The Eastern Woodlands Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Pages 62 – 67 Objectives • Describe how the Eastern Woodlands peoples adapted to their environment • Locate the Eastern Woodlands cultural area and compare lifeways among its inhabitants. Life in the Eastern Woodland • Stretched east of the Mississippi River • Name the thick forests that covered the land • Villages built along banks of rivers and streams www.promotega.org A Common Resource • TREES – Shelter – Weapons – Tools – Canoes – Food: Cherries and plums Eastern Woodland People • Northeastern part of the Woodlands – Soil was rocky – People did more hunting and gathering • Southern areas of the Woodlands – Soil was better/richer with nutrients – People would farm: beans, corn, squash JOBS – Division of Labor • MEN – Hunted animals for food – Used antlers and bones to make tools – Used spears & nets to catch fish – Cleared land for planting • WOMEN – Prepared the food – Used animal skins to make clothing & moccasins – Planted & harvested crops (along with the children Two Groups of Eastern Woodlands • Iroquois • Algonquian • Separated into these groups based on the languages they spoke IROQUOIS Iroquois Flag • Lived inland: Great Lake Region • PA, NY, & Lake Ontario of Canada • Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca • These tribes known as the Iroquois, or the FIVE NATIONS Iroquois Villages • Iroquois were farmers • Built on steep hills • PALISADES – walls of tall wooden poles Built around villages for protection Iroquois Shelters • Longhouses – long wooden building that could hold up to 50 people • Poles made from small trees, bent then covered with bark • Divided into sections • Held one to two families american-native-art.com Iroquois Crops • Three main crops: Corn, Beans, Squash • Crops called: Three Sisters • All three crops were planted in the same field • After a few years, soil less fertile • A new field would be cleared in another area CRAFTS • Wampum – beads cut from seashells • Used to make beaded designs • Traded & Exchanged for goods • Used to show: – Important decisions – Events – Stories warriors.warren.k12.il.us Iroquois League • Five nations often battled over control of hunting grounds • Hiawatha – saw family killed by another tribe • He was to kill those who killed his family • He wanted fighting to stop Hiawatha • Leaves his village to meet with Deganawida (deh-gahn-uh-WEE-duh) • Deganawida known as the Peacemaker • Eventually, they convinced the Five Nations to unite and work together United Iroquois • Formed about A.D. 1570 • Acted as a Confederation • Confederation – loose group of governments working together • Representatives were sent from all tribes • Grand Council – settled disputes among the people peacefully What was used to make longhouses? • Trees bent to make the frame and covered with bark Why were trees important to the Eastern Woodlands? • Provided the wood used to make tools, canoes, shelter, and were also a source of food. ALGONQUIAN • Three tribes that lived along the coastal plain: – Delaware – Wampanoag – Powhatan ALGONQUIAN • Other tribes that lived inland, around the Great Lakes: – Ottawa – Chippewa – Miami Algonquian Homes • Some groups built longhouses like the Iroquois • Others built round, bark-covered shelters – Wigwams – Built like longhouses: small trees bent, tied together into a dome shape, then covered with bark Algonquian Food • Did not rely on farming • FISHED • Built canoes www.buckskinnerweb.com • Used animal bones & wood to make hooks and fishing traps Clothing • MEN – – – – Wore shirts Leggins Moccasins All made from deerskin • WOMEN – Wore dresses – Made from deerskin Government • Algonquian groups had leaders who governed more than one village • Some had two chiefs: – one for matters of peace – one for matters of war Ceremonies • Marriage Ceremonies • Man had to show he was a good hunter • Woman had to show she was a good homemaker • Couple would marry by exchanging gifts and inviting their families to a feast How did the diet of the Algonquian differ from that of the Iroquois? • The Algonquian ate more fish, while the Iroquois relied more on crops How is the term confederation related to the Iroquois League? • The Iroquois League was a confederation of different groups Why did the Iroquois groups choose to come together to form the Iroquois League? • The groups thought they could better protect themselves and their way of life if they cooperated.