Justice is always violent to the party
offending, for every man is innocent in
his own eyes.
---- Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe & his
Robinson Crusoe
• Daniel Defoe(the author’s pen name )
(c.1659(1661) – 24 April 1731) Daniel
Foe (his original name)
• an English writer, journalist, and
pamphleteer [pæmfli‘tiə] n. 小册子作者、
檄文执笔者who gained enduring fame for
his novel Robinson Crusoe.
• Defoe is notable for being one of the
earliest proponents [prəpəunənt]n.支持者,
拥护者of the novel, as he helped to
popularize the form in Britain, and is even
referred to by some as one of the
founders of the English novel.
• A prolific[prəlifik]a.多产的;多子嗣的
and versatile writer, he wrote more
than five hundred books,
pamphlets [pæmflit]n.小册子, and
journals on various topics (including
politics, crime, religion, marriage,
psychology and the supernatural).
• He was also a pioneer of economic
Early life
• Daniel Foe was probably born in the parish 教区
of St. Giles Cripplegate London. (Daniel later
added the aristocratic sounding "De" to his name
and on occasion claimed descent from the family
of De Beau Faux.) Both the date and the place
of his birth are uncertain with sources often
giving dates of 1659 to 1661. In Daniel's early
life he experienced first-hand some of the most
unusual occurrences in English history: in 1665,
70,000 were killed by the plague瘟疫 .
Interior of
St. Giles
• Cripplegate was a city gate in London Wall and
a name for the region of the City of London
outside the gate. It was almost entirely
destroyed by bombing in World War II and today
is the site of the Barbican Estate and Barbican
Centre(英国伦敦的巴比肯艺术中心) . The
name is preserved in the church of St Giles
Cripplegate, and in the Cripplegate ward of the
City, while a street named Cripplegate lies
slightly to the north of the site of the wall.
• On top of all these catastrophes,
the Great Fire of London (1666)
hit Defoe's neighbourhood hard,
leaving only his and two other
homes standing in the area. In
1667, when Defoe was probably
about seven years old, a Dutch
fleet sailed up the River Thames
and attacked London.
Great Fire of London
• All of this happened before Defoe
was around seven years old, and by
the age of about thirteen, Defoe's
mother had died. Defoe was
educated in a Dissenting Academy at
Newington Green run by Charles
Morton (later vice-president of
Harvard University), and is believed
to have attended the church there.
Dissenting Academy
• English Dissenters [dɪsɛntɚ]持异议者;持不同意见
者 were English Christians who separated
from the Church of England They opposed
State interference in religious matters, and
founded their own communities in the 16th,
17th and 18th centuries.
Newington Green
• Newington Green is an open space in
Islington伦敦伊斯林顿 , London that gives its
name to the surrounding area. The
Newington Green area is roughly bounded
by Ball's Pond Road to the south,
Petherton Road to the west, the line Green
Lanes-Mathias Road to the north, and
Boleyn Road to the east. Newington
Green is covered by the N16 postcode
Newington Green
Harvard University
• Although Defoe was a Christian himself,
he decided not to become a dissenting
minister, and entered the world of
business as a general merchant, dealing
at different times in hosiery ['həuʒəri] ,
general woollen goods, and wine. Though
his ambitions were great and he bought
both a country estate and a ship (as well
as civet cats 灵猫to make perfume), he
was rarely free of debt.
civet cats
• In 1684, Defoe married a woman by the
name of Mary Tuffley, receiving a dowry
[daʊri]嫁妆 of £3,700. With his recurring经
常的, 续生的, 再发生的 debts, their
marriage was most likely a difficult one.
They had eight children, six of whom
survived. In 1685, he joined the ill-fated
Monmouth Rebellion, but gained a pardon
by which he escaped the Bloody Assizes
of Judge George Jeffreys.
George Jeffreys
• In 1692, Defoe was arrested for
payments of £700 (and his civets
were seized), though his total debts
may have amounted to £17,000. His
laments [ləmɛnt] 挽歌 were loud, and
he always defended unfortunate
debtors, but there is evidence that his
financial dealings were not always
• Following his release, he probably traveled in
Europe and Scotland and it may have been at
this time that he traded in wine to Cadiz 加的斯 ,
Porto 波尔图(葡萄牙港市) , and Lisbon里斯本
(葡萄牙首都) .
• By 1695 he was back in England, using the
name "Defoe", and serving as a "commissioner
of the glass duty", responsible for collecting the
tax on bottles. In 1696, he was operating a tile
and brick factory in what is now Tilbury蒂尔伯里 ,
Essex 艾塞克斯(英国英格兰东南部的郡) and
living in the parish of Chadwell St Mary 查德韦尔
圣玛丽 .
Pamphleteering and prison
• Defoe's first notable publication was An
Essay upon Projects, a series of proposals
for social and economic improvement,
published in 1697. From 1697 to 1698, he
defended the right of King William III to a
standing army during disarmament解除武
装;裁军 after the Treaty of Ryswick (1697)
had ended the Nine Years' War (1688–97).
His most successful poem, (1697),
defended the king against the perceived
xenophobia of his enemies, satirizing the
English claim to racial purity.
• In 1701, Defoe, flanked 侧面有 by a guard
of sixteen gentlemen of quality, presented
the Legion's Memorial to the Speaker of
the House of Commons, later his employer,
Robert Harley. It demanded the release of
the Kentish petitioners, who had asked
Parliament to support the king in an
imminent war against France.
• Defoe‘s pamphleteering [pæmflɪtɪr]写小册
子 and political activities resulted in his
arrest and placement in a pillory [pɪləri]颈
手枷 on July 31, 1703, principally on
account of a pamphlet entitled ; Or,
Proposals for the Establishment of the
Church, purporting to argue for their
extermination消灭 . In it he ruthlessly
[ruθlɪslɪ]无情地;冷酷地;残忍地 satirised
[sætəraɪz] 嘲讽 both the High church 高教
会派 Tories托利派 and those Dissenters 持
不同政见者who hypocritically practiced socalled "occasional conformity", such as his
Stoke Newington斯托克纽英顿 neighbour
Sir Thomas Abney.
Daniel Defoe in the pillory, 1862 line engraving by James Charles Armytage after Eyre
• However, according to legend, the
publication of his poem Hymn to the
Pillory caused his audience at the pillory
to throw flowers instead of the customary
harmful and noxious [nɑkʃəs]有毒的
objects, and to drink to his health. The
historicity of this story, however, is
questioned by most scholars, although
the scholar J. R. Moore later said that “no
man in England but Defoe ever stood in
the pillory and later rose to eminence卓越;
著名 among his fellow men.”Thomas
Cochrane, the 10th Earl of Dundonald
and famous Royal Navy officer, was
sentenced to the pillory, but was excused
for fear his popularity would cause a riot.
Later life and works
• The extent and particulars of Defoe's
writing in the period from the Tory (英
国保守党 ) fall in 1714 to the
publication of Robinson Crusoe in
1719 is widely contested(提出异议) .
Defoe comments on the tendency to
attribute author-less tracts to him in
his self-vindicatory ([vɪndɪkətɔri, tori] 惩罚的,报复的 )
•From 1719 to 1724, Defoe published the
novels for which he is now famous (see below).
In the final decade of his life, he also wrote
conduct manuals, including Religious
Courtship (1722), The Complete English
Tradesman (1726), and The New Family
Instructor (1727). He published a number of
books decrying the breakdown of the social
order, such as The Great Law of Subordination
Considered (1724) and Everybody's Business
is Nobody's Business (1725), and works on the
supernatural, like The Political History of the
Devil (1726), A System of Magick (1726), and
An Essay on the History and Reality of
Apparitions (1727).
• His works on foreign travel and trade
include A General History of
Discoveries and Improvements (1727)
and Atlas Maritimus and
Commercialis (1728). Perhaps his
greatest achievement alongside the
novels is the magisterial A tour thro'
the Whole Island of Great Britain
(1724–27), which provided a
panoramic survey of British trade on
the eve of the Industrial Revolution.
• Daniel Defoe died on April
24, 1731, probably while in
hiding from his creditors.
He was interred in Bunhill
Fields, London, where his
grave can still be visited.
• Defoe is known to have
used at least 198 separate
pen names during his
lifetime of writing.
Memorial to
"Daniel De-Foe",
Bunhill Fields,
City Road,
List of novels by Daniel Defoe
• 1719 Robinson Crusoe《鲁滨逊漂流记》
• 1720 Captain Singleton 《辛格尔顿船长》
• The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe《鲁滨逊漂
• 1720 Memoirs of a Cavalier《骑士回忆录》
• 1720 Duncan campell 《邓肯坎贝尔》
• 1722 A Journal of the Plague Year《大疫年纪事》
• 1722 Moll Flanders《摩尔·费兰德斯》
• 1722 Colonel Jack 《杰克上校》
• 1724 Roxana:The Fortunate Mistress《罗克萨娜》
• The Family Instructor《家教》
(They clearly manifest Defoe's deep concern for the poor in his society.
They are the first literary works devoted to the study of the problems of the
lower-class people.)
Robinson Crusoe
—— the greatest work of Daniel Defoe
The Brief Introduction:
The novel Robinson
Crusoe was composed
when Daniel Defoe was
nearly 60 years old, which
was first published on April
25, 1719. It is sometimes
considered to be the first
novel in English.
Robinson Crusoe is a fictional autobiography of the title
character—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote
tropical island near Venezuela, encountering Native
Americans, captives, and mutineers before being rescued.
The story was likely influenced by the real life Alexander
Selkirk, a Scottish castaway who lived four years on the
Pacific island called "Más a Tierra" (in 1966 its name was
changed to Robinson Crusoe Island), Chile. However, the
details of Crusoe's island were probably based on the
Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short
distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the
Orinoco river, and in sight of the island of Trinidad.
The Brief Introduction
• The book is an expression of the bourgeois
qualities of individualism and private enterprise.
Robinson is a new man - a man sure of himself
and sure of being able to establish himself
anywhere in the world. He is a man of a new age,
in which doubt and uncertainty are replaced by
hope and confidence. Robinson is the
enterpriser of his age. He is ready to command
nature, his enemy, and to found his colony
beyond the seas. He is a merchant-adventurer,
interested in material profits. He is a colonist, the
empire builder.
The Writing Background
The novel is based on a true story a
Scotsman, Alexander Selkirk, is a
fictional autobiography of the title
character, a castaway(漂流者) who
spends 28 years on a remote tropica
island near Venezuela(委内瑞拉),
encountering Native Americans,
captives, and mutineers before being
This device, presenting an account o
supposedly factual events, is known
as a "false document" and gives a
realistic frame story.
Book on Alexander Selkirk
A false document is a literary technique employed to create
verisimilitude in a work of fiction. By inventing and inserting
documents that appear to be factual, an author tries to create a
sense of authenticity beyond the normal and expected
suspension of disbelief for a work of art. The goal of a false
document is to fool an audience into thinking that what is being
presented is actually a fact
A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc.)
employs a narrative technique whereby an introductory main
story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of setting
the stage for a fictive narrative or organizing a set of shorter
stories, each of which is a story within a story. The frame story
leads readers from the first story into the smaller one within it.
The Summary of the Story
• The thought of adventures upon the high
sea sprung out in Robinson’s mind
Robinson Crusoe was born in 1632 in the city of
York, England. His father, a German immigrant,
married a woman whose name was Robinson, and
his real name was Robinson Kreutznaer, but due to
the natural corruption of languages, the family now
writes their name "Crusoe." He was the third son;
his oldest brother was killed in a war, and the next
son simply disappeared.
When Robinson Crusoe first had an urge to
go to sea, his father lectured him upon the
importance of staying home and being
content with his "middle station" in life. His
father maintained that the "middle station
had the fewest disasters and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind." After his
father expressly forbade him to go to sea,
and, furthermore, promised to do good
things for him if he stayed home, for
another whole year, Robinson Crusoe
stayed at home, but he constantly thought
of adventures upon the high sea.
The Summary of the Story
• The vicissitude of the expedition on
their way
After a tumultuous journey that sees his ship
wrecked by a vicious storm, his lust for the sea
remains so strong that he sets out to sea again. This
journey too ends in disaster as the ship is taken over
by Salé pirates, and Crusoe becomes the slave of a
Moor(摩尔人). He manages to escape with a boat
and a boy named Xury; later, Crusoe is befriended by
the Captain of a Portuguese ship off the western
coast of Africa. The ship is en route(在途中) to
Brazil. There, with the help of the captain, Crusoe
becomes owner of a plantation.
Years later, he joins an expedition to bring
slaves from Africa, but is shipwrecked in a
storm about forty miles out to sea on an
island (which he calls the Island of Despair)
near the mouth of the Orinoco river on
September 30, 1659. His companions all
die. Having overcome his despair, he
fetches arms, tools, and other supplies
from the ship before it breaks apart and
The Summary of the Story
• The tough life on the island
He proceeds to build a fenced-in(有栅栏
的) habitation near a cave which he
excavates himself. He seeks to survive by
growing corn and rice , drying grapes to
make raisins for the winter months,
learning to make pottery, using tools
created from stone and wood which he
harvests on the island and adopting a
small parrot.
Years later, he discovers native cannibals(食
人者) who occasionally visit the island to
kill and eat prisoners. He dreams of
obtaining one or two servants by freeing
some prisoners; and indeed, when a
prisoner manages to escape, Crusoe
helps him, naming his new companion
"Friday" after the day of the week he
appeared. Crusoe then teaches him
English and converts him to Christianity.
After another party of natives arrives to
partake in a cannibal feast, Crusoe and
Friday manage to kill most of the natives
and save two of the prisoners. One is
Friday‘s father and the other is a Spaniard,
who informs Crusoe that there are other
Spaniards(西班牙人) shipwrecked on
the mainland. A plan is devised wherein
the Spaniard would return with Friday's
father to the mainland and bring back the
others, build a ship, and sail to a Spanish
Plaque(牌匾)in Queen’s Gardens, Hullthe former Queen’s Dock from which
Crusoe sailed- showing him on his
Crusoe standing over Friday after
he frees him from cannibals(食人
The reasons for cannibalism:
• As sanctioned by a cultural norm
• By necessity in extreme situations
of famine
• Caused by insanity or social
The Summary of the Story
• Back to England and go through the last
Before the Spaniards return, an English ship appears;
mutineers have taken control of the ship and intend to
maroon their former captain on the island. Crusoe and
the ship‘s captain strike a deal, in which he helps the
captain and the loyalist sailors retake(夺回) the ship
from the mutineers, whereupon they intend to leave the
worst of the mutineers on the island. Before they leave
for England, Crusoe shows the former mutineers how he
lived on the island, and states that there will be more
men coming.
Crusoe leaves the island December 19th,
1686, and arrives back in England June
11th, 1687. He learns that his family
believed him dead and there was nothing
in his father’s will for him. Crusoe then
departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of
his estate in Brazil, which has granted him
a large amount of wealth. In conclusion,
he takes his wealth over land to England
to avoid traveling at sea. Friday comes
with him and along the way they endure
one last adventure together as they fight
off hundreds of famished wolves while
crossing the Pyrenees(比利牛斯山脉).
Pyrenees 比利牛斯山脉
Significance Of The Story
Robinson Crusoe is a real hero.
He almost has everything needed
for becoming a successful man,
such as his excellent creativity,
great working capacity, courage,
and persistence in overcoming
 However, Robinson Crusoe is
not a perfect man. He also has
shortcomings. He was such a
coward when he encountered a
storm the first time. He swore and
repented忏悔 yet ate his words
and sailed on after the storm.
By showing Robinson’s
shortcomings, Daniel Defoe made
Robinson a real person. After all, no
one is perfect. Robinson Crusoe
can not only lead the ambitious
ones to success, but also guide
average people to face up to life.
This is the significance of the study
of Robinson Crusoe.
• Robinson Crusoe
• Friday
• Xury
• The Portuguese
• Robinson, the chief actor of Defoe's novel, is a
headstrong固执 young man. In 1652, against the will
of his parents, Robinson begins a life of sea-faring
adventure. his resourcefulness足智多谋 in building a
home, dairy, grape arbor凉亭, country house, and
goat stable from practically nothing is clearly
• admirable qualities:resourceful,capable,
• Though he is generous toward people, as when
he gives gifts to his sisters and the captain,
Crusoe reveals very little tender or sincere
affection in his dealings with them. When Crusoe
tells us that he has gotten married and that his
wife has died all within the same sentence, his
indifference to her seems almost cruel. Crusoe is
very interested in possessions, power, and
• 鲁滨孙又是个资产者和殖民者,因此具有剥削掠
• Probably the first nonwhite character
to be given a realistic, individualized,
and humane portrayal in the English
novel, Friday has a huge literary and
cultural importance. At the moment
when Crusoe teaches Friday to call
him “Master” ,Friday becomes an
enduring political symbol of racial
injustice in a modern world critical of
imperialist expansion.
• He is honest, informing Crusoe of the money he
has borrowed against Crusoe’s investments, and
repaying a part of it immediately even though it is
financially difficult for him to do so. He is loyal,
honoring his duties toward Crusoe even after
twenty-eight years. Finally, he is extremely
generous, paying Crusoe more than market
value for the animal skins and slave boy after
picking Crusoe up at sea, and giving Crusoe
handsome gifts when leaving Brazil.
Six Aspects of Robinson Crusoe
• Novelist James Joyce noted that the true
symbol of the British conquest is Robinson
Crusoe: "He is the true prototype of the
British colonist. … The whole Anglo-Saxon
spirit is in Crusoe: the manly
independence, the unconscious cruelty,
the persistence, the slow yet efficient
intelligence, the sexual apathy, the
calculating taciturnity."
In a sense Crusoe attempts to replicate his
own society on the island. This is achieved
through the application of European
technology, agriculture, and even a
rudimentary political hierarchy. Several
times in the novel Crusoe refers to himself
as the 'king' of the island, whilst the
captain describes him as the 'governor' to
the mutineers. At the very end of the novel
the island is explicitly referred to as a
The idealized master-servant relationship
Defoe depicts between Crusoe and Friday
can also be seen in terms of cultural
imperialism. Crusoe represents the
'enlightened' European whilst Friday is the
'savage' who can only be redeemed from
his supposedly barbarous way of life
through assimilation into Crusoe's culture.
Nevertheless, within the novel Defoe also
takes the opportunity to criticize the
historic Spanish conquest of South
• According to J.P. Hunter, Robinson is not a
hero, but an everyman. He begins as a
wanderer, aimless on a sea he does not
understand, and ends as a pilgrim,
crossing a final mountain to enter the
promised land. The book tells the story of
how Robinson becomes closer to God, not
through listening to sermons in a church
but through spending time alone amongst
nature with only a Bible to read.
• Robinson Crusoe is filled with religious
aspects. Defoe was himself a Puritan
moralist, and normally worked in the guide
tradition, writing books on how to be a
good Puritan Christian, such as The New
Family Instructor (1728) and Religious
Courtship (1732). While Robinson Crusoe
is far more than a guide, it shares many of
the same themes and theological and
moral points of view.
• A central concern of Defoe's in the novel is
the Christian notion of Providence. Crusoe
often feels himself guided by a divinely
ordained fate, thus explaining his robust
optimism in the face of apparent
hopelessness. His various fortunate
intuitions are taken as evidence of a benign
spirit world. Defoe also foregrounds this
theme by arranging highly significant events
in the novel to occur on Crusoe's birthday.
• When confronted with the cannibals, Crusoe
wrestles with the problem of cultural relativism.
Despite his disgust, he feels unjustified in
holding the natives morally responsible for a
practice so deeply ingrained in their culture.
Nevertheless he retains his belief in an absolute
standard of morality; he regards cannibalism as
a 'national crime' and forbids Friday from
practising it. Modern readers may also note that
despite Crusoe's apparently superior morality, in
common with the culture of his day, he
uncritically accepts the institution of slavery.
• In classical and neoclassical economics,
Crusoe is regularly used to illustrate the
theory of production and choice in the
absence of trade, money and
prices.Crusoe must allocate effort between
production and leisure, and must choose
between alternative production
possibilities to meet his needs. The arrival
of Friday is then used to illustrate the
possibility of, and gains from, trade.
• The classical treatment of the Crusoe economy
has been discussed and criticised from a variety of
perspectives. Karl Marx made an analysis of
Crusoe, while also mocking the heavy use in
classical economics of the fictional story, in his
classic work Capital. In Marxist terms, Crusoe's
experiences on the island represents the inherent
economic value of labour over capital. Crusoe
frequently observes that the money he salvaged
from the ship is worthless on the island, especially
when compared to his tools.
• For the literary critic Angus Ross, Defoe's
point is that money has no intrinsic value
and is only valuable insofar as it can be
used in trade. There is also a notable
correlation between Crusoe's spiritual and
financial development as the novel
progres ses, possibly signifying Defoe's
belief in the Protestant work ethic.
• The Crusoe model has also been
assessed from the perspectives of
feminism and Austrian economics.
Literature :The success of the book
spawned many imitators, and
castaway novels became quite
popular in Europe in the 18th and
early 19th centuries. Most of these
have fallen into obscurity, but some
became established in their own right,
including The Swiss Family Robinson.
• Stage and film : Jacques Offenbach
wrote an opéra comique called Robinson
Crusoé which was first performed at the
Opéra-Comique ,Salle Favart on 23
November 1867. This was based on the
British pantomime version rather than the
novel itself. The libretto was by Eugène
Cormon and Hector-Jonathan Crémieux.
The opera includes a duet by Robinson
Crusoe and Friday.
Dances With Wolves
• Despite its complicated narrative
style and the absence of the
supposedly indispensable love
motive, it was received well in the
literary world. The book is
considered one of the most widely
published books in history (behind
some of the sacred texts).It has
been a hit since the day it was
published, and continues to be
highly regarded to this day.
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