Communication
The Art of Interacting with
others
Why Study Communication?
Knowing
• What happens when people communicate with
themselves and others
Understanding
• How that knowledge can be used to explain
and interpret the process of Communication in
everyday life
Developing Skills
• Using this knowledge and understanding to
communicate more effectively
What a Relief!!
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The art of Communication is not all natural. We
can learn to communicate effectively
All Communication involves the creation and
exchange of meanings via signs and symbols
Communication Studies involves the business of
making and understanding these signs and
symbols.
People seem to have a real need to read meaning
into all human action.
What is Communication?
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The transfer of Information,
Understanding and Emotion from one
person to another
The interdependent process of
Sending, Receiving and
Understanding and responding to
messages
Communication
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Is an on-going, dynamic process
Actively involves the Sender and the
Receiver simultaneously
May be
• Verbal: Oral/written word
• Non-verbal: Gestures, drama, materials
Effective Communication
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Takes a significant amount of work and energy
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Stems from our understanding of ourselves and
others
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Involves
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Our ability to listen
Our verbal communication skills
Our non-verbal communication skills
Our understanding of our relationship with others
Our ability to analyse an audience, or to understand
context
• Our knowledge of the way to research, prepare and
deliver a public speech.
The Communication Process:
Elements
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Sender
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Message
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Thought, idea or information the Sender wishes to pass on to another
The Message has meaning. It is this that has to be sent
Medium
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Person with whom the message to be communicated originates
Encodes or gives expression to the message
The medium is the method that the Sender chooses for encoding the message.
This may be written or oral. These are both verbal. The Sender may also encode
his message through signals, drama and other non-verbal means.
The Medium is often confused with the Channel. One way to distinguish them is
that the Medium must be determined before the Channel is chosen, and often,
Medium determines Channel – e.g. Medium: Email; Channel: Internet
Channel
•
The Message is sent via a Channel which is the means of transporting the
message from the Sender to the Receiver, e.g. post office, internet, airwaves,
airmail etc.
The Communication Process:
Elements
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Receiver
• Person receiving or Decoding the message
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Noise
•
Anything that distorts a message by interfering with the
communication process
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Radio playing in the background
Another person trying to enter the conversation
Examination nerves
Static on the telephone line
A slow computer
Feedback
• The Receiver transmits verbal and non-verbal feedback to
indicate his/her reception and understanding of the message
Describing the Process:
A Model of Communication
Barriers and Facilitators

You have asked your younger brother
to send a message to your friends
Isaiah, in Form 3, Ellice in Form 4
and Sean from the security team to
attend a meeting at your home this
evening. Your brother puts a notice
on the bulletin board in the Form 4
classroom, in French. Only Ellice
turns up for the meeting.
Barriers and Facilitators
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Give two probable reasons for the
others not attending
At which points did the
communication break down?
Suggest two things to ensure that
everyone attended the meeting
Barriers and Facilitators
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There was a language barrier, notice was
poorly located; the method of notification
was faulty (his ???)
When your brother selected the means of
transferring the message ( his ???)
He could have written in a language that
all three would have understood; he could
have telephoned all three; he could have
spoken to each one directly.
• What about email?
Barriers and Facilitators
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A Barrier is ……
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A Facilitator is …..
Barriers and Facilitators
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Some facilitators are
• Selecting a language which is familiar to
the receiver
•?
•?
•?
Barriers and Facilitators
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Some Barriers to Communication are
• Sender and Receiver speak different
languages
•?
•?
•?
Forms of Communication
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Cathy would like to describe her
graduation ceremony to her aunt who
lives in Australia. Think of two ways in
which she could do this
After the graduation, Cathy wants to
describe to her brother how some of the
girls walked up to collect their certificate.
What do you think she would do?
Forms of Communication
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Verbal
• Requires words
• May be speech or writing
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Conversation
• Face-to-face
• Telephone
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Letter
Email
Text message
Fax
Messenger/chat
Forms of Communication
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Non-Verbal
• Relies on elements other than speech or writing
• Is just as important as non-verbal communication
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Body language (gestures, posture, facial expression)
Use of space
Use of objects
Dress
Graphics (charts, tables, diagrams)
Integrating forms for specific purposes (role play,
simulation)
FORM and CONTEXT
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The specific FORM of communication
is, or should be, intimately related to
the CONTEXT in which it is used
One element of our COMMUNICATIVE
COMPETENCE is our ability to get our
message across accurately
Contexts of Communication
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In order to evaluate the
appropriateness or effectiveness of a
communication act, we must first
understand its context.
Communication does not occur in a
vacuum. It occurs within a CONTEXT
The circumstances of a
communicative act are referred to as
the CONTEXT of communication
Contexts of Communication
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You have to give a speech in each of the
following situations. Consider the
adjustments that you would have to make
to your presentation
• To a panel of interviewers where you are
applying for a job
• To a group of standard two students in their
assembly hall
• To an oral examiner in a small examination
room
• To a group of persons opposing your ideas
• On national television
• On radio
Contexts of Communication
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Who is present, or who is being
addressed. What do you need to consider
here?
The general attitude of your audience.
Why is this important?
Where the communication takes
place. What are the factors that should
influence your communicative decisions?
Contexts of Communication
Context may be
 FORMAL
• Certain societal norms are evident and
there are perceived patterns of
behaviour
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NON-FORMAL/INFORMAL
• Individuals or groups are not
constrained by specified ways in which
communication would normally take
place
Contexts of Communication
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Intrapersonal- Thinking, solving
problems, imagining/imaging
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Interpersonal – interviews,
conversations, intimate
communication
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Small group – leadership meeting,
brain-storming, prayer meeting
Contexts of Communication
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Organizational – business,
government, official purposes,
educational
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Academic – essay, research paper,
doctoral thesis
Public – speeches, debates
 Intercultural – communicating
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across social sub-group, in tourism
Contexts of Communication
Match the scenarios with the most appropriate form of
verbal communication
Form of Communication
A. A written notice/poster
B. A skit
C. A written note
D. A television/radio address
E. A telephone call
F. A short talk
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Communication