The Eastern Woodlands
Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 2
Pages 62 – 67
Objectives
• Describe how the Eastern Woodlands
peoples adapted to their environment
• Locate the Eastern Woodlands cultural
area and compare lifeways among its
inhabitants.
Life in the Eastern Woodland
• Stretched east of the
Mississippi River
• Name  the thick
forests that covered
the land
• Villages built along
banks of rivers and
streams
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A Common Resource
• TREES
– Shelter
– Weapons
– Tools
– Canoes
– Food: Cherries and plums
Eastern Woodland People
• Northeastern part of
the Woodlands
– Soil was rocky
– People did more
hunting and gathering
• Southern areas of the
Woodlands
– Soil was better/richer
with nutrients
– People would farm:
beans, corn, squash
JOBS – Division of Labor
• MEN
– Hunted animals for
food
– Used antlers and
bones to make tools
– Used spears & nets to
catch fish
– Cleared land for
planting
• WOMEN
– Prepared the food
– Used animal skins to
make clothing &
moccasins
– Planted & harvested
crops (along with the
children
Two Groups of Eastern
Woodlands
• Iroquois
• Algonquian
• Separated into these groups based on the
languages they spoke
IROQUOIS
Iroquois Flag
• Lived inland: Great Lake
Region
• PA, NY, & Lake Ontario
of Canada
• Mohawk, Oneida,
Onondaga, Cayuga, and
Seneca
• These tribes known as
the Iroquois, or the FIVE
NATIONS
Iroquois Villages
• Iroquois were farmers
• Built on steep hills
• PALISADES – walls of tall wooden poles
Built around villages for protection
Iroquois Shelters
• Longhouses – long
wooden building that
could hold up to 50
people
• Poles made from small
trees, bent then covered
with bark
• Divided into sections
• Held one to two families
american-native-art.com
Iroquois Crops
• Three main crops: Corn, Beans, Squash
• Crops called: Three Sisters
• All three crops were planted in the same
field
• After a few years, soil less fertile
• A new field would be cleared in another
area
CRAFTS
• Wampum – beads cut
from seashells
• Used to make beaded
designs
• Traded & Exchanged for
goods
• Used to show:
– Important decisions
– Events
– Stories
warriors.warren.k12.il.us
Iroquois League
• Five nations often battled over control of
hunting grounds
• Hiawatha – saw family killed by another
tribe
• He was to kill those who killed his family
• He wanted fighting to stop
Hiawatha
• Leaves his village to meet with
Deganawida (deh-gahn-uh-WEE-duh)
• Deganawida known as the Peacemaker
• Eventually, they convinced the Five
Nations to unite and work together
United Iroquois
• Formed about A.D. 1570
• Acted as a Confederation
• Confederation – loose group of
governments working together
• Representatives were sent from all tribes
• Grand Council – settled disputes among
the people peacefully
What was used to make
longhouses?
• Trees bent to make the frame and covered
with bark
Why were trees important to
the Eastern Woodlands?
• Provided the wood used to make tools,
canoes, shelter, and were also a source of
food.
ALGONQUIAN
• Three tribes that lived along the coastal
plain:
– Delaware
– Wampanoag
– Powhatan
ALGONQUIAN
• Other tribes that lived inland, around the
Great Lakes:
– Ottawa
– Chippewa
– Miami
Algonquian Homes
• Some groups built longhouses like the
Iroquois
• Others built round, bark-covered shelters
– Wigwams
– Built like longhouses: small trees bent, tied
together into a dome shape, then covered with
bark
Algonquian Food
• Did not rely on farming
• FISHED
• Built canoes
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• Used animal bones &
wood to make hooks and
fishing traps
Clothing
• MEN
–
–
–
–
Wore shirts
Leggins
Moccasins
All made from
deerskin
• WOMEN
– Wore dresses
– Made from deerskin
Government
• Algonquian groups had leaders who
governed more than one village
• Some had two chiefs:
– one for matters of peace
– one for matters of war
Ceremonies
• Marriage Ceremonies
• Man had to show he was a good hunter
• Woman had to show she was a good
homemaker
• Couple would marry by exchanging gifts
and inviting their families to a feast
How did the diet of the
Algonquian differ from that of
the Iroquois?
• The Algonquian ate more fish, while the
Iroquois relied more on crops
How is the term confederation
related to the Iroquois League?
• The Iroquois League was a confederation
of different groups
Why did the Iroquois groups
choose to come together to form
the Iroquois League?
• The groups thought they could better
protect themselves and their way of life if
they cooperated.
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The Eastern Woodlands - Edmond Public Schools