The Case for God, the Bible and Jesus
John Stewart, B.A., M.A., J.D.
International Director, Ratio Christi
Where did the universe come from?
Does God exist?
Why are we here?
What is the purpose of humanity?
What is the future of humanity?
Can we find out the answers?
Why Has God become a Threat?
Erin Shead, a 10-year old student in Tennessee, was told by
her teacher to write about an idol she looked up to as part of
a class assignment. Erin decided to write about God. She
drew a diagram explaining why she "looked up to God,"
writing "He is the reason I am on this earth. I love [God] and
Jesus, and Jesus is His earthly son.” When Erin's teacher
received her written assignment, she told the young girl that
she was prohibited from picking God as her idol, and
demanded that she start the class assignment all over again
and choose a new idol. She was also told that her
assignment with God as her idol must be taken home and
was not allowed to remain on school property.
September 2013
Why Would God Be a Threat?
If there is a God, there will be
accountability and justice (in this life or the
next) according to what God requires
If there is a God, He becomes the
measure of truth and right and wrong
If there is a God, morality is absolute, and
is what He says it is
If there is a God and Christianity
is true, why so much doubt?
America has been changing from a theistic
(“God-believing”) culture to a secular culture
Our universities are no longer a marketplace
for ideas (atheistic, agnostic and secular
assumptions have created a hostile
environment toward those who believe in
God in general, and Christians in particular)
Richard Rorty, late professor of Philosophy,
Princeton University
“...we try to arrange
things so that
students who enter
as bigoted,
fundamentalists will
leave college with
views more like our
own . . .
So we are going to go
right on trying to
discredit you in the
eyes of your children,
trying to strip your
religious community of
dignity, trying to make
your views seem silly
rather than
What Christianity Teaches
There is a God, who created the universe out of
God has revealed Himself and His plan through
inspired writings called the “Bible”
God’s plan involved sending His Son, Jesus, to
earth to die for the sins of humanity that separate
us from God (the “gospel”)
Jesus rose from the dead as proof that by
believing in Him a person is forgiven of sins and
given eternal life in heaven
What’s the Big Deal?
Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and
if true, of infinite importance, the only thing it
cannot be is moderately important.
C.S. Lewis, Cambridge Professor,
former atheist
Three Questions
Is there a God (i.e., an “Intelligent Designer”
that created the universe)?
Is the Bible a reliable source of truth about
God and Jesus?
Is Jesus the Savior sent from God? (i.e., is
Christianity true?)
Truth is sometimes denied
because of a closed mind
The existence of the platypus (‘duckbill”) was
initially denied in England because it did not
fit into scientists’ world view
A resurrection is often dismissed as being
impossible before considering the evidence
because of anti-supernatural bias.
Nietzsche, Darwin, etc. assume
naturalism or atheism
Atheists, materialists and naturalists
assume there is no supernatural. Thus,
regardless of the evidence, they will never
believe God exists.
Carl Sagan’s view
“The Cosmos is all that is or was or ever will
be.” Cosmos
(notice this is not a scientific statement, but is
a metaphysical, i.e., religious, statement)
How Do We Find Answers to
the Questions?
Consider the Evidence
Weigh the Evidence
Sequence of Presenting the
Part I--Does God exist? (If there is no God, we can
reject the Bible and Jesus)
Part II--Is the Bible reliable? (If there is a God but
the Bible is not reliable, then the story of Jesus is
suspect, at best, and false, at worst)
Part III--Did Jesus live, die on a cross and rise from
the dead? (If Jesus is not an historical person, then
we can reject the teachings of Christianity)
What is “Evidence?”
Anything that supports an assertion
Forms of Evidence:
1. Testimony (tells)
2. Physical evidence (shows)
Direct Evidence
Direct Evidence--where a witness testifies directly
about the fact that is to be proved, based on what
he claims to have seen or heard or felt with his
own senses, and the only question is whether you
believe the witness (“percipient witness”) Example:
Assertion- “The mailman came today.”
Testimony: “I saw the mailman drop off mail”
Observation (“eyewitness testimony”)
Documents (record of eyewitness testimony)
Circumstantial Evidence
Circumstantial Evidence (relies on an
inference to connect the evidence to an
assertion of fact) Example:
Assertion- “The mailman came today.”
Testimony: “I saw mail in the mail box” (an
inference that the mailman had been there)
DNA, fingerprints, empty tomb
What About “Scientific Proof?”
“Contrary to popular belief, there is no
such thing as a scientific proof. Proofs
exist only in mathematics and logic, not in
science. The primary criterion and
standard of evaluation of scientific theory
is evidence, not proof.” Satoshi Kanazawa,
Evolutionary Psychologist2
Limitations on Scientific Evidence
Scientific Method: (1) form hypothesis;
(2) repeat experiment; (3) draw data; (4) empirically
verify hypothesis (e.g. “Ivory soap floats”)
"The scientific method, however it is defined, is
related to measurement of phenomena and
experimentation or repeated observation" (The
New Encyclopedia Britannica)
Thus, history is outside the scope of the scientific
Legal/Historical Method
“History”-- “A record of the past based
upon testimony”
“Testimony” includes oral testimony,
documents, artifacts
The Legal/Historical Method is used to
determine events of the past (i.e., did
Jesus exist) based on quality of evidence
In making the case for God’s
I will be using expert witnesses to testify
These experts are qualified as a experts by
knowledge, skill, experience, training, or
Their testimony will be in the form of
quotations from their writings and speeches
Expert Testimony
”A witness qualified as an expert by
knowledge, skill, experience, training, or
education" may testify and offer opinions if
(a) the expert’s scientific, technical, or
other specialized knowledge will assist the
trier of fact to understand the evidence or
to determine a fact in issue…" Rule 702(a)
of the Federal Rules of Evidence
Dueling Experts
What if both sides of an issue (e.g.,
whether God exists) have experts testifying
in support of their side--how do you decide
who to believe?
Weight of Evidence
Evidence can be weak or strong
Testimony can be reliable or unreliable
(determine the quality of testimony by considering
the character of the witnesses, biases,
corroborating testimony, and the quality of contrary
Once you’ve weighed the evidence, it is time for a
verdict (Latin veredictim “to say the truth”)
Our Goal--Arrive at Truth
“What is truth?”
Pontius Pilate, Gov. of Judea, AD 26-36
“You can’t handle the truth”
Col. Jessup, A Few Good Men
“I am the truth”
Jesus of Nazareth, John 14:6
“truth” is that which comports with reality
“truth” is not dependent on feelings or preferences
Attempts to Escape from Truth
(“Post-Modern Double-Talk”)
“that’s your truth” (“true for you, not for me”)
All truth is relative
There is no absolute truth
Truth cannot be known
You can’t know anything for sure
Apply the Law of NonContradiction
Everything I say is a lie
I can’t speak a word of English
All truth is relative
There is no absolute truth
Truth cannot be known
It is true for you but not for me
You can’t know anything for sure
No One Believes and Lives as if
there is No Objective Truth
If a person says “there is no truth,” it doesn’t
matter whether he eat Wheaties or rat
poison--there is no truth, so bon appetite!
Only a fool would deny there is such a thing
as poison.
Basic Assumptions
There is such a thing as “true” and “false”
“Truth” can be known
We have the ability to weigh evidence to
determine what is true and what is false
Since we have both truth and
lies, who is lying?
“By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly
repeated, it is possible to make people
believe that heaven is hell and hell
heaven. The greater the lie, the more
readily it will be believed.”
Beware of AttractivelyPresented Lies
“By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly
repeated, it is possible to make people
believe that heaven is hell and hell
heaven. The greater the lie, the more
readily it will be believed.”
Adoph Hitler, Mein Kampf
Christianity--True or False?
Part I, the Case for God
What is the evidence for an intelligent
designer of the universe (“God”)?
Based upon the evidence, does it take
more “faith” to be an atheist than to believe
in God?
Clarifying what “faith” is and is not
“faith” is not credulity (“believing in spite of
the evidence)
“faith” is not some mysterious ability
“faith” is the gap between what we know is
true and what can’t be proved (what we do
when we sit on a chair or enter a building,
e.g., no guaranty they won’t collapse)
Demonstrating that God exists
is not the end of the journey
If the evidence supports that there is an
Intelligent Designer of the universe, we still
need to find out who this God is (e.g., the
God of Hinduism, Islam or Christianity)
The Bible never tries to prove there is a
God--it assumes there is a God (and says
those who say there is no God are fools)
Three Conclusions About God
Theism (from Greek word theos meaning
“God”)--God exists
Atheism--there is no God (“agnostic”
means one who does not know whether
God exists)
Pantheism-everything is God
The View of Atheists
(It Takes Faith to be an Atheist)
Quentin Smith: “The most reasonable belief is
that we came from nothing, by nothing and for
Isaac Asimov: “Emotionally I am an atheist. I
don't have the evidence to prove that God
doesn't exist, but I so strongly suspect he
doesn't that I don't want to waste my time.”4
Arguments Supporting God’s
Existence (Be CALM)
1. Cosmos (“universe”) had a beginning
2. Anthropic Principle is strong evidence
of a designer of the universe
3. Life’s very existence is strong
evidence of a life-giver
4. Morality requires the existence of a
moral law giver
Evidence for God’s Existence:
(1) Cosmos had a beginning
Law of Causality:
Everything that begins to exist has a cause
The cosmos began to exist
Therefore, the universe has a cause
(God, by definition, is uncaused and eternal)
Evidence that the Cosmos Had
a Beginning (GEARS)
Gas tank is not empty yet
Expanding universe
Albert Einstein’s General Relativity Theory
Radiation in cosmic background
Seeds of galaxies
G: Gas Tank Not Empty Yet
(Second Law of Thermodynamics)
1st Law of Thermodynamics--the amount of
usable energy in the universe is finite (example20 gallons of gas in a car)
2nd Law of Thermodynamics (“Entropy”) the
universe is running out of usable energy (the car
engine is running, so the amount of gas is
(If the universe was eternal, it would have
already run out of usable energy, like a car
parked with the engine running--it will eventually
run out of gas)
E: Expanding Universe
Confirmed by astronomer Edwin Hubble in the
1920s that the universe is expanding from a
single point
Astronomers today conclude the rate of
expansion of the universe is increasing
An expanding universe from a single point is
strong evidence the cosmos had a beginning
A: Albert Einstein’s Theory of
General Relativity
Demands an absolute beginning for time, space
and matter
Demonstrates that time, space and matter are
inter-dependent--one cannot exist without the
From Einstein’s theory scientists predicted and
then discovered the expanding universe,
radiation afterglow and galaxy seeds.
Albert Einstein would have
rather had an eternal universe
Why prefer an eternal universe?
The implications (i.e., God
“Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the
present order of nature is repugnant to me…I
should like to find a genuine loophole.”5
Albert Einstein
Einstein, when he later could not longer support
his wish for an eternal universe, he said he
wanted “to know how God created the world.”6
R: Radiation in Cosmic
1965, Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson
discovered the afterglow (light and heat) from the
creative event (“Big Bang”) that had been
predicted to exist if the explosive creative event
had actually occurred.
Their discovery confirmed the Big Bang (i.e., that
the universe began from nothing in a fireball
explosion of matter)
S: Seeds of Galaxies
“Seeds of Galaxies” refers to variations in the
temperature of background radiation that allowed
gravity to form galaxies from matter.
Discovered in 1989, the variations show the Big
Bang and expansion of the universe were perfectly
calibrated to cause the right amount of matter to
combine to form galaxies, but not enough to cause
the universe to collapse back onto itself.
How significant was the
discovery of seeds of galaxies?
“If you’re religious, its like looking at God.”7
Astronomer George Smoot, Cosmic
Background Explorer (“COBE”) project
Smoot calls the variations in temperature,
“machining marks from the creation of the
universe” and “fingerprints of the maker.”8
How Precise did the Creation of
Matter Have to Be?
Physicist P.C.W. Davies: Changes in either gravity
or the weak force of one part in 10100 would have
prevented a life-permitting universe.9
Physicist Brandon Carter: The odds against the
original condition of the universe being suitable for
later star formation (without which planets, such as
Earth, could not exist) is 1 chance in 1010(20)(one
followed by a thousand billion billion zeros)10
Fine Tuning of the Universe
Steven Hawking: Decrease in the
expansion rate in one part in a hundred
thousand million million one second after
the Big Bang would have caused the
universe to collapse on itself.11
Sir Roger Penrose: The Creator’s aim had
to be accurate to 1 part in 10 to the power
of 10123 (illustrate 1040 to understand)12
Attempts to Deny the Obvious
(that the cosmos had a beginning)
There are other universes (parallel universes)
There are an infinite number of universes
Cosmic Rebound
Observations about the
“Multiverse Theory”
“To postulate a trillion-trillion other universes,
rather than one God, in order to explain the
orderliness of our universe, seems the height of
John Polkinghorne, Quantum Theorist
“Let us recognize these speculations for what
they are. They are not physics, but in the strictest
sense, metaphysics. There is no purely scientific
reason to believe in an ensemble of universes.”14
John Swinburne, Philosopher
Without Evidence, it’s the same as
“My Dog Ate My Homework”
Or, in the case of “multiverses,” “an infinite
number of dogs ate my homework”
The Evidence Upsets Scientists
“Theologians are generally delighted with the
proof that the Universe had a beginning, but
astronomers are curiously upset…when evidence
uncovered by science itself leads to a conflict with
the articles of faith of our profession.”15
Robert Jastrow, Astronomer, former head of
NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies,
There is “Religion in Science”
“There is a kind of religion in science…every
effect must have its cause; there is no First
Cause…This religious faith of the scientist is
violated by the discovery that the world had a
beginning under conditions in which the
known laws of physics are not valid…When
that happens, the scientist has lost control.”16
Robert Jastrow, Astronomer
When Scientists’ Beliefs Conflict
with the Evidence
“It turns out that the scientist behaves the way the
rest of us do when our beliefs are in conflict with
the evidence. We become irritated, we pretend
the conflict does not exist, or we paper it over with
meaningless phrases.”17
Robert Jastrow, Astronomer
(punctuated equilibrium, anyone?)
Evidence for God’s Existence
(2) Anthropic Principle
Watchmaker argument (William Paley)-The universe is so finely tuned that there
must be an intelligent designer behind it.
Anthropic Principle--(from Greek word
anthropos “man”) means the universe is
finely tuned to support life on Earth
Evidence for an Intelligent
Designer (Anthropic Constants)
Oxygen levels
Atmospheric transparency
Moon-Earth gravitational interaction
Carbon Dioxide levels
Tilt of the Earth’s axis
Rate of expansion of universe
(plus over 100 more)
Evidence Points to a Universe
Prepared for Humanity
“As we look into the universe and identify
the many accidents of physics and
astronomy that have worked together to our
benefit, it almost seems as if the universe
must in some sense have known we were
Freeman Dyson, Physicist
Could it be luck or coincidence
(that we are here)?
Odds that the anthropic constants (“lifepermitting conditions”) would exist today for
any planet in the universe by chance:
10138 (1 followed by 138 zeros)19
(There are only 1070 atoms in the entire
“Dark Energy” (self-stretching
property of cosmic surface)
If Dark Energy, which makes up 72% of the
density of the universe were changed in as little
as one part in 10120 the universe could not
support life.20
A number that small, if compared to the mass of
the entire universe, would be a billionth of a
trillionth of a trillionth of an electron’s mass.21
Conclusion of Open-Minded
“Astronomy leads us to a unique event, a universe
which was created out of nothing and delicately
balanced to provide exactly the conditions
required to support life. In the absence of an
absurdly-improbable accident, the observations
of modern science seem to suggest an
underlying, one might say supernatural, plan.” 22
Arno Penzias, Nobel Prize winner, co-discoverer
of radiation afterglow
The Anthropic Principle as Proof
of God’s Existence
“Here is the cosmological proof of the
existence of God--the design argument of
Paley--updated and refurbished. The finetuning of the universe provides prima facie
evidence of deistic design.”23
Ed Harrison, Cosmologist
Atheists, Beware!
A young man who wishes to remain a sound
atheist cannot be too careful of his reading.”
C.S. Lewis, former atheist
Evidence for God’s Existence
(3) Life’s Very Existence
“Biology is the study of complicated things
that give the appearance of having been
designed for a purpose.”
Richard Dawkins, Biologist
The Blind Watchmaker, 1996, p. 1
Where did life come from?
Problems with the atheist/naturalist view
(spontaneous generation, life from non-life)
Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain
how the first life got here.
Atheism (and naturalism) cannot explain
how information gets into every cell
Information requires intelligence
S.E.T.I. (movie Contact, prime numbers)
Mount Rushmore--natural phenomenon?
Dictionary--from explosion in print shop?
“Wash this car” on rear window of car
Examples of natural forces (swirling winds,
earthquakes) at work, or intelligence?
(Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid)
DNA is a long molecule with a double helix
Information-bearing DNA is stored in the
nucleus of the cell and stores information
needed to build proteins
Every cell in the human body (10-100 trillion)
contains a data base larger than the
Encyclopedia Britannica
DNA molecule is made up of a long chain
of simpler molecules (“nucleotides”)
The base of each nucleotide is made up of
four chemicals (A,G,C,T)
A gene is a long string of these letters
carrying instructions for making a protein
A genome is a complete set of genes
encoded by DNA (30-40,000 genes)
Complexity of DNA
DNA in the E. coli bacterium is 4 million
letters (nucleotides) long (would fill 1,000
pages in a book)
Human genome is over 3.5 billion letters
(nucleotides) long and would fill an entire
Conclusion-the information in DNA is too
complex to be created by “natural forces”
Life coming from non-life is an
article of faith, lacking evidence
Chandra Wickramasinghe, “The
emergence of life from a primordial soup
on the Earth is merely an article of faith
that scientists are finding difficult to
Even Darwinists/Naturalists admit
origin of life requires intelligence
Fred Hoyle, “panspermia”
Chandra Wickramasinghe, “panspermia”
Richard Dawkins, possibly panspermia (see
movie Expelled)
Problem: who created the aliens that seeded
the universe?
Odds that Life Arose
“The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life
from inanimate matter is one to a number with
40,000 noughts after it…It is big enough to bury
Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There
was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor
on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not
random, they must therefore have been the
product of purposeful intelligence.”25
Sir Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe
Darwinists/Naturalists Need A
Miracle to Explain Life
Michel Denton, Microbiologist:
“The complexity of the simplest known type
of cell is so great that it is impossible to
accept that such an object could have been
thrown together suddenly by some kind of
freakish, vastly improbable event. Such an
occurrence would be indistinguishable from
a miracle.”26
Confession of a Darwinist
Our willingness to accept scientific claims that are
against common sense is the key to an
understanding of the real struggle between science
and the supernatural. We take the side of science
in spite of the patent absurdity of some of its
constructs…because we have a prior commitment
to materialism…materialism is absolute for we
cannot let a divine foot in the door.”27
Richard Lewontin, Harvard University
Unbiased Science Should Admit
Intelligent Design
“If science is based on experience, then science
tells us that the message encoded in DNA must
have originated from an intelligent cause. What
kind of intelligent agent was it? On its own,
science cannot answer this question; it must
leave it to religion and philosophy. But that
should not prevent science from acknowledging
evidences for an intelligent cause origin….”28
Dean Kenyon, Biophysicist
A Physicist Summarizes the
Evidence for Life from Non-life
“The belief that life on earth arose
spontaneously from nonliving matter, is
simply a matter of faith in strict
reductionism and is based entirely on
Hubert Yockey, Physicist and
Information Scientist
What did one chimpanzee say
to the other chimpanzee?
Evidence for God’s Existence
(4) Morality
Every law has a lawgiver
There is a moral law
Therefore there is a moral lawgiver
Atheists Claim to be Moral, but
what is their basis for Morality?
I'm not saying that atheists can't act morally or
have moral knowledge. But when I ascribe virtue
to an atheist, it's as a theist who sees the atheist
as conforming to objective moral values. The
atheist, by contrast, has no such basis for
morality. And yet all moral judgments require a
basis for morality, some standard of right and
William A. Dembski, Philosopher
Morality Without God
(the Consequences)
Hindu practice of suttee
The “right” to kill babies until 30 days after
Use of poison gas
Child abuse
Ethnic cleansing
“Atheist Morality?”
Now, I'm an atheist. I really don't believe for a
moment that our moral sense comes from a god.31
Ian Mcewan, novelist
Some people love their neighbors, others eat
them--what is your preference?
Ravi Zacharias, Christian Apologist
The atheist is cheating whenever he makes a
moral judgment, acting as though it has an
objective reference, when his philosophy in fact
precludes it.32
William A. Dembski, Philosopher
Judgment at Nuremberg
How could you convict Nazis of crimes against
Double standard?
Ex post facto laws?
Victor’s justice?
Violation of Germany’s sovereignty?
Justice Robert Jackson: A law above the law
(assumptions of civilizations)
Without moral law there would be no human
rights (Declaration of Independence, “endowed
by our Creator with certain unalienable rights)
Without moral law we would not know right or
wrong, justice or injustice
Without moral law, we could not measure moral
differences (e.g, Hitler, Mother Teresa)
Conclusion on Morality
“Ethics is transcendental.” Wittgenstein
Objective morality requires a Moral
Lawgiver outside of the human predicament
Even atheists live as if there is objective
morality. The existence of objective morality
is evidence that God exists
Summarizing the Case for God
(1) Cosmos had a beginning (from a supernatural
(2) Anthropic Principle is strong evidence that the
universe and earth were designed
(3) Life’s very existence is best explained by an
Intelligent Designer than chance
(4) Morality’s existence requires a transcendent
Moral Lawgiver
The shallowness, irrationality and bias of the
atheist speaks louder than the voice of the theist
Unbiased Science is Making a
Case for God
“Only a rookie who knows nothing about
science would say science takes away
from faith. If you really study science, it will
bring you closer to God.”33
James Tour, Nanoscientist
If there is no God, why is there
something rather than nothing?
Two options:
(1) no one created something out of nothing
(2) someone created something out of
Which is more reasonable?
Haven’t atheists and naturalists
watched The Sound of Music?
“Nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever
could” (Rogers and Hammerstein, sung by
Julie Andrews)
Ex nihilo, nihil fit
God is the Most Reasonable
Answer to Why Anything Exists
“For the scientist who has live by his faith in
the power of reason, the story ends like a
bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of
ignorance; he is about to conquer the
highest peak; as he pulls himself over the
final rock, he is greeted by a band of
theologians who have been sitting there for
centuries.”36 Robert Jastrow
The Verdict: God exists
There is substantial evidence for the existence
of God (the Intelligent Designer)
It takes more faith to be an atheist than to
believe in God (theist)
“To be an atheist requires an indefinitely greater
measure of faith than to receive all the great
truths which atheism would deny.”37
Joseph Addison
I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist
(Norman Geisler, Frank Turek, 2004)
God’s Undertaker--Has Science Buried God?
(John Lennox, 2009)
Why the Universe is the Way it Is (Hugh Ross, 2008)
Reasonable Faith (William Lane Craig, 2008)
Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the
Case for Intelligent Design (Stephen Meyer, 2013)
Icons of Evolution--Science or Myth? (Jonathan Wells, 2000)
On-Line Resources
 –audio archive for apologetics – The VERITAS Forum – Leadership University – Oxford Center for Christian Apologetics – Ravi Zacharias International Ministries – William Lane Craig’s Site – Access Research Network – William Dembski’s I.D. weblog and
and Truth,’ in Robert B. Brandom (ed.),
Rorty and his Critics, 2000, pp. 21-22.
2Psychology Today, November 16, 2008.
3Theism, Atheism and the Big Bang Cosmology. p.135.
4Free Inquiry, Spring, 1982
5Quoted in Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos,
1995, p. 57.
6Quoted in Fred Heeren, Show Me God, 2000, p. 35.
Footnotes, continued
 7Thomas
H. Maugh, II (April 24, 1992). "Relics of
Big Bang, Seen for First Time". Los Angeles
Times. pp. A1, A30.
8Heeren, Show Me God, p. 168.
9“William Lane Craig vs. Peter Atkins 1998 Debate.
Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed 24 March
10Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate.
11Craig vs Atkins 1998 Debate.
12The Emperor’s New Mind, 1989, p. 344
Footnotes, Continued
 13One
World, 1986, p. 80.
14Is There A God? 1995, p. 68.
15God and the Astronomers, 1978, p. 16.
16God and the Astronomers, pp. 113-114.
17God and the Astronomers, p. 16.
18Energy in the Universe, Scientific
American, 224, 1971, p. 50.
Footnotes, Continued
I Believe in Divine Creation,” in Why I am a
Christian: Leading Thinkers Explain Why They
Believe, Geisler & Hoffman, eds., 2001, pp. 138-141.
20Lawrence M. Krauss, Quintessence: The Mystery
of the Missing Mass, 2000, pp. 103-105
21Hugh Ross, Why the Universe is the Way it Is,
2008, pp. 39-40.
22Quoted in Walter Bradley, “The Just-so Universe:
The Fine-Tuning of Constants and Conditions in the
Cosmos,” in Signs of Intelligence, Dembski &
Kushiner, eds, 2001, p. 168.
 19Why
Footnotes, Continued
 23Quoted
in Geisler & Hoffman, eds, Why I am
a Christian, p. 142
24Quoted in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have
Enough Faith to be an Atheist, 2004, p. 121.
25Evolution from Space, 1984, p. 176.
26Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, 1985, p. 264.
27”Billions and Billions of Demons,” The New
York Review of Books, January 9, 1997, p. 31.
Footnotes, Continued
 28Of
Pandas and People: The Central Question of
Biological Origins, Davis & Kenyon, 1989, p. 7.
29Information Theory and Molecular Biology, 1992,
p. 284.
Footnotes, Continued
in Geisler & Turek, I Don’t Have
Enough Faith to be an Atheist, p. 95.
36God and the Astronomers, p. 116.
 35Quoted

CHRISTIANITY-- True or False?