
Inspirations: Helimission, JAARS
Global Training Specialist
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Summary: Servant of Students, providing varied,
extensive training on a globally distributed basis
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Core Activities:
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Establishing Distributed Training Centers
(or network of training-center partners)
Recruiting/Qualifying Students
Monitoring Mission Aviator Demand/Supply
Developing Incentives for Mission Service
Global Training Specialist
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Extension/Partnership Activities:
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Aviator Student Fellowships
ESL Language Training
Cultural-exchange Programs
Strategic Relationships with Commercial Airlines
Business-development
Jim McGee
Global Mapping International
[email protected]
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