Organizational and
Methodological Issues in
Large-Scale Cross-National
Research: UN or NATO
Approach?
Juan I. Sanchez
Florida Int’l University
Paul E. Spector
University of South
Florida
Prepared for:
2009 MSU Symposium on Multicultural Psychology “Conducting
Multinational Research Projects in Organizational Psychology:
Challenges and Opportunities”
October 11-12, 2009
1
Sample Cross-Cultural/Cross-National – CC/CN - Publications
Bonache, J., Sanchez, J. I., & Zarraga-Oberty, C. (in press). The interaction of
expatriate pay differential and expatriate inputs on host country nationals’ pay unfairness.
International Journal of Human Resources Management.
Sanchez, J. I., Gomez. C., & Wated, G. (2008). A value-based framework for
understanding managerial tolerance of bribery in Latin America. Journal of Business Ethics,
83(2), 341-352.
COLLABORATIVE INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF MANAGERIAL STRESS (CISMS):
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O’Driscoll, M., Sparks, K., et al. (2002).
Locus of control and well-being at work: How Generalizable Are Western Work Findings?
Academy of Management Journal, 45, 453-470.
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O’Driscoll, M., Sparks, K., et al. (2001).
Do national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being: An
ecological level international study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(8), 815-832.
Sanchez, J. I., Spector, P. E., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). Adapting to a boundaryless
world: A developmental model of the expatriate executive. Academy of Management
Executive, 14(2),96-106.
2
CC/CN Research Publications
Outlet
Number of articles
Academy of Management Executive
1
Academy of Management Journal1
11
Applied Psychology: An Int’l Review1
31
Group and Organization Management
1
Human Resource Management
1
International Journal of Cross-Cultural Mgmt.
1
Int’l Journal of HRM
3
Int’l Journal of Organizational Analysis
1
Int’l Journal of Stress Management1
21
Journal of Business Ethics
2
Journal of Organizational Behavior1
11
Journal of Vocational Behavior1
11
Personnel Psychology1
21
1Large-scale
cross-cultural research where n > 5, 000 AND no. of countries > 20 3
Basic research question
Do organizational behavior theories developed primarily in
English-speaking countries transfer to other cultural settings?
Culture-general (etic)?
X
Y
Culture-specific (emic)?
X
Y
4
Basic research question (Continued)
Country
rxy
A
.06
B
.23
C
.12
D
.39
Variation due to
culture?
Country rxy
A
.06
B
.23
C
.12
D
.39
Organizational
Variation due to
third variable
confounds and
statistical
artifacts?
Methodological
5
Basic research question (Continued)
Organizational choices -> a high degree of control over
methodological issues -> adequate progression of research.
Our relatively centralized, goal-oriented approach to the
organization of these studies contrasts with a decentralized
one (we have tongue-in-cheek labeled these as the “NATO”
and the “UN” approach, respectively).
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
United
Nations
6
Organizational Issues in CC/CN Research (Continued)
Selection of Researchers.
Based on our experience with CISMS 1, we decided to classify the
participating researchers in CISMS 2 in two groups:
A core group of researchers who participated in the
choice of scales to be included in the survey, the design of the
study, and the formulation of broad research goals and objectives.
history of prior collaboration/trust
well-published in English-language journals
A group of research collaborators who handled primarily data
collection in a specific country, and who in several cases went on to
conduct within-country studies or smaller scale between-country
comparisons.
7
Organizational Issues in CC/CN Research (Continued)
Pre-study contract. All participating researchers agreed to a “contract” or
set of written rules that specified the obligations and rights of each
participant.
Most important: Rules regarding authorship.
*Each participating researcher agreed to run their manuscripts by
all the members of the core group, and to include their names as
co-authors in any resulting manuscripts after incorporating their
feedback into the manuscript.
*The order of authorship was determined according to effort and
contribution and, when these were similar in magnitude, by
alphabetical order.
8
Organizational Issues in CC/CN Research (Continued)
Leadership model. rules for participation and authorship made the study
relatively easy to manage.
Core group -> impetus for CISMS: They were instrumental in recruiting
other researchers.
All participating researchers were asked to send the data in electronic form
to the central team, but in some cases –especially during CISMS 1- they
sent the questionnaires and the data were entered by the central team.
Instructions regarding data entry were provided to all participating
researchers. When issues or questions about the data arose during data
entry, the central team contacted the specific researcher.
9
Organizational Issues in CC/CN Research (Continued)
The issues encountered ran the gamut…
*
A participating researcher from an Islamic country who, upon
learning that the study included data from Israel, decided to
withdraw from the study –she alleged her withdrawal was a matter
of personal security...
*
Endless exchanges and warnings for and against calling Taiwan a
“country”… the word “territory” came in handy…
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Methodological Issues in CC/CN Research
Focus on two types of confounds that may diminish the
researchers’ certainty regarding cultural effects:
1.
Carefully done translations may not necessarily result in
equivalent instruments, despite back-translation (Brislin, 1986).
2.
Valid conclusions about culture effects require samples that
present minimal differences beyond their differing cultures, but
there are numerous factors potentially confounded with culture:
task policies
welfare state
socialized medicine
emerging economy…
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Methodological Issues: Measurement Equivalence
Is measurement equivalence between translated
instruments possible?
Two schools of thought…
Nonequivalence is due to poor translation…
Nonequivalence is due to the Sapir-Whorf or Whorfian
hypothesis (Werner & Campbell, 1970) -> language is
thought to filter the evaluative, connotative, and affective
meaning of scale items, thereby preventing comparisons
between linguistically different groups.
12
Video-clip:
The German Coast Guard
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vBn2_ia8zM
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Methodological Issues: Back-translation
Translating the measure to the target language first, independently translating it
back to the source language, and comparing the two versions to ascertain
linguistic problems in the translation (Brislin, 1986).
Nevertheless,
back-translations do not necessarily guarantee measurement
equivalence. Back-translators share knowledge that may lead them to consider terms
as if they were synonyms whereas respondents do not see them that way (e.g.,
“simpático” in Spanish and “friendly” in English may not always mean the same thing, but
translators may see them that way due to their learned semantic connection between the
two languages).
back-translations may retain the grammar and idiomatic expressions of the
source language, which may be easy to back-translate but may not have the
same meaning to monolinguals in the target language. For example, an
item developed for a Chinese scale (i.e., “one should not be afraid of the change of
heavens”), which measured beliefs of control in China was successfully back-translated
from English to Chinese, but it obviously lacks unambiguous meaning for English-speaking
monolinguals (Siu & Cooper, 1998).
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Methodological Issues: Back-translation (Continued)
Differences in item calibration: an individual who agrees with the
item, "I am sometimes tense at work", will not necessarily endorse a more
extremely worded item like "I sometimes find myself in panic at work." The
reason is that, even though both items reflect anxiety, they symbolize different
degrees of the anxiety construct.
1.
Culture may enhance this effect: A participant from India, for
example, might not see an item as representing the exact same degree of the
construct than an Australian counterpart.
2.
If we cross languages, the problem becomes worse.
Consider an item that reads "I love my job." A linguistically correct Spanish
translation of this item will be "Yo amo mi trabajo." However, the verb "amar"
(to love) in Spanish is usually confined to people, and it is seldom or never
used to refer to things or social constructs like a job.
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Methodological Issues: Back-translation (Continued)
Anchor equivalence: finding equivalent anchors for the extreme
easy, but finding equivalent anchors for
the mid-points can be tricky.
points of the scale is relatively
For instance, a suitable Spanish translation of “very much agree” would be
“muy de acuerdo,” but translating the mid-anchor “agree slightly” is not
straightforward because the exact degree conveyed by the word “slightly”
does not have an unequivocal synonym in Spanish…
Example:
Consider what it means to be “slightly late” in different cultures...
16
Methodological Issues: Back-translation (Continued)
Back-translation is an “art,” not a science:
Inattention to measurement criteria pervades back-translation procedures.
There are no clear guidelines for deciding when is a back-translated scale
sufficiently close to the original version, as this decision is usually left to the
translators’ professional judgment.
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Methodological Issues: Scale reliability
Reliability:
Consider the mean alpha reliability coefficient across 26 scales related
to work stress was:
.70
UK
.75
US
.69
Spain
 Similar level of reliability than the original English scales employed in the U.K. and
the U.S.
A LISREL comparison of the var-cov structures of Spector’s (1988) Work Locus of
Control Scale between the U.K. and Spanish samples suggested that inter-item
relationships differed between the two countries:
In Spain, the item “if you know what you want out of a job, you can find a job that gives it to
you” had practically null correlations with most of the other scale items (median r = .10).
In the U.K. this item had generally larger and statistically significant correlations with other
items in the scale (median r = .23). This differential item functioning should not be surprising
to anyone familiar with the relatively high levels of unemployment in Spain.
 An apparently adequate level of reliability does not necessarily constitute a sign
of the equivalence between the original and the translated instrument.
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Methodological Issues: Construct equivalence
A given construct might manifest itself differently across
countries/cultures, so that different items would be needed to capture its unique
cultural nuances (Lonner, 1990).
Construct equivalence has received far less attention that measurement
equivalence, but it is probably a more important issue…
Example: Stress Research
direct disagreements among employees might be more likely to be perceived as
interpersonal conflict among Chinese for whom group harmony is an important value than
among Americans who are less sensitive to direct confrontation.
in an analysis of stressful work incidents, Americans were more likely to have direct
conflicts with others, whereas Chinese were more likely to have indirect.
When asked to describe a stressful incident at work, Americans but not Indians reported
instances of lack of control and work overload, whereas Indians but not Americans reported
instances of lack of structure and equipment/situational constraints (Narayanan, Menon &
Spector, 1999). The most often noted stressor for Americans and Indians was opposite—too
little control for one and too little direction for the other.
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Methodological Issues: Response Biases
Culture/national differences in response biases or tendencies (Triandis,
1994b; van de Vijver & Leung, 1997) –e.g., people from some countries
preferring extreme responses and others avoiding them.
These tendencies might be more complex than previously thought:
Compared to Americans, Japanese avoided reporting extreme positive
feelings, but not extreme negative ones (Iwata, Umesue, Egashira,
Hiro, Mizoue, Mishima, and Nagata, 1998).
Differences in response tendencies are NOT equivalent across all scales
or even all items within a scale (Iwata et al., 1998).
Finally, we cannot be certain that a given difference can be attibutable
to response tendencies just because one group usually scores higher or
lower than others. Did the Japanese in the Iwata et al. (1998) study avoid
extreme positive reports because of cultural modesty tendencies, or because
they experienced less positive affect than Americans?
20
Research designs that analyze/control language effects
Because back-translation does not guarantee the absence of language effects on
cross-cultural comparisons, research designs have been employed to control or
analyze for them...
(1)between-participant comparisons across languages that hold culture constant,
such as for example comparing the English and French versions of a measure using
samples from the same nation (e.g., Canadians) (Candell & Hulin, 1987),
(2)between-participant comparisons across cultures holding language constant, such
as, for instance, comparing U.S. versus Australian samples (Ryan, Chan, Ployhart, &
Slade, 1999),
(3)Use bilinguals in within-participant comparisons of responses in different
languages (Hulin, Drasgow, & Komocar, 1982; Katerberg, Hoy, & Smith, 1977;
Rybowiak, Garst, Frese, & Batinic, 1999).
21
Research designs that analyze/control language effects (Continued)
Each one of these approaches has limitations…
(1)between-participant comparisons across languages that attempt to hold
culture constant may not succeed due to self-selection. Take for instance the
case of a sample of 1,931 Canadians enlisted in the Canadian Armed Forces used by
Candell and Hulin (1987). The 235 French-Canadians who responded in English might
have been more acculturated to the patterns of English-speaking Canada than those
who chose the French version and, therefore, culture was in part confounded with
language in comparing these two groups of French Canadians.
(2)between-participant comparisons across cultures that hold language
constant (e.g., Australia vs. U.S.; Brazil vs. Portugal) are still influenced by
sample differences in third variables that are often confounded with nation.
For instance, a public notary typically enjoys a much higher social status in Europe than
in the U.S., and therefore comparing public notaries across countries may yield
differences associated with third variable effects rather than with culture. We further
elaborate on this issue on the section entitled “Sample Equivalence Between Cultures”
included later in this chapter.
(3)Use bilinguals in within-participant comparisons: multilinguals may differ
from monolinguals both culturally and linguistically.
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Use bilinguals in within-participant comparisons
Bilingualism vs. Biculturalism of Translators.
Although translators may be linguistically competent, their ability to ascertain
cultural nuances in the manifestation of stress across cultures may be limited.
Translators should be carefully selected according to not only their linguistic
competence, but also the extent to which they are truly “bicultural” individuals
familiar with the subtleties inherent in the ways in which individuals in the two
cultures express their attitudes and emotions.
A linguistically imperfect translation may provide better psychological equivalence
than a linguistically perfect one. Example:
The Spanish term “de pronto,” whose linguistically correct English translation will be “all of a
sudden,” is often used in some Latin American countries located in the Andean cordillera to
mean “perhaps” or “maybe.” A linguistically competent Spanish-English translator may fail
to realize this colloquial usage of the term, hence rendering a technically correct but nonequivalent translation of an item including this term.
23
Use bilinguals in within-participant comparisons (Continued)
Check for cultural accommodation or “Whorfian” responding (Bond & Yang,
1982) -> does the same bilingual respondent give different answers to
the two versions of the same measure?
Consider order effects in the presentation of the two versions of the
same measure. Consider counterbalancing and/or analyzing order
of language administration.
Considering controlling (or better yet measuring) language
proficiency amongst bilinguals.
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Multi-Cultural Scale Development Procedures
Even if the items are successfully translated linguistically, there exists
the possibility that the individual items don’t do a good job of reflecting
the construct universally –ethnocentric scale development.
A procedure to help eliminate this problem is to enlist researchers in
multiple countries to have input into scale development from the
beginning.
25
Multi-Cultural Scale Development Procedures (Continued)
The team goes through a multi-stage procedure for scale
development that is more complex than the typical process
(Spector, Sanchez, Siu, Salgado, & Ma, 2004):
(1)a clear definition of the construct of interest is discussed and written so everyone
has a similar understanding of what the items should reflect.
(2)each team member independently writes a set of scale items.
(3)the items are mixed up and compiled into a questionnaire that is administered to a
sample of subjects. This can be done in multiple countries. Item and factor analysis
are applied to select the final items.
(4)validation studies should be conducted in multiple countries, although it should be
kept in mind that relationships between the construct of interest and other constructs
might vary across culturally dissimilar countries.
26
Sample Equivalence Between Cultures
One problem in much cross-cultural stress research is the availability
of equivalent participant samples:
We often compare individuals who vary, not only in country, but in demographics such
as occupation, income (relative to society) and status. Even within the same
occupation, differences in work conditions can masquerade as cultural differences.
Suppose we compare physicians in the U.S. versus those in a country with socialized
medicine. If we find the Americans are more highly stressed, should we conclude that
the U.S. is a more stress-producing culture?
Clearly, with so many potential third-variable effects, we need to be
extremely careful to match subjects on as many relevant variables as
possible, so that we are able to attribute differences to culture.
27
Sample Equivalence Between Cultures (Continued)
However, matching participants in all potential third-variables so
that one ends up with comparable samples across countries is farfetched because of wide variation across cultures. For researchers
who study employed populations, economic and social factors can
make it difficult to identify equivalent samples. Example:
In contrast to North America, there are countries where large private corporations
are rare. In other countries, state-managed enterprises dominate the economic
landscape and, therefore, even matching for industry sector will not rid
comparisons of selection bias, because organizations in the same sector (e.g., oil
production and distribution) will still differ in meaningful ways like whether they are
private or state-run enterprises. Even those who study college students might find
differences across countries. In the U.S. a far greater proportion of the general
population attends college than in countries where college attendance tends to be
limited to the upper echelons of society.
->Thus, statistically controlling for factors representing rival
explanations seems necessary even in the best of matched
samples.
28
Sample Equivalence Between Cultures (Continued)
One should try to match on variables likely to cause confounded
results.
Because matching is often unfeasible ->gather as much information as
possible about the samples; this info can be used later on as controls.
We should carefully examine economic (e.g., relative standard of
living, economic system, and tax structure), political, and social
factors. For research conducted in organizations, data on industry
sector, organizational structure, and power structure should be
collected. Example:
Have samples of American physicians from different settings, such as private practice
versus public health facilities. If the Americans, regardless of setting, score higher on the
stressor measures than the Chinese, one gains confidence that results might be due to
culture. As one compares more and more occupations and continues to find the same
results, one begins to establish a pattern of cultural differences.
29
Sample Equivalence Between Cultures (Continued)
In choosing control variables, researchers should be careful about
operationalizing such measures in terms of subjective appraisals.
Example 1: A majority of measures of social support rely on subjective appraisals
of received support (Viswesvaran, Sanchez, & Fisher, 1999). Reports of social support
are influenced by the extent to which societies are collectivistic vs. individualistic
(Triandis, 1994) and, therefore, matching samples on the extent to which individuals
feel that they had support from supervisors, co-workers, or even family members
ignores variations on what various cultures would consider an
adequate level of support.
Example 2: Appraisals of perceived workload are likely to differ as a function of
culture:
No. of work hrs.
Perceived workload
culture
30
Conclusion
Globalization will continue to make cross-cultural
comparisons more important than ever…
… and yet total measurement equivalence between
instruments employed in cross-cultural comparisons may
not be possible (Byrne & Watkins, 2003).
Research procedures and measurement tools that
minimize measurement and sampling error in
cross-cultural comparisons are needed to increase our
understanding of cultural nuances, which should
increase the cross-cultural generalizability of our
theories.
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Thank you!
Contact info:
Juan I. Sanchez, Ph.D.
Professor and Knight-Ridder Byron Harless Eminent Chair in Management
Department of Management and International Business
Florida International University
University Park
Miami, FL 33199
(305) 348-3307
[email protected]
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