Evidence for design in the universe Physical sciences Biological sciences . . . fine-tuning anthropic coincidences habitability discoverability intelligibility physical laws etc . . . origin of life molecular machines hardware and software of cells micro and macro evolution basic charact. of fossil record etc Cognitive sciences . . . mind/brain consciousness personhood free will etc Evidence for design in the universe Physical sciences Biological sciences . . . fine-tuning anthropic coincidences habitability discoverability intelligibility physical laws etc . . . origin of life molecular machines hardware and software of cells micro and macro evolution basic charact. of fossil record etc Cognitive sciences . . . mind/brain consciousness personhood free will etc Sources for further study The Goldilocks Enigma Paul Davies The Fitness of the Cosmos for Life John D. Barrow et al Rare Earth Ward and Brownlee Nature’s Destiny Michael Denton Life’s Solution (Chap 5) Simon Conway Morris Why The Universe Is The Way It Is Hugh Ross The Privileged Planet Gonzalez and Richards A Case Against Accident and Self-Organization Dean Overman The Politically Incorrect Guide to Darwinism and Intelligent Design (Chap 11) Jonathan Wells The anthropic coincidences There is now broad agreement among physicists and cosmologists that the universe is in several respects ‘finetuned' for life. P. Davies Int. J. of Astrobiology 2(2): 115, (2003). “Over the past three decades, facts such as these drawn from astrophysics and cosmology have led many physicists to argue that the cosmos appears to be finely tuned for life.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny p 10, (1998). The anthropic coincidences It is true, for example, that the fine structure constant a has to be close to 1/137 for carbon atoms to exist, and carbon atoms are required for us to be here writing about cosmology. However, these arguments have nothing to do with explaining what physical laws led to this particular value of a. … The anthropic principle is an observation, not an explanation. To believe otherwise is to believe that our emergence at a late date in the universe is what forced the constants to be set as they are at the beginning. If you believe that, you are a creationist. … [Regarding a recent theory by S. Hawking and T. Hertog on this topic] …it sounds to me a lot like the despised fine-tuning. B. Richter, Physics Today, Oct 2006 p 8-9. The anthropic coincidences Three categories: i) simple elegant mathematical form that nature takes ii) universal constants (19) iii) initial (or special) conditions The anthropic coincidences I. Fine-tuning of the earth (solar system, galaxy) II. Fine-tuning of the properties of water and carbon III. Fine-tuning of the fundamental constituents of the universe IV. Fine-tuning of the expansion of the universe The anthropic coincidences I. Fine-tuning of the earth (solar system, galaxy) II. Fine-tuning of the properties of water and carbon III. Fine-tuning of the fundamental constituents of the universe IV. Fine-tuning of the expansion of the universe Part I Fine-tuning of the earth (solar system, galaxy) Fine-tuning of the Earth The Copernican principle vs the anthropic coincidences The Copernican principle "However we are not able to make cosmological models without some admixture of ideology. In the earliest cosmologies, man placed himself in a commanding position at the centre of the universe. Since the time of Copernicus we have been steadily demoted to a medium sized planet going round a medium sized star on the outer edge of a fairly average galaxy, which is itself simply one of a local group of galaxies. Indeed we are now so democratic that we would not claim that our position in space is specially distinguished in any way. We shall, following Bondi (1960), call this assumption the Copernican principle.” Hawking, S.W. and Ellis, G.F.R., The Large Scale Structure of SpaceTime, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 134, 1973. Fine-tuning of the Earth “Most of the Universe is too cold, too hot, too dense, too vacuous, too dark, too bright, or not composed of the right elements to support life. … of all the known celestial bodies, Earth is unique in both its physical properties and its proven ability to sustain life….” “From the biased viewpoint of Earthlings, however, it does appear that Earth is quite a charmed planet.” P. Ward and D. Brownlee, Rare Earth, 2000, p 37. Fine-tuning of the Earth “If some god-like being could be given the opportunity to plan a sequence of events with the express goal of duplicating our “Garden of Eden”, that power would face a formidable task. With the best intentions, but limited by natural laws and materials, it is unlikely that Earth could ever be truly replicated. Too many processes in its formation involved sheer luck.” P. Ward and D. Brownlee, Rare Earth, 2000, p 37. What does it take to make a habitable planet? Isaiah 45:18 For this is what the LORD says - he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited - he says: I am the LORD and there is no other. What does it take to make a habitable planet? ~ 1011 planets in our galaxy 1 1012 1 1 1 1 1 1 x x x x x 100 100 100 100 100 100 ( )( )( )( )( )( ) = If 6 finely-tuned factors exist, then we have no right to expect another earth-like planet in the entire galaxy!! ~ 1022 planets in the observable universe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (100 )x (100 )x(100 )x (100 )x(100 )x (100 )x(100 )x (100 )x (100 )x (100 )x(100 ) = 1 1022 If 11 finely-tuned factors exist, then we have no right to expect another earth-like planet in the entire observable universe!! Earth’s orbit around the sun Freezing and boiling of water set conservative limits Earth’s orbit around the sun “One of Earth’s most basic life-supporting attributes is indeed its location, its seemingly ideal distance from the sun.” Rare Earth, p 16. “Astrobiologists James Kasting and his colleagues … estimated in 1993 that the width of the CHZ is from 0.95 to 1.15 AU.” (1 AU = distance from the Earth to the Sun) Rare Earth, p 19. Orbital characteristics of extra solar planets circular: eccentricity = 0 1/10 are circular The Privileged Planet pg 95 Earth’s size “Earth’s size is just about right - not too small that its gravity was too weak to hold the atmosphere and not so large that its atmosphere would hold too much atmosphere including harmful gases … F. Press and R. Siever, Earth, 1986, p 4. Quoted in Nature’s Destiny p 92 Needed: Sufficiently large for a sufficiently strong magnetic field But not too large or highly active tectonic plates Orbital characteristics of extra solar planets Nature 470, 2426, 2011 1/200 earth-sized, in habitable zone (Nature 470, 27-29, 2011) Earth’s tilt about spin axis “Although our viewpoint is certainly biased, our planet’s tilt axis seems to be “just right”. Rare Earth, p 224. +/- 1 deg for several thousand yrs larger tilt - temperature extremes smaller tilt - rain not distributed Privileged Planet, p 5. Earth’s tilt about spin axis “Constancy of the tilt angle is a factor that provides long-term stability of the Earth’s temperature. If the polar tilt axis had undergone wide deviations from its present value, Earth’s climate would have been much less hospitable….. Rare Earth, p 224. These results show that the situation of the Earth is very peculiar. The common status for all the terrestrial planets is to have experienced very large scale chaotic behavior for their obliquity, which in the case of the Earth and in the absence of the Moon, may have prevented the appearance of evoluted forms of life. We owe our exceptional climate stability to an exceptional event the presence of the moon. Jacques Laskar, quoted in Rare Earth p 224. The Moon Just right size and distance from the Earth to -stabilize tilt -slow Earth’s rate of rotation “our moon is somewhat of a freak because of its large size in comparison to its parent planet.” Rare Earth p 222. “Without the moon it is … likely that no birds, redwoods, whales, trilobites, or other advanced life would ever have graced Earth. … Although there are dozens of moons in the solar system, the familiar ghostly white moon that illuminates our night sky is highly unusual, and its presence played a surprisingly important role …” Rare Earth p 222. The Moon “We owe our present climate stability to an exceptional event: the presence of the Moon.” Jacques Laskar, quoted in Rare Earth p 224. Produced by a “just right” collision? “to produce such a massive moon, the impacting body had to be the right size, it had to impact the right point on the Earth, and the impact had to have occurred at just the right time in the Earth’s growth process.” Rare Earth p 231. Earth’s atmosphere “… differs greatly from those of other terrestrial planets, which range from essentially no atmosphere (Mercury) to a CO2 atmosphere a hundred times denser (Venus) and a CO2 atmosphere a hundred times less dense (Mars).” Ward and Brownlee, Rare Earth, p 52. “It is difficult to see how the actual concentrations of these gases could be very different from what they are in any atmosphere supporting a carbon-based biosphere.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny, p 55. Earth’s atmosphere Oxygen is essential for the energy generating reactions of life, its reactivity is fine-tuned. “Oxygen is basically a very dangerous reactive substance and is highly toxic to life at levels above those normally encountered in nature. … Oxygen is fit because its chemical reactivity is attenuated at ambient temperatures (below 50 oC), allowing living systems to utilize this awesome energy source in a controlled and efficient manner.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny 123, 125 min. pressure is required to retain liquid water M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny Earth’s atmosphere Could our atmosphere contain more oxygen and still support life? No! … the current percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere, 21 %, is close to the upper limit of safety for life at ambient temperatures.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny, p 120. “the present oxygen level is at a point where risk and benefit nicely balance.” J. E. Lovelock, Gaia, 1987, p 71. Earth’s elemental composition Earth’s elemental composition number mass 46.6% O 35% Fe 27.7% Si 30% O 8.1% Al 15% Si 5.0% Fe 13% Mg 3.6% Ca 2.4% Ni 2.8% Na 1.1% Ca 2.1% Mg 1.1% Al Relative abundance of elements in the sun Earth’s chemical composition If too much water - all land is covered 0.1% water “with even twice as much water, Earth would have ended up as an abyssal planet entirely covered with deep blue water a true “water world” …” Ward and Brownlee Rare Earth, p 47 “thus the planet’s remarkable mixture of land and oceans is a balancing act. … This fortuitous combination may be the most important factor that ultimately made life possible. Ward and Brownlee Rare Earth, p 53. If too little water - global temperatures would fluctuate too much Ward and Brownlee Rare Earth, p 264 Earth’s elemental composition “Discovering how Earth acquired its supply of water is one of the most critical concerns of the new field of astrobiology. As we pointed out in an earlier chapter, water was not abundant in the inner regions of the solar system when planets formed. There was far more water in the outer regions of the solar system than among the inner planets. Where did our water come from?” Still subject of debate, comets - heavy bombardment? Ward and Brownlee Rare Earth, p 261. Earth’s elemental composition “An enigma of Earth’s formation is its composition and particular location in the solar system…. A grand paradox of terrestrial planets is that if they form close enough to the star to be in its habitable zone, they typically end up with very little water and a dearth of primary life-forming elements such as nitrogen and oxygen, compared with bodies that formed in the outer solar system. In other words, the planets that are in the right place, and thus have warm surfaces, contain only minor amounts of the ingredients necessary for life”. “the origin of biogenic elements is a subject of considerable speculation.” from “asteroidal and cometary debris” ? Rare Earth, p 45, 48. Earth’s elemental composition If too much water - all land is covered If too much carbon, CO2 will cause runaway greenhouse effect 0.05 % carbon Earth’s elemental composition If too much water - all land is covered If too much carbon, CO2 will cause runaway greenhouse effect Enough Fe in core for a magnetic field 35 % iron Earth’s elemental composition If too much water - all land is covered If too much carbon, CO2 will cause runaway greenhouse effect Enough Fe in core for a sufficient magnetic field Enough radioactive metals for long-lived furnace (uranium, thorium, potassium) Just right composition for thin crust - enables plate tectonics Earth’s elemental composition “… the Earth’s interior is a delicately balanced heat engine fueled by radioactivity … were it running too slowly … the continents might not have evolved to their present form… Iron may never have melted and sunk to the liquid core, and the magnetic field would never have developed…. If there had been more radioactive fuel, and therefore a faster running engine, volcanic dust would have blotted out the Sun, the atmosphere would have been oppressively dense, and the surface would have been racked by daily earthquakes and volcanic explosions.” F. Press and R. Siever, Earth, 1986, p 4. radioactive elements: uranium 238 – 0.0004% (by mass) thorium 232 – 0.0012% potassium 40 – 0.0028% Earth’s cycles Hydrological cycle Plate tectonics (earth, but nowhere else in solar system) Ensure the physical and chemical constancy of our environment -regulates greenhouse gases -builds continents -global thermostat (5 C - 40 C) -magnetic field (T difference across core, convection cells) “Like two gigantic cogwheels engineered to fit perfectly together, these two great cycles have turned together in perfect unison … ensuring the continual turnover and essential recycling of the vital elements of life.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny, p 84. The sun The sun (G-type, main sequence) Just-right size: bigger - hotter, burns faster, more erratic smaller - cooler, habitable zone closer in, its gravity would slow a planet’s rotation too much 5% of stars in our galaxy are similar to our sun 80% are red dwarf stars (highly unlikely to support habitable planets) main sequence stars: fusing hydrogen to helium The sun Temp range of stars: The sun: 30,000 oC - 1000 oC 5500 oC The sun M-type stars - thousand or million times more active ( flares) than sun The sun for photochemistry: < 0.3 too energetic > 0.7 too weak “That the radiation from the sun… should be concentrated into a miniscule band of the electromagnetic spectrum which provides precisely the radiation required to maintain life on earth is a very remarkable coincidence described as ‘staggering’ by Ian Campbell in Energy and Atmosphere.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny The sun Temp range of stars: 30,000 oC - 1000 oC for photochemistry: < 0.3 too energetic > 0.7 too weak peak range of stars: 0.1 um - 2.3 um The sun: 5500 oC The sun From “Nature’s Destiny”, by M. Denton The sun “We should indeed be awed and staggered…. It is as if a cardplayer had drawn precisely the same card on four occasions from a deck of 1025.” M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny Jupiter and outer planets Jupiter: just-right size and location: Jupiter and outer planets Jupiter: just-right size and location: “without a large planet positioned precisely where Jupiter is, the earth would have been struck a thousand times more frequently in the past by comets and meteors and other interplanetary debris.” “…we wouldn’t be around to study the solar system.” G. W. Wetherill, Nature 1995, 373: 470; Discover 1993, p 15. However, if Jupiter were too large, or too close, it would perturb Earth’s orbit. Jupiter and outer planets Gas giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Orbits: -on the same horizontal plane -almost circular (avg eccentricity = 0.06 Priv. Planet p 96) Slight deviations would be catastrophic for Earth Our position in the Milky Way Our position in the Milky Way Moreover, the Sun's circular orbit about the galactic center is just right; through a combination of factors it manages to keep out of the way of the Galaxy's dangerous spiral arms. Our solar system is also far enough away from the galactic center to not have to worry about disruptive gravitational forces or too much radiation. … More than 95 percent of stars in the Galaxy, says Gonzalez, wouldn't be able to support habitable planets simply because their rotation is not synchronized with the rotation of the galaxy's spiral arms. Add all the other factors involved in keeping a solar system habitable, and it seems that the odds of finding another solar system in a Galactic Habitable Zone are close to impossible. Galactic Habitable Zones, Astrobiology Magazine, May 18, 2001 Our galaxy A spiral galaxy (only 6% of all galaxies) elliptical - little new star formation - abundance of heavy elements is low - existence of planets is doubtful Rare Earth p 29. What does it take to make a habitable planet? ~ 1011 planets in our galaxy 1 1012 1 1 1 1 1 1 x x x x x 100 100 100 100 100 100 ( )( )( )( )( )( ) = If 6 finely-tuned factors exist, then we have no right to expect another earth-like planet in the entire galaxy!! 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (200 ) x (100 ) x (100 ) x ( 2 ) x ( 10 ) x (100 ) x (100 ) x (100 ) x (100 ) x (100 ) x earth-sized, in habitable zone (Nature 470, 27-29, 2011) G-type, galactic rocky main habitable sequence zone star (Icarus 152 185-200, 2001; the physics arXiv blog) circular orbit magnetic right amount field(liqui of water d iron core) large moon, close …. right plate tectonics atmosphere (venus and mars) What does it take to make a habitable planet? ~ 1022 planets in the observable universe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x x x x x x x x x x 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )= 1 1022 If 11 finely-tuned factors exist, then we have no right to expect another earth -like planet in the entire observable universe!! Creation as Science, Hugh Ross, p 179 See also Why The Universe Is The Way It Is, Hugh Ross, pg 122-123 hundreds of such factors exist! Number has increased as scientific knowledge has progressed! What does it take to make a habitable planet? Isaiah 45:18 For this is what the LORD says - he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited - he says: I am the LORD and there is no other. Part II Fine-tuning of the properties of water and carbon The fitness of water for life Chemical/biological properties: versatile solvent: polar, ionic compounds dissolve nonpolar compounds do not (allows proteins to fold, lipids to form membranes) Reactant or product in nearly all biochemical/biophysical reactions: photosynthesis: H2O + CO2 + sunlight oxidation: glucose + O2 O2 and glucose CO2 + H2O + energy synthesis & degradation of: proteins, lipids, nucleic acids carbohydrates high proton conductance: The fitness of water for life Thermal properties 1. Anomalous expansion below 4 C 2. Density of ice < density of liquid water “ … both are mutually adapted toward the end of preserving bodies of liquid water on a planetary surface.” Nature’s Destiny p 25. 3. High latent heat of freezing or evaporation 4. High heat capacity of liquid water 5. High thermal conductivity of water 6. Low thermal conductivity of ice and snow The fitness of water for life Thermal properties 1. Anomalous expansion below 4 C 2. Density of ice < density of liquid water density of water at 0 oC = 1.0 g/ml density of ice at 0 oC = 0.92 g/ml without these two properties “most of the water on the earth would be permanently frozen into vast beds of ice at the bottom of the oceans”. M. Denton, Nature’s Destiny, pg 28 The fitness of water for life Thermal properties 1. Anomalous expansion below 4 C 2. Density of ice < density of liquid water 3. High latent heat of freezing or evaporation 4. High heat capacity of liquid water 5. High thermal conductivity of water 6. Low thermal conductivity of ice and snow The fitness of water for life Temperature regulation: High heat capacity of liquid water High thermal conductivity of water High latent heat of evaporation 100 kg man runs 10 miles in one hr, generates 1000 kcal of heat no heat loss - T would increase by 10 oC if made of ethanol - T would increase by 20 oC “not one or two, not most, but all the thermal properties of water are mutually adaptive not only for the maintenance of thermal stability on a planetary scale, but also for the buffering of individual macroscopic life forms against sudden temperature changes…. No other liquid is known which can even remotely approach the fitness of water for temperature regulation. “ Nature’s Destiny pg 29, 45 The fitness of water for life Surface tension water: 72 mN/m, most organic liquids: 20-40 mN/m -high surface tension draws water through soil, roots, and branches -assists in the processes of weathering of rocks, formation of soils The fitness of water for life Viscosity (exceptionally low) diffusion - import. for unicellular organisms and individual cells to gain nutrients circulatory system: no active cell can survive in a mammal unless it is within ~ 50 um of a capillary very small capillaries are needed ~ 3-5 um flow rate ~ 1/viscosity, resist to flow ~ 1/(diameter)4 “if the viscosity of water had been only a few times greater than it is, pumping blood through a capillary bed would require enormous pressure and almost any sort of circulatory system would be unworkable.” Nature’s Destiny pg 35 The fitness of water for life Viscosity (exceptionally low) diffusion - import. for unicellular organisms and individual cells to gain nutrients circulatory system: “It seems then that the viscosity of water must be very close to what it is to be a fit medium for life. … If it was much higher, diffusion would be prohibitively slow, and while very simple cell systems might be possible, large complex metabolically active orgnaisms would not. No conceivable set of compensatory changes - increasing the number or diameter of the capillaries, increasing the flow rate or decreasing average cell size, etc could be engineered to make mammalian life possible.” Nature’s Destiny pg 35 The fitness of water for life chemical/biological properties thermal properties surface tension viscosity etc “the evidence reviewed in this chapter indicates that water is uniquely and ideally adapted to serve as the fluid medium for life on earth in not just one, or many, but in every single one of its known physical and chemical characteristics.” Nature’s Destiny p 25. The fitness of water for life chemical/biological properties thermal properties surface tension viscosity etc “It is striking that so many eccentricities should occur together in one substance.” Frank Stillinger, Science 209, p 451 (1980). The fitness of water for life Ammonia? Heat of vaporization only 1/2 that of water Surface tension only 1/3 that of water Much weaker hydrogen bonds: far less able to concentrate nonpolar molecules by hydrophobic effect The fitness of carbon "How is it that common elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen happened to have just the right kind of atomic structure that they needed to combine to make the molecules upon which life depends? It is almost as though the universe had been consciously designed." Richard Morris, The Fate of the Universe, 1982, 155. "Without such accidents water could not exist as a liquid, chains of carbon atoms could not form complex organic molecules, and hydrogen atoms could not form breakable bridges between molecules" Freeman Dyson, Disturbing the Universe,1979, 393. The fitness of carbon ”The total number and diversity of possible chemical structures that may be constructed out of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen is virtually unlimited. Almost any imaginable chemical shape and chemical property can be derived. The reason for the unique diversity and number of carbon compounds lies in certain unique characteristics of the carbon atom … …It is the only element which could occupy such a position…. …universal chemical constructor kit … It is as if from the very moment of creation the biochemistry of life was already preordained in the atom-building process, as if Nature were biased to this end from the beginning.” Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny, 108. The fitness of carbon The fitness of carbon Metastability of chemical bonds - they do not require much energy to be activated for covalent chemical reactions “As in so many respects carbon seems to have the best of both worlds, combining stability with lability” However, this metastability is only manifest in a very narrow temperature range ( -20 C - 120 C). “a highly suggestive coincidence that the chemical reactivity of the one great class of compounds, uniquely fit in so many other ways to serve as the building blocks of life, is of optimal utility for the complex atomic and molecular manipulations associated with life in precisely that temperature range - 0 oC to 100 oC - in which water, the one fluid supremely fit to serve as the matrix for carbon based life forms, exists as a liquid at sea level on the earth. Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny, 108. The fitness of carbon Metastability of weak chemical bonds (hold proteins in folded state) Remarkably, these weak bonds are also of utility in approximately the same small temperature range. In fact, weak bonds are even more temperature sensitive than covalent bonds. Most weak bonds in existing biomolecules such as proteins are disrupted by increases in temperature which leave covalent bonds intact. Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny, 115. The fitness of carbon and water “out of the enormous range of temperatures in the cosmos, there is only one tiny temperature band in which we have (1) liquid water, (2) a great plenitude of metastable organic compounds, and (3) weak bonds for stabilizing the 3-D forms of complex molecules. Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny, 116. Another coincidence?? Part III Fine-tuning of the fundamental constituents of the universe The universe -particles of matter (energy) -space-time -laws of nature -constants of nature Huge amount of precision and engineering in all this (mostly invisible) stuff! The anthropic coincidences The universal constants me, mass of electron a, electromagnetic force constant mp , mass of proton aS, strong force constant mn , mass of neutron aW, weak force constant e, charge of electron and proton aG, gravitational force constant c, speed of light in vacuum etc h, Planck’s constant k, Boltzmann’s constant The universal constants Very important recent discovery The precise values of these constants are critical for the universe to support life! -stability of the elements -ability to form chemical compounds -types of stars and rates of burning -etc The anthropic coincidences Some important events on this topic: The Fitness of the Environment Lawrence Henderson, 1913 The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences Eugene Wigner, 1960 Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in Cosmology Brandon Carter, 1973 Energy from sun matched with that needed for photochemistry for photochemistry: < 0.3 too energetic > 0.7 too weak This occurs because the values of the universal constants h, c, G, me, mp, e are just right. Energy from sun matched with that needed for photochemistry from Barrow and Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle This occurs because the values of the universal constants h, c, G, me, mp, e are just right. Many elements are needed for life The universal constants Ex. ratio of mass of proton to mass of electron (1,836) This ratio determines the characteristics of orbits of electrons about nuclei. If this ratio were slightly different there would be no chemistry, and no life. S. Hawking cites this example as one of the many fundamental numbers in nature, and he says "The remarkable fact is that the values of these numbers seem to have been very finely adjusted to make possible the development of life". S. Hawking, A Brief History of Time,1988, pg 125. The universal constants Ex. ratio of mass of neutron to mass of proton (1.0014) If protons were slightly heavier than neutrons, “protons would decay into neutrons .. with disastrous consequences for life, because without protons there would be no atoms and no chemistry". P. Davies, The Goldilocks Enigma,2008, pg 145. mass of neutron must be greater than mass of proton + electron The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 “Slight variations in physical laws such as gravity or electromagnetism would make life impossible… The necessity to produce life lies at the center of the universe’s whole machinery and design.” John Wheeler The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 Strong nuclear force - holds nucleus together If: SF/EMF x 1.02 SF/EMF x 0.95 no stable hydrogen few if any elements other than hydrogen Ward and Brownlee, Rare Earth, 2000. The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 "If the strong nuclear force were even 0.3 % stronger or 2% weaker the universe would never be able to support life." Barrow and Tipler, Anthropic Cosmological Principle, 318-327, 354-359. The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 Weak nuclear force - controls radioactivity If WF were slightly larger, neutrons would decay into protons faster, and heavy elements needed for life would not form If WF were slightly weaker, most hydrogen would have converted into helium The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 Electromagnetic force - electrical charges, magnetism If EMF were slightly weaker, electrons wouldn’t be held in their orbits If EMF were slightly stronger, electrons couldn’t be shared among different atoms Either way, no chemistry and no life! The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 EMF/GF = 1036 If: EMF/GF = 1030 no heavy elements, life impossible Walter Bradley, Creation of the Cosmos The four fundamental forces rel. strength Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) 1 10-6 1/137 6 x 10-39 EMF/GF = 1036 If: EMF/GF = 1030 no heavy elements, life impossible Walter Bradley, Creation of the Cosmos The four fundamental forces Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force Electromagnetic force Gravitational force (SF) (WF) (EMF) (GF) "The bulk of the carbon in our universe is produced in the triple-alpha process in helium-burning red giant stars. We calculated the change of the triple-alpha reaction rate in a microscopic12-nucleon model of the 12C nucleus and looked for the effects of minimal variations of the strengths of the underlying interactions. ... We conclude that a change of more than 0.5% in the strength of the strong interaction or more than 4% change in the strength of the Coulomb force would destroy either nearly all C or all O in every star. H. Oberhummer, A. Csoto, H. Schlattl, Science 289, 2000, pg 88. The anthropic coincidences It is true, for example, that the fine structure constant a has to be close to 1/137 for carbon atoms to exist, and carbon atoms are required for us to be here writing about cosmology. However, these arguments have nothing to do with explaining what physical laws led to this particular value of a. … The anthropic principle is an observation, not an explanation. To believe otherwise is to believe that our emergence at a late date in the universe is what forced the constants to be set as they are at the beginning. If you believe that, you are a creationist. … [Regarding a recent theory by S. Hawking and T. Hertog on this topic] …it sounds to me a lot like the despised fine-tuning. B. Richter, Physics Today, Oct 2006 p 8-9. Following the discovery of this: "A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question." Fred Hoyle, "The Universe: Past and Present Reflections", Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 20 (1982), 16. Another coincidence?? Colossians 1 15He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. 17He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. Colossians 1:17 Part IV fine tuning of the expanding universe Some important observations 1. a). Light and other forms of radiation are detected that originated from sources which are now very large distances (billions of light-years) away Some important observations 2. Red shifts - the wavelengths of radiation from each galaxy are shifted toward the red side of the spectrum by a factor roughly proportional to the distance of the galaxy from us. The universe is expanding Some important observations -light gets stretched en route -galaxies recede faster at greater distances from “Creation as Science” H. Ross, p 92 Some important observations 3. Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, nearly uniform in all directions. This radiation does not come from a single source, rather it comes from every point in the universe. Believed to represent radiation with a red-shift of 1,100. It is the earliest phenomenon that we will ever observe. The universe expanded from a very hot, dense state Implication there was a beginning (creation event) “Philosophically, the notion of a beginning of the present order of nature is repugnant to me” Arthur Eddington Nature 450, 127, (1931) “I would like to reject it” Phillip Morrison, God and the Astronomers, 1992, p 104 “Distasteful to the scientific mind” Robert Jastrow, God and the Astronomers, 1992, p 105 Energy driving expansion precisely matched to gravitational attraction from “Creation as Science” H. Ross, p 96 expansion too fast - expansion too slow - expansion just right - all dust, no stars all black holes galaxies, stars, planets One model: mass density tuned to 1 part in 1060 Inflationary model: energy density tuned to 1 part in 10120 Expansion of the universe - the most remarkable example of fine-tuning Job 9:8 Psalm 104:2 Isaiah 40:22, 42:5, 44:24, 45:12, 48:13, 51:13 Jeremiah 10:12, 51:15 Zechariah 12:1 “He alone stretches out the heavens …” Job 9:8 “He stretches out the heavens like a canopy…” Is. 40:22 Fine-tuning of the mass density Also: If too large, nuclear fusion too productive no elements lighter than iron If too small, nuclear fusion not productive enough only hydrogen and helium Fine-tuning of the mass density Fine-tuning of the mass density Suggests that all the stars in the universe are required for us to be here today! Fine-tuning of the mass density “It is ironic that those very features of the cosmos that were so troubling to the astronomers of the early seventeenth century - its vast size and the apparently infinite number of stars stretched out across its immensity …which seemed to render the earth an irrelevant mote of dust in the cosmic scheme, have turned out to be absolutely critical and essential for our existence.” Michael Denton, Nature’s Destiny, p 14-15. mass density, energy density of empty space In any case, there is one constant whose value does seem remarkably well adjusted in our favor. It is the energy density of empty space, also known as the cosmological constant." S. Weinberg, Skeptical Inquirer, Sept./Oct. 2001, pg 67. At the Nature of Nature conference at Baylor University, April 2000, Weinberg stated that the cosmological constant appears to be fine-tuned to 1 part in 10120. mass density, energy density of empty space Which fundamental fine-tuning problem is one more willing to worry about, the flatness problem or the cosmological constant problem? The latter involves a fine-tuning of over 120 orders of magnitude, if the cosmological constant is nonzero and comparable to the density of clustered matter today, while the former involves a fine-tuning of perhaps only 60 orders of magnitude, if one arbitrarily fixes the energy density of the universe at the Planck time to be slightly less than the closure density. L. M. Krauss, The Astrophysical Journal, 1998, 501: p 465. Naturalistic Response “any cosmological theory that does not lead to the eternal reproduction of universes will be considered as unimaginable as a species of bacteria that cannot reproduce” Alan Guth Discover 2002 pg 38. Naturalistic Response Infinite number of universes (last resort to salvage naturalism) idea: if there is an infinite number of universes, and all possible conditions happen, then some universe will be “just right” problems: -fundamentally undetectable (causally disconnected) -where did the other universes come from? -no explanation for laws of physics -why should all possibilities for constants occur? -everything can (and does) happen, so explains nothing Response to the Naturalistic Response "Extreme multiverse explanations are . . . reminiscent of theological discussions. Indeed, invoking an infinity of unseen universes to explain the unusual features of the one we do see is just as ad hoc as invoking an unseen Creator. The multiverse theory may be dressed up in scientific language, but in essence it requires the same leap of faith." Paul Davies, Op-Ed in the New York Times, "A Brief History of the Mulitverse", Apr. 12, 2003. Accepting the extremely improbable to avoid an undesirable answer Quotes from world-renowned scientists "Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God - the design argument of Paley-updated and refurbished. The fine tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design. Take your choice: blind chance that requires multitudes of universes, or design that requires only one. ... Many scientists, when they admit their views, incline toward the teleological or design argument." E. Harrison, Masks of the Universe, 1985, 252, 263. Quotes from world-renowned scientists "Astronomy leads us to an unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing and delicately balanced to provide exactly the conditions required to support life. In the absence of an absurdly-improbable accident, the observations of modern science seem to suggest an underlying, one might say, supernatural plan." Arno Penzias, quoted by Walter Bradley in "The Designed 'Justso' Universe", 1999. Quotes from world-renowned scientists "The more I examine the universe and the details of its architecture, the more evidence I find that the universe in some sense must have known we were coming." Freeman Dyson (Princeton Physicist), Disturbing the Universe, 1979, pg 250. . Quotes from world-renowned scientists "If the Universe had not been made with the most exacting precision we could never have come into existence. It is my view that these circumstances indicate that the Universe was created for man to live in." John O'Keefe (NASA astronomer), quoted in R. Jastrow in God and the Astronomers,1992, 118. Quotes from world-renowned scientists "As we survey all the evidence, the thought insistently arises that some supernatural agency -or rather Agency- must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof of the existence of a Supreme Being? Was it God who so providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?" G. Greenstein, Symbiotic Universe: Life and Mind in the Cosmos, 1988, 27. Quotes from world-renowned scientists "... is for me evidence that there is something going on behind it all. The impression of design is overwhelming." P. Davies, Cosmic Blueprint: New Discoveries in Nature’s Creative Ability to order the Universe, 1988, 203 Quotes from world-renowned scientists "We can't understand the universe in any clear way without the supernatural" Allan Sandage, Astronomer, Interview with Fred Hereen, quoted in Show Me God, pg 224 Quotes from world-renowned scientists "For the scientist who has lived by his faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries." R. Jastrow, God and the Astronomers,1992, pg 107.