Unmanned Aircraft
Systems in the
National Airspace
System
Coming soon to airspace near
you…..UAS-101
Presented At:
Pecora Conference/ Unmanned Aircraft
Systems
By: Roger Trevino, Team Manager, Operations
Support Group, Central Service Area
Date: November 19, 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
What are UAS?
• Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
historically were called by various
terms:
 Drone/ROA/RPV/UAV/Model/R-C
• Today they are Defined as:
 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
 Aircraft Control Station
 Command & Control Link/s
 Pilot
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Characteristics
• UAS can range in weight from a few grams to
thousands of pounds and can operate at altitudes from
near surface to the edge of space.
• Some UAS can remain aloft for minutes or days for
others.
• Future designs allow for the possibility that some UAS
will be able to remain aloft for months.
• Some UAS fly slowly while others are capable of very
high speeds.
• Some UAS require a prepared runway while others can
be launched and recovered from unprepared fields,
ships, aircraft, rooftops, or by hand.
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Who is Operating UAS in the NAS
Public Use Aircraft –
Certificate of Waiver or
Authorization
•
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•
•
•
•
Department of Agriculture
Department of Commerce
Department of Defense
Department of Energy
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Interior
Department of Justice
NASA
State Universities
State Law Enforcement
October 2008
Civil Aircraft – Special
Airworthiness
Certificates Experimental
•
Issued in all 3 Service Areas





Raytheon
AAI Corporation
General Atomics
Boeing
And more
Federal Aviation
Administration
What are they doing?
•
•
•
•
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Operational Missions
Training for Operational Missions
Research
Sensor Development and Testing
Marketing
Border Patrol
Firefighting
Disaster Relief
Search and Rescue
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
When are they doing it?
• Daily
• Mostly Daylight Operations
• Some Night Operations
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Where are they doing it?
United States – Special Use Airspace
Part 73 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14 “. . . Activities must be
confined because of their nature . . .”
•
6 Flavors of Special Use Airspace only 3
provide for “confined” airspace
– Prohibited Areas (Regulatory)
– Restricted Areas (Regulatory)
– Warning Areas
•
Other types of airspace that may not
require observers:
–
Class A
–
Class C
–
Temporary Flight Restrictions
October 2008
•
99.7
•
91.137 (a) (1)
Federal Aviation
Administration
Where are they doing it
(cont’d)?
• Class A, C, D, E, and G Airspace
• Domestic and Oceanic
• Outside of SUA
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
How are they doing it?
Specific authorization is required for operations
outside of active restricted/warning area airspace,
with aviation activities authorized
—NO EXCEPTIONS
• Certificate of Waiver or Authorization
 Public operators
• Special Airworthiness Certificate, Experimental Category
 Civil (commercial operations are not allowed in US at this time)
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Challenges Integrating UAS into NAS
• No “see and avoid
capability”
Must be mitigated
–
–
–
–
–
Restricted Areas
TFR’s
Visual observers
Chase aircraft
With RADAR in Class A
• Lost control link
procedures
• Lost Comm procedures
• Latency
(response delays)
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Certificate of Authorization (COA)
• FAA Form 7711-1
• Authorization to operate UAS in the NAS
• Consists of multiple provisions:
 General Provisions
 Safety Provisions
 Airworthiness Provisions
 Pilot/Observer Provisions
 Special provisions - specific to mission
 Special Provisions – Air Traffic Procedures
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
FAA/DoD Memorandum of Agreement
• Signed September 24, 2007 by FAA Administrator and Deputy
Secretary of Defense
• Provides for Enhanced DoD UAS Access to the NAS in Class D and G
Airspace
Applies to all categories of DoD UAS operations conducted wholly within Class D airspace
that have an associated DoD-controlled, non-joint-use airfield, provided2:
• Operations are not conducted over populated areas or within airspace covered in
Section 91.215 (b)(2) of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR §
91.215(b)(2)).
• DoD shall develop uniform air traffic control procedures to be applied at all locations.
These procedures will be developed in coordination with the FAA prior to
implementation and a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization issued to the appropriate
DoD air Traffic facility.
_________
2The
DoD, as a service provider for this airspace, does not have the authority to issue waivers to 14 CFR Part 91.
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
FAA/DoD Memorandum of Agreement
(MOA) (cont’d)
Operations that are conducted within Class G airspace, below 1200’
AGL (not applicable to airspace identified by 14 CFR § 91.215 (b)(2))
over military bases, reservations or land protected by purchase, lease
or other restriction provided:
• The UAS weighs 20 pounds or less
• The UAS remains within clear visual range of the pilot, or a
certified observer in ready contact with the pilot, to ensure
separation from other aircraft.
• The UAS remains more than 5 miles from any civil use
airport or heliport.
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
UAS Challenges
 Ensuring safety of the NAS
– For all users and public on the ground
 Safety impacts:
– Inherent low visibility of many UAS
aircraft - more difficult to visually detect
– Increased time between detection and
avoidance
– UAS aircraft performance limits in
collision avoidance
 Developing standards,
procedures and separation
standards for an industry
already in operation
 Supporting national defense
expanding access requests
 Other Government Agencies into
the mix
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Trends
• FAA UAS Office has seen a 100% increase in COA
requests.
– Active COAs = 119 (80 issued in CY 2008)
• 49 of 119 belong to DoD
– Currently working 84 applications (29 DoD)
• Moving from “routine” to more sophisticated UAS
missions requiring extensive coordination with multiple
affected ATC facilities.
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Information
http://www.faa.gov/uas
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
Points of Contact
–
Ardy Williams
Air Traffic Manager, Unmanned Aircraft System
202-497-7688
[email protected]
–
Roger Trevino
Team Manager, Operations Support Group, CSA
817-222-5595
[email protected]
–
Doug Davis
Manager, Unmanned Aircraft Program Office
202-385-4636
[email protected]
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
QUESTIONS?
October 2008
Federal Aviation
Administration
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Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System