Chapter 3: Migration
The Cultural Landscape:
An Introduction to Human Geography
Chapter 3: Migration
Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate?



Reasons for migrating
Distance of migration
Characteristics of Migrants
Migration
Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate?
 A type of mobility
◦ Migration is a permanent move to a new location
 Migration = relocation diffusion

Emigration
◦ To leave a place (think “Exit”)

Immigration
◦ To come to a new place (Think “In”)

Net Migration
◦ The difference between the number of emigrants and
immigrants
 If the number coming in is greater, it is “positive” or Net inmigration
 If the number going out is greater, it is “negative” or Net outmigration
Migration
Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate?

Reasons for migration
◦ Most people migrate for economic reasons
◦ Push and pull factors
 Economic: people move away from places with poor economic
opportunities and toward places with better ones
 Cultural factors
 Forced migration (e.g., slavery, refugees)
 Political factors
 Environmental factors
 Pulled towards physically attractive regions
 Pushed from Hazardous regions, or adverse physical conditions
◦ These come with intervening obstacles
 Historically these are environmental
 With availability of transportation these obstacles are minimized
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?
Lee’s Model of Migration
Theoretical version of the model
- Push factors
Every Place has both
push and pull factors
 These factors are
subjective and
dependent on the
needs and interests
of individuals

+ Pull factors
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?
Lee’s Model of Migration
What it might actually look like
Origin
Push
• Low Wages
• Political and civil
strife
• Limited
opportunities
Pull
• Family
• Culture
Intervening Obstacles
• Lack of money
• Distance
• Fear
• Physical barriers Destination
Pull
• Higher Wages
• More job
opportunities
• Education
Intervening Opportunities
• Jobs
• Common Language
Push
• Language Barrier
• No Documents
• A person must decide if the
pull factors outweigh the push factors
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Migration
Key Issue 1: Why Do People Migrate?

E.G. Ravenstein: During the late 19th Century
wrote Eleven migration laws to be applied to
migration studies

Laws can be organized into 3 questions
◦ Why do migrants move?
◦ What is the distance migrants typically move?
◦ What are the characteristics of migrants?
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?
 Distance of migration
◦ Internal migration: Permanent movement within the same country
 Two types:
 Interregional migration = movement from one region to another
 Intraregional migration = movement within a region
 Historically intraregional migration has been from rural to urban areas in
search of jobs (After Civil War the exodus from the southern states to
the north)
 In recent years, migration from urban areas to attractive rural and
suburban areas
 Most migrants move only a short distance (step migration)
 Step Migration: When a person has a long distance goal in mind and
achieves it in small steps over time
 Each migration stream produces a compensating counter-stream
 The out-migration of Jews form Nazi Germany has a small counter-stream
back into Germany because of their capture and forced return by Nazi
officials
 Young Chinese men migrate to cities from rural villages only to return home
after giving city life a try
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?

Distance of migration
◦ International migration
 Two types:
 Voluntary
 Economic push/pull factors usually induce voluntary international
migration
 Forced
 Cultural push/pull factors usually induce forced international
migration
 Migration transition
 International migration is most common in countries that are in stage 2
of the demographic transition
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?

Refugees: Statistics
• There are approximately 10.6 million refugees in the world today.
• There are approximately 25.8 million internally displaced people world
wide (600,000 were displaced after Hurricane Katrina, 2005).
• 80% of the internally displaced people are women and children.
• 44% of refugees and internally displaced people are under the age of
18.
• 6% of refugees and internally displaced people are 60 years of age
or older.
• Of all western countries, the United States accepted the highest
number of refugees in 2004,approximately 244,200.
• In 2004 3 million people, 8,000 people per day, left their homes to
◦ seek safety in another country.
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?

What is a Refugee?
◦ People who have been forced to migrate from their
home country and cannot return for fear of
persecution
◦ Individuals who cross national boundaries to seek
safety or asylum from persecution, usually cultural.
◦ Political conditions can also operated as pull factors,
especially the lure of freedom.
◦ Considered a form of forced migration
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?
Where do we find refugees?
 Most refugees live in Asia and Africa

◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Iran (1,355,000)
Pakistan (1,219,000)
The Gaza Strip (923,000)
The West Bank (665,000)
Syria (497,000)
Tanzania (480,000)
Thailand (405,000)
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?

20th Century Instability
◦ Forced international migration increased because of
political instability resulting from cultural diversity
◦ With democracy on the rise in Eastern Europe during
the 1990s, Western Europe’s political pull has
disappeared as a migration factor.
◦ Western Europe pulls an increasing number of migrants
from Eastern Europe for economic reasons.
◦ Post 9/11 many MDCs have tightened their borders to
refugees due to safety concerns.
◦ In many African countries, there are refugees fleeing
from and to the same country for different reasons. Ex.
Sudan
Changes in Refugee Populations
Refugees: Sources and Destinations
Figure 3-2
Migration
Key Issue 1:Why Do People Migrate?

Characteristics of migrants
◦ Gender
 Traditionally, males outnumbered females
 Searching for work because they are more likely to be the primary
supporter
 In the United States today, 55 % of immigrants = female
◦ Family status
 In the United States today, about 40 % of immigrants = young
adults, aged 25–39
 Families are less like to migrate than individuals
 Immigrants are less likely to be elderly people: 5% over age 65
◦ Rural residents are more likely to migrate than urban
residents
 True in Ravenstein’s time because of the Industrial Revolution
 Still true in many developing countries
 Counter-urbanization is a trend in the US where city dwellers are
leaving crowded urban areas for suburbs and rural areas.
Migration from Rural to Urban Areas
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 3: Migration
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed?



Global migration patterns
U.S. Immigration patterns
Impacts of Immigration on the U.S.
Migration:
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed

Global migration
patterns
◦ Net out-migration:
Asia, Africa, and
Latin America
◦ Net in-migration:
North America,
Europe, and
Oceania
 The United States has
the largest foreignborn population of
any other country
The Global pattern reflects the importance of migration from LDCs to MDCs.
Migrants from countries with relatively low incomes and high natural
increase rates head for countries
where job possibilities are brighter
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Net Migration by Country
Figure 3-7
Migration:
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed
 U.S. migration patterns
◦ Three main eras of migration
 Colonial migration from England and Africa
 Europeans came as migrants and colonists, Africans came in a “forced
Migration” as slaves
 90% of Europeans came from Great Britain
 In 1808 the importation of slaves was made illegal, but another 250, 000
Africans were brought to the U.S. illegally over the next half century
 Nineteenth-century immigration from Europe
 Germany sent the largest number of immigrants: 7.2 million, Italy: 5.4
million, UK: 5.3 million, Ireland: 4.8 million, Russia: 4.1 million
 ¼ of Americans trace their ancestry to German immigrants, 1/8 each to
Irish and British immigrants
 Recent immigration from LDCs
 Asia: Three leading sources are China, India, the Philippines
 Latin America
Migration to the United States
Figure 3-8
Migration to the United States from Latin America
Figure 3-9
Migration:
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed

Impact of immigration on the United States
◦ Legacy of European migration
 Europe’s demographic transition
 Stage 2 growth pushed Europeans out
 65 million Europeans emigrate
 Diffusion of European culture
 Indo-European Languages are now spoken by half the world’s people
 Christianity, Europe’s most prevalent religion has the world’s largest
number of adherents
 European art, music, literature, philosophy and ethics have diffused
throughout the world
 European Political structures and economic systems have diffused
around the globe
 Europeans migrating to areas where they imposed political domination
on indigenous populations sowed the seeds of discontent
Migration:
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed

Impact of immigration on the United States
◦ Unauthorized immigration
 2008 = estimated 11.9 million unauthorized/ undocumented
immigrants
 About 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor force
 Around 59 percent are undocumented immigrants from Mexico
◦ Chain Migration – Migration of people to a specific
location because relatives or members of the same
nationality previously migrated there.
Migration:
Key Issue 2: Where Are Migrants Distributed: US States and Destinations
California = 1/5 of all immigrants and 1/4 of undocumented
immigrants; New York = 1/6 of all immigrants
Chapter 3: Migration
Key Issue 3: Why Do Migrants face
Obstacles?


Immigration policies of host countries
Cultural challenges faced while living in
other countries
Migration:
Key Issue 3:Why do migrants face obstacles

Immigration policies of host countries
◦ U.S. quota laws: Public Policy enacted to control the migrant
streams from different countries. These acts were modified over
time, and did not affect the status of refugees seeking asylum.
 The Quota Act (1921)
 The law established quotas, maximum limits on the number of people
who could immigrate from each country in a one year period
 The National Origins Act (1924)
 Limited the number of Asians migrating to the US
◦ Temporary migration for work
 Guest workers in Europe
 Time-contract workers in Asia
Migration: Key Issue 3:Why do migrants face obstacles
 Distinguishing economic migrants from refugees
◦ Emigrants from Cuba
 The U.S. regarded people fleeing from Communist Cuba after 1959 when Fidel Castro
came to power as political refugees.
 600.000 Cuban immigrants were admitted to the U.S. with the majority of them
settling in Florida
◦ Emigrants from Haiti
 In 1980 people where seeking political asylum from the dictatorship of Francois
Duvalier (Papa Doc) and his son, John-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc).
 The U.S. wouldn’t let them in because the trade status was different with Haiti than
Cuba
◦ Emigrants from Vietnam
 Vietnamese War ended in 1975; the U.S. withdrew troops from South Vietnam.
 Many South Vietnamese fled to the U.S., seeking political asylum from the incoming
Communist regime that overtook the country from the north.
 Another wave of Southeast Asians came during more regional political upheaval in
1980. These people escaped to freedom however they could, and were known as “Boat
People”
Migration: Key Issue 3:Why do migrants face obstacles

Cultural problems faced while living in host countries
◦ U.S. attitudes towards immigrants
 Citizens of the U.S. have traditionally been suspicious of newcomers
 Through the 19th Century, people from Western Europe were more welcome and
assimilated more quickly into the landscape
 During the early 20th Century, immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe were treated
with suspicion and were often accused of “stealing work” from Citizens
 Eastern Europeans also were treated with contempt because of some of their
political ideologies and religious practices.
 Current discrimination includes California refusing basic services to illegal immigrants,
although that has bee hard to uphold due to the questionable Constitutionality of the
ruling
◦ Attitudes toward guest workers
 Both European host countries and visiting guest workers consider the employment
arrangement temporary.
 Most guest workers are young men and, regularly send most of the money they earn,
home to their families.
 Accommodations for guest workers are usually poor
 Citizens of host countries regularly vote down referendums that would provide
improvements for the living conditions of guest workers
Chapter 3: Migration
Key Issue 4: Why Do People Migrate
Within a Country?


Migration between regions of a country
Migration within one region
Migration: Key Issue 4:Why Do People Migrate within a Country?

Migration between regions of a country
◦ U.S. settlement patterns
 Colonial settlement
 Along the Eastern Seaboard. Population Center was in the Chesapeake bay in
Maryland
 Access to shipping routes and easier trade kept people along the coast
 Early settlement in the interior (early 1800s)
 The development of the canal system allowed for easier travel towards the
interior of N. America
 Center of population was in Weston,VA, 20 miles west from where it had been
 California
 Discovery of Gold in 1849 in California sent settlers west and moved the center
of Population to Greensburg, Indiana
 Great Plains settlement
 Settlers moved across the Great Plains on their way to Oregon Territory. Many of
them stopped and settled along the route
 Recent growth of the South
 Americans migrated South primarily for work
U.S. Interregional Migration
Figure 3-17
Changing Center of the U.S. Population
Figure 3-16
Migration: Key Issue 4:Why Do People Migrate within a Country?

Migration between regions of other countries
◦ Russia
 Important to developing and controlling the former Soviet Union by building
factories and other work related sites throughout the country
 Komsomol: brigades of young volunteers sent to regions to work on projects
◦ Government incentives in Brazil and Indonesia
 Most people live along the coast of Brazil. To increase the attractiveness of
living in the interior, Brazil relocated its capital, Rio de Janeiro, to Brasilia in
1960.
 People encouraged to live move to islands other than Java.
◦ Economic migration within European countries
 With the collapse of the Communist Bloc countries of Southern and Eastern
Europe, there has been a steady stream of people relocating to the North
and West
Migration in Europe
Figure 3-20
Migration: Key Issue 4:Why Do People Migrate within a Country?

Intraregional migration in the United States
◦ Migration from rural to urban areas
 Primary reason = People are pulled for economic reasons; more
job opportunities exist in cities
◦ Migration from urban to suburban areas
 Primary reason = People are pulled to the suburban lifestyle
◦ Migration from urban to rural areas
 Counter-urbanization has come about as communication and
transportation has evolved. It is possible to live in the country
and still work at employment somewhere else.
Intraregional Migration in the United States
Figure 3-21
The End.
Up next: Folk and Popular Culture
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Chapter 1