Cohesion
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Not only in informative texts!

Also in operative and expressive texts
Characteristics of speech
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Markers of interactions

Fillers

Repetitions
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Reduplications
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Expressions of attitude and opinion
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Hesitations, false starts, reformulations
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Incomplete sentences
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fewer logical connectors or monosyllabic connectors
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Simple vocabulary
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Simple syntax
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Phraseology
Transaction and Interaction

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Transactional language: message must be correctly
understood
Interactional language: establishing a social relationship is
more important than the content of the exchange
Signposting & Forecasting:
you signal your position, you explain the logic of your argument
& you give a mini-outline of what is to come
See Eminem VS Papa Doc:
“I know everything he's got to say against me
I am white I am a f***in' bum
I do live in a trailer with my mom”
“You don't know what the f*** I've been through
But I know something about you”
DUARTE
All great talks incorporate:


“Hero's journey” : situation, complications (ups & downs),
victory
Call to action : resolution
(like in a summary: restatement with upgrade!)
Duarte’s own talk:
> Introduction on the power of ideas to change the world
> Structure: Forecasting & Signposting
She provides the listeners with an itinerary to guide them
> Conclusion on relevance of removing roadblocks and
permitting change
1- How does Duarte engage the audience’s attention? What is
the “hook” that she uses?
2 - In Duarte’s conclusion, what principles of an effective
conclusion does she employ?
3 - If you were to use Duarte’s “pattern” to organize your
presentation, how would that organization look like?
How does Duarte engage the audience’s attention? What is the
“hook” that she uses?
1. She introduces the visual of the poster to tell an anecdote and
establish her persona for the audience.
2. She introduces the content of her presentation through a bold
claim (“you can change the world”) presented simply.
3. She uses a conversational tone to connect with the audience
and establish a relatable persona.
In Duarte’s conclusion, what principles of an effective
conclusion does she employ?
1. She repeats her main points.
2. She contextualizes her message into a larger picture.
3. She presents her call to action
If you were to use Duarte’s “pattern” to organize your
presentation, which of the following would that organization
most closely look like?
1. First, I would talk about the current state of the work process. Then I
would discuss some ways to make the work process more efficient.
Finally, I would end with a vision of a work
2. First, I would grab the audience’s attention with a joke. Then, I
would ask for feedback on making the work process more efficient and
develop the presentation from there.
3. First, I would break the problems with the current work process
down into three relevant points. Then I would discuss each point in
detail and provide a relevant “fix” for each problem. Finally, I would
end by showing how fixing these three parts of the problem would lead
to a more efficient work process overall.
FILM MONOLOGUES
http://www.filmsite.org/bestspeeches.html
http://www.monologuedb.com/category/film/
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/moviespeeches.htm
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Cohesion - unimc.it