A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to
Culture and Cognition
從動態建構理論看文化與認知
0327.學科所101002509.楊立婕
研究動機與目的
Implications
雙文化者與框架
轉換 Frame
Switching
Extending the
Dynamic
Constructivist
Approach
A Dynamic
Constructivist
Analysis
3 Cultural Priming
Studies & Q
Conclusion

動機:
跨文化的研究方法只比較個體/群體間的不同
 Too general:IND vs. COL; 認為文化對認知的
影響是維持恆定的


目的:
欲瞭解雙文化者的認知如何運作
 何時文化要素(cultural constructs)將影響行為


Bicultural people:兩種不同文化深植於心/內
化(internalized)至一定的程度的人
Internalized cultures are not blended
 a 2nd culture doesn’t always replaces the original
culture


Frame switching: occur in response to
cues(contexts, language)

Move back and forth “two souls, two thoughts, two
unreconciled strivings, two warring ideals" (DuBois,
1903/1989, p. 5).

前提:
culture is internalized in the form of a loose
network of domain-specific knowledge
structures,such as categories and implicit theories
 individuals can acquire more than one such
cultural meaning system, even if these systems
contain conflicting theories.
 為補足跨文化心理學,而非對立


How particular pieces of cultural knowledge become
operative in particular interpretive tasks?
易取性accessibility:依是否近期使用過而定
 可經Priming實驗而得


“the priming is presented to participants as part of
an unrelated experiment, and participants are not
aware of its influence in the interpretive task.”
研究假設:雙文化受試者將受某文化意涵
的圖像促發與此文化相對應的認知基模
 研究對象:

最初的研究:westernized HK undergraduate
students
 China-born Californian college student(immigrants)


Live at least 5 yrs in a CN society and in North America
before college
研究方法:
 隨機分配
 Priming: Icons
 Interpretive task:
interpretation of
social behavior


文化影響 e.g.基本
歸因謬誤

實驗一:

Priming: show 6 pictures of
Chinese/American icons+ short
questions about the pictures
Fish picture+12-point scale





the major reason why the fish was
swimming in front of other fish.
1:very confident that it is because
the one fish is leading the other
fish (an internal cause)
12 :very confident that it is
because the one fish is being
chased by the other fish (an
external cause)
Control group:幾何圖形與陰影問題
實驗二:
 Priming: show 5 pictures
of Chinese/American
icons+ 10 sentences
describe the pictures
 Fish picture+開放式回
答






實驗三:
受試者:234 HK Chinese high school students
Priming: : show 10 Chinese/American icons+ 10
sentences describe the pictures
a story +10-points scale:
 an overweight boy who was advised by a
physician not to eat food with high sugar
content. One day, he and his friends went to
a buffet dinner where a delicious-looking
cake was offered. Despite its high sugar
content, he ate it.
 個性/情境歸因:
 1 :has very little influence on his action
 10: has a lot of influence on his action
? Choi et al.‘s (1999) review that cultural
influences on attributions for an individual’s
behavior originate more from the differential
weight placed on the external social context
(when these factors are salient) than from the
differential weight placed on the actor‘s internal
dispositions=>內在歸因仍是文化差異?
? Choi et al.‘s (1999) review that cultural

influences on attributions for an individual’s
behavior originate more from the differential
weight placed on the external social context
(when these factors are salient) than from the
differential weight placed on the actor‘s
internal dispositions


挑戰廣泛而論的觀點: Cultural knowledge as a toolbox of discrete,
specific constructs
擁有特定文化觀點?易取性Accessibility? :


他們的猜測:the most important implicit theories about the social world
are possessed by people everywhere; the variance across cultural
groups probably lies in the relative accessibility of particular implicit
theories, not in whether the theories are possessed.
temporary accessibility vs. chronic accessibility:




T: frame switching
C: 取決於使用的頻率=>特定文化觀點是因長期壓制其它觀點而成
另一易取性的解釋 :how factors outside of the individual person--such
as institutions, discourse, or relationships-might prime cultural theories
and keep these theories prominent in the minds of culture members.
易取性可解釋因不同情境而出現不一致的文化觀點:

Cognitive closure=>快速降低模稜兩可的情況=>易取性方便Topdown

方法論-Priming的貢獻:





Refer:注意上篇
所提到的限制
e.g.文化意義
語言也是種priming:




使文化成為可操作實驗的
揭開文化知識的面紗
可看出文化的影響(因果關係)
補足跨文化比較的不足
可啟動文化基模
影響個性、價值觀、自我觀、情緒表達等
for bilingual individuals, the two languages are often associated
with two different cultural systems.
超越認知:

個人知識架構無法完全體現文化的影響力=>情緒、實際行為、
動機、判斷與抉擇

文化相互形塑:
互相對立的文化之間的影響(政治對立)
 關於特定文化內團體與政治意義的自覺過程
 使用priming引起認同?
 動態建構理論可使反方消除抗拒


文化涵化的過程:
how culture gets inside minds in the first place
 動態建構的觀點:a state, not a trait
 可用priming幫助/加速文化適應

瞭解個人如何整合多元文化觀點
 文化相關要素如何操作意義的建構
 瞭解與應變現今多元社會
 動態建構觀點:增加瞭解文化與跨文化的經
驗的可能性

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