Ninth Global Forum on Bioethics in Research (GFBR9)
Mason Durie
Massey University
Perspectives

Universality

Diversity

Distinctiveness
Universality
Many ethical values are held in common by
people across nations, cultures, and
ethnicities
Avoid
unneccesary
pain & suffering
Protect the young
Value people
Respect property
Abide by community customs,
ideals, conventions
Diversity
Not all people within the same group hold the
same values, ideals, or perspectives
A suburban orientation
Whanau values
A tribal world view
A Christian focus
BEING MAORI
2008
A global perspective
The culture of youth
Political ideologies
Pragmatism
Distinctiveness
Ethical expectations and norms of groups
are built on their distinctive views, shared
histories, values, and aspirations,
Maori perspectives
The Kiwi tradition
Tribal conventions
Community standards
The New Zealand way
Religious persuasions
Indigenous
custom
Indigenous

5000 indigenous and tribal groups

200 million people

4% of the global population
Distinctiveness
1. Colonised tribes
2. A vulnerable
population
3. An ethnic minority
4. Marginalised
communities
5. A Culturally
different people
Distinctive 2
1. Colonised tribes
2. A vulnerable
population
1.
A close and enduring
relationship with the
environment
2.
Autonomous social
groupings that reflect
territory
3.
Knowledge systems based
on environmental
encounters
4.
A sustainable economy
5.
Unique culture & language
3. An ethnic minority
4. Marginalised
communities
5. A culturally
different people
3 Characteristics

Ecological ties
Mana whenua

Human encounters
Mana tangata

Autonomy & self determination
Mana whakahaere
Maori

Indigenous people of New Zealand

Tribal society (now largely urban)

Population 565,000 (15% of total population)

Median age 22 years

Increasing cultural fluency in younger age
groups
Rangi & Papa
The earth mother and
the sky father were
forced apart by their
children
• Forests & birds
• The elements
• The seas, waters,
fish
• Crops
• Ferns
• Humankind
Separation enabled
life and light
But connections were
retained
Spiral
Building
relationships
Outward flow of energy
People, land,
flora, fauna,
water, air,
cosmos
Relationships
and context
give rise to
knowledge
Smaller entities
make sense when
viewed
in relationship to
larger entities
Centrifugal direction
Identity

People are part of a
wider ecological context

Tangata whenua
People of the land

Turangawaewae
A land-based reference
point
Mauri
• All matter has life - a mauri
• Connections with the wider
environment create a
dynamic relationship
• Inner & outer energy chains
• Carbon credits
Relationships
Relationships between:






People and the natural environment
Tangible and intangible dimensions
Organic and inorganic material
Past and future (intergenerational continuity)
The microscopic and the macroscopic
Tangata whenua (Hosts) and manuhiri
(visitors)
Marae
Whare nui
(Meeting House)
Tangata whenua
(‘People of the land’)
Marae Atea
A Forum for negotiating relationships
Manuhiri
(‘People with other
land connections’)
Marae Kawa
• Tangata
whenua
• Social
conventions
• Whaikorero • Terms of
engagement
• Tapu
• Level of
risk
• Koha
• Reciprocity
Autonomy
The Treaty of Waitangi
1840
The State
Potatau te Wherowhero
1858
The Maori King
Tuheitia
2006
Implications

Ecological Ties
The ethics of eco-connectedness

Human Encounters
The ethics of engagement

Autonomy and self determination
The ethics of empowerment
Eco-connect




Synergies between people
and the natural environment
Balance between human
endeavours and environmental
sustainability
Longstanding connections
between species
All environmental forms have a
unique ‘mauri’
Balance

Human & environmental equilibrium
 Climate change, carbon emissions

Human adaptation to the environment
 Type II diabetes (living in consumer environments)

Species specificity
 xenotransplantation

Species survival
 Assisted reproductive technologies, organ donations
 Stem cell research
Engagement

Relationship building – assessing risk & motive
 Time
 Space

Agreement on terms

Mutual benefits

Mutual respect and mutually re-enforcement
Implications

Reason for engagement with Maori

Who to engage with ?

Where should engagement occur ?

Trusting relationship or ‘one off’ ?

A sample of Maori views or a sample of views on
Indigeneity ?

Ownership & management of information &
data
Empowerment
Informed Consent
• Knowledgeable
• space to decide
• time to reflect
Active
participation
• Involvement in
research design
Guardianship:
•
research integrity
• Indigenous
• advice on
environmental
research protocol, interests
& methods
• research data
• Researcher as
well as ‘subject’ of • dissemination of
research
results
Promoting ethics

Shifting researcher attitudes

Indigenising ethical standards and protocols
Researcher attitudes
Ethical compliance
Extension of vision
Research method
Research impacts
Centripetal focus
Centrifugal focus
Recruitment
Active participation
Scientific merit
Indigenous gain
Consultation
Relationship
Indigenisation



Guidelines for researchers (HRC)
Bioethics Council Report
Maori framework for ethical review
 (NEAC & Nga Pae o te Maramatanga)

WAI 292 Matauranga Maori
 Claim to the Waitangi Tribunal
 Protection of native flora, fauna, & Maori
knowledge

A Maori Ethical Commission ?
 Wider research interests: Health – environment - education - energy)
Indigeneity
The ethics of
eco-connectedness
Ecological ties
The ethics of
engagement
Human encounters
The ethics of
empowerment
Autonomy &
self determination
End
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Bioethics in Research: the Ethics of Indigeneity