Methods of communication:- verbal and non
2. Channels of communication:- formal and
Dimensions of communication:- upward
/downward/horizontal and diagonal
Types of communication
 When John entered in his office on Monday morning:-
-somebody had tempered with his personal computer
-called up his personal secretary and enquired
- Secretary informed that two marketing executives had
come on the Saturday evening
-used the computer to seek some information since he
was not there
-John called the two marketing executives and told them
not to touch his computer without his permission
Types of communication
-John although practically did not scold them but
-tone was very stern
-to avoid this in future he issued a memo to this effect
-distributed it in the office
-Next day everybody in his office was discussing about
the episode
-almost everybody was aware that they are not supposed
to use boss’s computer without his permission
Types of communication
 Here John used
–Speech(words spoken)
 Writing(memo)
 Body language
-(his expressions when he talked to the marketing
 Paralanguage-(stern tone of his voice)to make people aware of his
 Both formal
-(memo) and informal channels
-(discussion among the employees contributed to spread
the news
Types of communication
 Note the dimensions of communication even in a
small office environment
 John-enquires from his secretary/scolds the marketing
executives/issues the memo
-all are downward communication
 Secretary reports and & marketing executives reply to
-Upward communication
 Secretary enquires about who came in the boss’s room
-Horizontal communication
Methods of communication
 One of the ways of communicating is by using words-
by way of speech/by writing
 Another is by using the expression other than words
-gestures/body language etc
 A third mode of communication is –circumstantial
-here people communicating make no deliberate effort
the message is conveyed by the way the things are
 Example-the elaborate décor of one’s office room
conveys that he is holding a high position in the
Methods of communication
 Lets divide our discussion into two categories
 Verbal communication
 Non –verbal communication
 Verbal communication-The term “verbal” denotes the
use of words
 When words are used in communication –
spoken/written we call it verbal communication
 The thoughts in words can be conveyed either orally or
by writing
Oral Communication
 Oral communication is the communication by way of
uttering words
 Speaking –which is the fastest /most direct type of
-Every time we speak our voice reveals
Gender/age/geographic background/level of
education/native birth/emotional state/relationship
with the person spoken to
 All these clues (and many more) are contained in even
small fragments of speech
 People can read our voices
-When we speak-encode important info about ourselves
 When we listen-we decode-
Oral communication
 In an Organization: Formal staff meetings/planned conferences/mass
 Informal talks-suitable for day to day
liaison/directions/exchange of information/progress
-maintenance of effective interpersonal relations
 Telephone calls are used for quick checkups and for
imparting or receiving information
 Channels for oral communication:-face to face
Advantages of oral communication
 Speed-once you make contact with your audience
there is no time lag between the transmission and
reception of message/this is valuable when time is
essence-ie funds in an account to be released/memos
will not be of much help
 Speaker is able to get personal attention of the
listener/spend hrs drafting a letter-recipient scans
superficially or will not read/much command over
receivers attention
 It allows instantaneous feedback:-you can
respond/rephrase/revise to your audience
 Personal quality:- when a personal meeting goes well
the relationship that communicators develop can help
solve problems that might have been difficult while
handling from distance-personal meetings important
in some cultures
 Confidentiality:- since creates no records/helps in
maintaining confidentiality
 Supplemented by non –verbal clues:- The person
receiving oral communication can combine it with
expressions/other non verbal clues around the
speaker-message better understood
Limitations of oral communication
 Oral might not be the best approach it suffers from
certain disadvantages: No evidence:-No documentary proof of oral
communication/impact is temporary
 Not suitable in certain cases:-when message is too
lengthy and complex
 Expensive & time consuming when the persons
involved are at distant locations-difficulty in arranging
the communicators/Even a cross town trip for a half –
hour meeting can take most of the morning/afternoon
Limitations of oral communication
 Not appropriate when the matter is controversial:-A
personal contact might also be unproductive if the
contact antagonizes one or more participants/if
personalities or subject-make someone
angry/defensive/less confrontational forms of
communication to be used
 Serious deliberation is not possible:-receiver has to
take an immediate decision in response to the
communication received
 More prone to physical noise:-Oral message has more
probability of getting distorted –physical
noise/inaudibility of speech/interference
Written communication
 Written communications are a powerful medium in all
walks of life
 We may handle our social & business communication
on a face to face basis we need to prepare written
messages the reason: Permanent record/matter may be complex/sensitive
which needs planning before communicating/distance
 There are many types of written business
 -forms /reports/circulars
 Each document is used in different purposes in
different circumstances in business
Written communication
 Written communication have a different set of advantages
than their spoken counterparts
Written communication is permanent:-saved as future
Written communication can be easier to understand than
It can be composed in advance
Written messages are less prone to errors
Written communication works best as evidence
It can address more number of persons at a timeadvertisement in news paper/hoardings
- TV can also cover a large population by oral
communication/but written media is cheap and coverage is
 Time consuming-in terms of preparing &
 Lot of paperwork-creates mountains of papers
cluttered around/difficult to manage/careful with
confidential matters
 Certain messages cannot be put into writing-better
understood orally/nonverbal
 Different persons may interpret message differently-if
not carefully worded /written communication may
give rise of legal battles
 Immediate feedback and clarification is not possible in
written communication
 Needs expertise in expression-runs the risk of being
ineffective in the hands of people otherwise good in their
job/serious concern for organization
 Lack of confidentiality-when they pass through several
 Capability to cause greater damage-A haphazardly written
note can do more damage than a careless remark
 After going through the written and oral
communication we should understand that solely one
mode may not be useful
 The two modes are supplementary and should be used
depending upon the situation
 Written communication is more useful –subject
matter is complex & final decision requires
deliberations from the persons concerned/messages
need to be preserved for future reference or have legal
 Oral communication can be relied upon in routine &
day to day matters/confidential matter
 Rewrite these Sentences so that they are
clearer & more concise
 To make certain that the materials you remove
from the Office supply room are fully accounted
for in our inventory system, I am requesting that
you completely and accurately fill out the
standard form provided for the purpose.
 Fill out a form whenever you take office
supplies so that our inventory will be correct.
 In the absence of the feline race, certain small rodents
will give themselves up to various pleasurable
When the cat’s away, the mice will play
 A plethora of culinary specialists vitiate the liquid in
which a variety of nutritional substances have been
Too many cooks spoil the broth
 Impetuous celerity engenders purposeless spoilage.
Haste makes waste.