The Puzzle of the Picts
Were the Picts of Finnish, Baltic, Basque, Turkish or
Arabic origin?
[email protected]
8th of Aug. 2013
Much of the text and many pictures are from Wikipedia
1
The ancient people
of Picts lived in the
Britain.
Britain & Ireland in the mid-late 400s CE.
Red: mainly Brythonic areas.
Green: mainly Goidelic areas.
Blue: mainly Pictish areas.
2
Pict (pikt) n. [LME. Pictes, pl. < LL. Picti (lit. ? painted
people), whence OE. Peohtas] any of ancient people
of Great Britain, driven into Scotland by the Britons
and Romans. (*
Pictish (pikt’ish) adj. of the Picts, their language, or
their culture –n. The language of the Picts: its
relationship is not established. (*
*) Webster’s New World Dictionary of the
American Language: Second College Edition.
William Collins + World Publishing Co., Inc.,
Cleveland 1976.
3
Are the Picts of Finnish (Estonian) origin, for
Tacitus says in his famous book ”Germania”:
”Thus already on the right shore of the Suebian Sea
(east shore of the Baltic sea) live the tribes of Eastivi
(Estonians), who are similar to Suebians in their manner
of living and appearance, but their language resembles
the language in Britain.” /1/ page 69.
/1/ Tacitus: Germania (in Latin AD 98), Finnish edition,
Otava, Keuruu (Finland) 1976.
4
End of Pictish Regime
• About 850 AD in a (civil) war, Scottish Kenneth MacAlpin
crashed the military power of the northern Pictish area
(coast and the islands) which was weakened by the new
military force, the Norwegians.
• The Vikings took over the city of York in 866 and called it
to ”Jorvik” and eventually took over the whole Britain.
5
THE "PICTI" NAME IN PTOLEMY'S DESCRIPTIONS
FROM THE ROMAN AGE
Andres Pääbo: UIRALA - PART
THREE. There has been a tradition
to assume that the name of the Picts,
originating from Roman "Picti" first
used in the early 3rd century AD, was
derived from a Latin word meaning
'painted', presumably from native
British painting their bodies for war.
• However all indications are that it was an indigenous word, not one
invented by Romans. The appearance of a people called Rhobogdi has
been mentioned. We will look at Ptolemy's naming more closely. The map
above shows the two locations of the names Rhobogdi and Epidi.
6
• One can arrive at Epidi by raising the vowels and abbreviating Rhobogdi. Such
names were collected in Roman times from sources who were usually not
natives, but officials working for the Romans and the distortions could have
been made by the official and not the natives themselves.
• Since the major occupation of the northern peoples was harvesting the sea,
one could suggest that the Picti word (Bogdi in the example), had something to
do with catching fish, etc. That inspires us to suggest the Estonian püükide 'of
the catches' may be some sort of parallel. (We bear in mind that Estonian has a
very strong sea-trader tradition and would qualify as being located on the coast
of "Scythia“ which the Venerable Bede claimed was the source of the Picts!)
• The Rho at the front, would be the RA found in Rhone, Rhine, etc. which
means 'way, path' and is often seen in the names of the earlier trade
waterways (Ptolemy named the Volga Rha) but more often it appeared as a
suffix: Lige-RA, Wese-RA, Od-RA, etc.
7
• There probably were two types of historic Picts. One type were seaharvesters and used skin boats made from walrus hides, lived nomadically on
outer shores and islands, and lived in semi buried circular rock shelters (like
igloos, but made of rock and covered with sod). They were of the oceanic
sea-hunter stock which had ultimately come from arctic Norwegian shores,
and perhaps remained tied to it.
• The other type of people associated with the term "Pict" in later history, were
long distance traders of the Veneti trade network, who made their stops at the
trader-Picts. Ptolemy's map even suggests these trader-Picts were
established beside the sea-hunter-Picts in order to be handy to each other. To
the west of the Rhobogdi were the Vennicni and on the east side near today's
Aberdeen were the Vennicones. Since the term VENNE, VENTA, etc were
associated with trading, they can be seen as the trader-Picts, with long
distance trade links to the east Baltic coast (the coast of "Scythia")
8
Venetic Language
Deciphered based on Estonian by Andres Pääbo
Andres Pääbo: The
Veneti Language:
“The Venetic inscriptions
have been found around
the plain at the head of
the Adriatic Sea “
“from the Po around to
Trieste, up the Adige,
Piave Rivers, and the
nearby Carnic Alps.”
“Adige (Atesis) and later
Piave (Piavis) were the
main Venetic trade
routes bringing trade
goods from both
Western Europe and the
Baltic Sea.”
9
Ideas of Andres Pääbo (or KL)
VENE (boat): Venetic – Fennic – (Russia – Wends - Venedi)
PYYTÄÄ (to catch): Picti – (finna/find - Finland)
SUOMAA (bog land): Suomi – (Svebia – Suebi - Suevi) - Semnones
SAMOILLA (to walk): Samojed – Saami people – Häme people
• In Estonian “samm” to step and “sammujad“ people who walk.
• In Finnish “samoilla” to walk long distances and
“samoilija” a person who walks long distances
10
Writings in Ogham
The Buckquoy spindle-whorl was once
thought to contain an indecipherable
non-Indo-European inscription. In fact
the inscription, written in 8th century
Orkney with Ogham, can now be
deciphered and was written in a
language identifiable with Old Irish.
The inscription is of a common
benedictive type, reading Benddact
anim L., "a blessing on the soul of
L".[9]
11
ettocuhetts ahehhttann hccvvevv
nehhtons
According to W. B. Lockwood (1975), the view that Pictish was a Celtic language is
tentative. Referring to an inscription in Shetland, he writes: "When the personal
names are extracted, the residue is entirely incomprehensible. Thus the Lunnasting
stone in Shetland reads ettocuhetts ahehhttann hccvvevv nehhtons. The last word is
clearly the commonly occurring name Nechton, but the rest, even allowing for the
perhaps arbitrary doubling of consonants in Ogam, appears so exotic that philologists
conclude that Pictish was a non-Indo-European language of unknown affinities".
Jackson considered that the language of the inscriptions was a different one from that
of the place-names. However, Forsyth has interpreted these inscriptions as a Celtic
language. Henri Guiter in 1968 concluded that the language was a form of Basque,
which might tie in with DNA studies of pre-historic migrations.
12
Using crude force to interpret, this could be in
Finnish (very naive guess): “Ettoset annethan
syvät Nechtons(ille)”
This is in English: Rest after eating (Ettoset) are
given (annethan) deep (syvät) to Nechton. Or as
my Australian Friend put it: ”A sound rest after
mealtime is granted to Nechton.”
13
Regent (2012) recovery
(John Bruce, i.a. expert in Babylonian Cuneiform)
”ettocuhetts ahehhttann hccvvevv nehhtons”
e tec uhet s:
ah e Chtann-n:
e tec uchet ais: ah e Chattanan:
The Holy House from here established:
His is Ardchattan:
h c Fef:
Nechton s
(Old Irish w. Pictish pronounciation)
Hi co Fef:
(Old Irish)
Nechton ais
Iona as far as Fife:
Nechton erected
(English translation)
14
John Bruce thinks he has deciphered all the Pictish
oghams with Old Irish.
E.g. the Bressay Stone from Orkney
CRROSCC: NAHHTVVDDADDS: DATTR: ANNBENNISES: MEQQDDRROANN
CRROS CC:
NAHHT VVDDADD S: DA TTR:
ANN BENN ISES:
MEQQ DDRROAN
(Ogham transcription)
cros c :
nacht fdad s:
da tr:
an ben Ises:
Meqq Dro'an
(Spoken Pictish)
cros co:
nacht fothad ais:
da tir:
an ben Ises:
Meqq Dro'an
(Old Irish)
Cross that:
purity erected standing:
Thy land: Glorious on high Jesus:
Son of Dro'an (English)
The translations were obtained with reference to eDil, the on-line dictionary of Old and Middle Irish.
15
John Bruce and
Brodie B:
RGINNGCHQODTOSOMBS
RGIN N
GCH
QO DT
O SOMBS
Transcribed ogham
rignn
pc-h
qo dth
o sombs
Pictish Spoken
Rigan na
goach co dath
o somblas
Old Irish
Queen of
the deceitful
with
un- pleasant
English
face
The “queen” may well be “Aine Dubh”, a pagan goddess.
16
The present interpretation of Ogham is not 100%
secure. – Could there be words of your language in the
texts?
Or in the Scottish place names? Jackson considered
that the language of the inscriptions was a different one
from that of the place-names.
17
Simplicity of English Grammar
Could the simplicity of Grammar of
nouns in English and Scandinavian
languages and French originate
from an older language which was
common to all of these. Could this
be the language of the Megalithic
culture, see the adjacent map *).
Could the language be Phoenician.
– Or was the reason simply
influences from many different
languages: Semitic, Basque,
Finnish, Celtic, Latin, Germanic; I
bet for this latter explanation.
Celtic
*) Norbert Strade: An Interdisciplinary Approach
to the Role of Uralic Hunters and Gatherers in the
Ethnohistory of the Early Germanic Area.
Historica Fenno-Ugriga, Turku 1997.
18
Originally Romans called Picts as
Caledonians
By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the
Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. There is no further historical mention
of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from
Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or
grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian".[3] This may be because Severus'
campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however
this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern
lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration
into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others"
(Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes
the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area /6/.
- It comes in mind that Severus indeed succeeded to destroy the cultivations
and the language of the Caledonians; only the hunter-gatherers (therefore
called as Picts) survived and started to use Old Irish, or maybe this was their
language already. However, some of the old culture was preserved even in the
southern Caledonia for the symbol stones of c. 670 – 870 AD depict animals
there when the stones in the northern Caledonia depict geometrical motifs /7/.
19
Old Scottish Tribe/Region Names
Interpreted as Finnish
TRIBE NAMES IN EAST-SOUTHERN CALEDONIA
- Vacomagi – ”Vakomäki” in Finnish or sola, cove in
English
- Taexali – ”Takana olevat”, in English people behind.
- Caledonii – ”Kalevalaiset”, People of Kaleva (as
Estonians call them selves).
- Or ”Kalliolaiset”, the People of rocky
mountains
- Brigantes – ”Bri-kanttiset” or ”Brittien vieressä olevat”,
or people near Britons.
- Maeatae – ”Mäen takaiset”, People behind the hill,
could this be the same as
Taexali?
- Selgovae – ”Selkäpuoliset”, People on the back side
or people of the middle land.
- Otadini – ”Otsan puoleiset” or ”Etummaiset” or
“Jyrkänteen ihmiset” or
“Karhuihmiset. People on the front side or
on the edge or people of the bear.
- Lugi – ”Luikkivat” or ”vaeltelevat”, People which
wanders
Peoples of Northern Britain
according to Ptolemy's map
20
TRIBE NAMES IN NORTH-WEST CALEDONIA
- Orcades – Means place of walrus /8/
- Cornovii – “People of the cornu (IE)”, the northern peninsula of Scotland.
- Caereni – ”Kairalaiset” so ”Metsäläiset”, the people of forest.
- Smertae – “Mertalaiset”, peole who use fish-traps.
- Carnonacai – .
- Decantai – .
- Creones – .
- Ebudae – “Pyytävät” or people who hunt/catch fish.
- Epidi – “Pyytävät” or people who hunt/catch fish, the Picts /2/.
- Damnonii – ”Patoihmiset”, the people with dams (IE).
- Novantae – ”Uudet ihmiset” or new people (novus, Latin).
IN ADDITION:
- Schiehallion - the "fairy hill of the Caledonians” could come from Finnish words
“Hienokallio”. “Kallio” is rocky hill and “hieno” is fair.
It is much easier to interpret the tribe names of South-East Caledonia with Finnish than
the names in North-West. So there has probably been two different languages in the
early Roman time, Finnish and probably Old Irish.
Note, these interpretations are only suggestions and they should be compared with the
real on-site conditions.
21
How the Finns were born
Härmäläinen perusjuntti
Sävel: Irwin Goodman
Finnish Basic Rube
by Irwin Goodman
Joskus aikain alussa kun luotiin maailmaa
Niin tarvittiin myös kansaa kauas susirajan taa
Vahingossa Luoja oudon prototyypin loi
Ja tuumi että "Pakkasessa tuokin elää voi"
In the beginning of time when the world was created
It was needed a people among the wolfs.
In an accident God created a weird prototype
and thought it was ”good enough for freezing cold places”
•
Kertosäe:
Niin syntyi kaurahattu, rehupuntti, punaniska, perusjuntti
Oikea härmäläinen,
kaurahattu, rehupuntti, punaniska, perusjuntti
Häijy ja itsepäinen
•
Refrain:
This is how redneck, yokel, basic rube, was born
The real Finn,
redneck, yokel, basic rube
Mean and stubborn
•
Outo kansa korvessansa rällästi ja joi
Ja lämpimikseen muijiansa turpiin mukiloi
Selvin päin ei turhaa sanaa kuultu niillä main
Ja juovuksissa kiroiltiin ja puukoteltiin vain
•
The strange tribe revelled and drank in its forests
and to get warm bruised its wives.
No one spoke sober on those regions
and drunk they swore and stabbed each other.
•
Alta kulman kyräilivät juntit toisiaan
Ja mökki nousi joka niemeen sekä notkelmaan
Korpimaata riitti mutta silti riideltiin
Ja turvauduttiin kirveeseen tai vaikka vesuriin
•
Under the brows the yokels glared at each other
and a cabin was risen in every cape and valley
There was enough forests but still they argued
and they resorted to an axe or a billhook
•
Täällä on jo meitä yli neljä miljoonaa
Vaan vieläkään ei löydy mistään kansaa vastaavaa
Pari kolme puukotetaan joka perjantai
Ja sitten vielä mukiloidaan muijat totta kai
•
There is already over four million Finns
But still no one can find a similar tribe
A couple are stabbed every Friday
and then the wives are bruised, of course.
Kuuntele Youtubessa:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMZaJGF353Y
Listen in Youtube:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMZaJGF353Y
22
Newton Stone
Inscription from /7/. Transliteration (really uncertain) with
Dalecarlian runes by KL, compare to the next page:
This is read in the order 4->1,13->5,22->14,31->23,36->32,45>37.
N
NYMN (name)
DHAILKLMN (Darqn)
O COMON OKKILISN (??? Has got splendid ??? on saanut
okkilisen/äkillisen ???)
VAVM ISSUH VMEN (of Jesus viimein)
KOKON (salvation)
N M L K L
K
M
Y
N
I
A
K O N O M
D
O C O
Ogham part by John Bruce:
IDDARQNNNVORRENN IKU(A) IOSIE
He [is] Darqn (=Tarkin) splendid salvation of Joshua.
He [is] Darqn (=Tarkin) splendid remedy of Jesus. (Alternative)
St. Tarkin’s (toponym?) splendid remedy of Jesus?
M V
A V N S
H
S S
If ogham and the runes are the same in meaning, 36->32
“ISSUH” should correspond to Jesus/Joshua. Also 4-1 or 13-5
should correspond to Darqn. Does this help you?
N O K O K
V
H
I
L
I
N M E
V
I
23
Ancient writing systems /6/
24
Genetic evidence of former Finnish people
living in Britain
Professor, Mr. Kalevi Wiik said on TV:
• ”There are separate Finno-Ugrian nations all over northern Europe.
This implies that Finnish was the most important language in the
northern Europe before agriculture arrived there.”
• ”When a glass of water is poured over the table, there forms a big
contiguous puddle on the surface. But soon the big puddle dries out
and there remain many small separate puddles on the table.
Similarly there are at the present time many Fenno-Ugrian nations
all over northern Europe (mainly in the region of Russia).”
25
Map 79. The frequency
of the haplogroup N3
(former Tat C) in the
population of northern
Eurasia. The map is
based on the results
gathered by Richard
Villems and his research
group. /10/ page 173.
/10/ Kalevi Wiik, Suomalaisten juuret (The Roots of the Finnish People).
Atena, Keuruu (Finland) in 2004.
26
Understanding the population compound
It is good to remember that even if American Indians constitute only a
proportion of 1% of the total population of 250 million inhabitants in US,
their absolute number is still today the same as it was when white men first
arrived on American soil. I explain this phenomenon as this:
1. When a population has lived a long time in some place, the density of that
population reaches the limit which is possible for their economy.
2. When a new population with a much more powerful economy arrives in a region
populated by people with a weaker economy, the density of the newcomers very
rapidly reaches the limit that their more powerful economy will tolerate.
3. At the same time the earlier native population continues to live according to their
old customs and their density remains constant. However, the newcomers utilize
the recourses of the area so effectively that the earlier population must adapt to
the economy of the newcomers to maintain their density.
4. E.g. if the population of the earlier ethnic group was 2,5 million and the economy
of the new comers was 100 times so powerful as the economy of the native
population, the total population grows to 250 million and the share of the original
ethnic group would be 2.5 million.
27
Subtracting the newcomers
If the newcomers are
subtracted from the current N3
distribution above, we arrive at
the supposed distribution 5000
years ago shown on the right
side.
•
•
We have assumed that in
Europe the newcomers had an
economy roughly 100 times
more powerful than was the
economy of the existing
population.
In Asia it is assumed that no
newcomers with a more
powerful economy has ewer
arrived. Compare with the
Great Wall or Mongolian
borders on the next page.
The map describes the estimated N3 dominated
area some 5000 years ago. The population
probably arrived immediately after the ice age
and thus belongs to the oldest in Europe.
28
29
Hadrian’s Wall
30
Languages of American Indians
There was circa twenty years ago an article in
Scientific American about the languages of the Indians
in North America.
Their languages separated from the languages on the
old continent so long ago that it has been difficult to
find their relatives.
• Now it seems however clear, that they originate to
some extent from Europe.
31
• The map of the Finnish related people on the
previous page could beautifully demonstrate the route
of the American Indians from Europe to America over
the Bearing strait.
• In fact, Andres Pääbo has found that the language of
Inuit has close relationship to Finnish; and two AmerIndian peoples have also, one on the Atlantic and the
other on the Pacific coast.
32
The word ”milk” is found in many Indian
languages. It does not mean exactly the same in
every language but may have the meanings like:
• milk (maito in Finnish)
• suck (imeä in Finnish)
• breast (rinta in Finnish)
The Finnish word imeä (suck) is also quite near
the word milk: even more if it is pronounced like
”imiä” (emeä), as it could be pronounced in some
dialects.
33
Genetics and some possible migration
routes of American Indians
There are genetic traits from many places in the world in American Indians.
Also there might be many different migration routes:
•During the ice age over the ice cover over the northern Atlantic and Pacific
oceans.
•After the ice age over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans with different kinds of
small boats: E.g. people in Newfoundland were quit much like the
Europeans when the Englishmen come to America. Listen:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P9RscPPL4E
34
Finnish relatives in Europe
Modern genetic studies have shown that Flemish people
in Belgium and the people of the Netherlands are the
closest relatives to Finnish people in Europe.
• This is easy to believe because those peoples live so
near the land of the Picts. If there were ice cover over
the North Sea – as there certainly would have been
during the winters soon after the ice age - crossing by
sea could be very easy.
35
Also, it is another surprising result of modern genetics
that Finns and Italians are close relatives to each
other.
• Some recent genetic studies also say that Finns and
Italians are the original peoples of Europe, which
have got the least genetic influences from other
peoples. – Perhaps because Italians live behind the
Alps and Finns in the most remote cold North.
36
Words in old English, which resembles
Finnish:
"Balulalow” or "Ballulalow"
It is the same as lullaby
Could the parts be in Finnish:
- Balu -
Baijutus (lulling) as in dialectal Finnish
"baijuttavi poijuttansa..." (lulling her son…)
- Lalow -
Laulu (song). Propably onomatoboeic word.
Listen to the melody with the same name by Benjamin Britten:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eL4fhwhq9KE
37
“Bretwalda”
Old English word. Broad+ruler, so wide ruler.
In Finnish:
- Bret
-
- Walda -
Leveä, means broad. ”Lev” feels in mouth
similar to English broad or Old English Bret,
“eä” means only “kind of”
Valta, means dominion. This is also an old IE
word.
38
Referencies
/1/
/2/
/3/
/4/
/5/
/6/
/7/
/8/
/9/
/10/
Tacitus: Germania (in Latin AD 98), Finnish edition, Otava, Keuruu
(Finland) 1976.
Andres Pääbo: Writings in internet. http://www.paabo.ca/
Andres Pääbo: The Veneti Language. http://www.paabo.ca/veneti/index.html
Veijo Meri: Sanojen Synty, Gummerus, Jyväskylä 2002.
List of country-name etymologies. From Wikipedia; June 2013.
Wikipedia; June, August 2013.
Anthony Jackson: The Symbol Stones of Scotland. The Orkney Press, Kirkwall
(Orkney) 1984.
Farley Mowat: The Farfarers, A New History of North America.
Skyhorse Publishing, New York 2011.
Norbert Strade: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Role of Uralic Hunters and
Gatherers in the Ethnohistory of the Early Germanic Area. Historica FennoUgriga, Turku 1997.
Kalevi Wiik, Suomalaisten juuret (The Roots of the Finnish People). Atena,
Keuruu (Finland) in 2004.
39
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