Learning Objective
Chapter
O U T L 20:
I N E
Intercultural and
International
Objectives
Communication
Cultural Diversity in the Workplace
Understanding Cultural Diversity
Global Communication Situations
International Communication
Challenges
Competent Communication
Steps to Better International
Communication
20
C H A P T E R
Building a Shared Culture
Intercultural and International
Communication
Copyright © 2001 South-Western College Publishing Co.
Chapter 20:
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Learning Objective
Learning Objectives
1. Explain why cultural diversity is important in the work
place.
2. Recognize the importance of globalization.
3. Understand and describe cultural differences.
4. Summarize the steps necessary for communicating
competently in a culturally diverse workplace.
5. Develop skills for improving international communication.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE
WORKPLACE
What is cultural diversity?
Differences in age, ethnic heritage, race,
physical abilities or qualities, gender, and
sexual orientation.
Should multicultural sensitivity in the
workplace be a major goal for all business
organizations?
Yes, successful companies will treat diversity
as a strategic goal.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
How might companies operate differently if
they encourage multicultural sensitivity?
As businesses realize the advantages of a
diverse workforce, they begin to develop
strategies and tactics to:
• target diversity
• enhance diversity
• celebrate diversity
Cultural immersion helps individuals create a
shared set of symbols.
Individuals are required to live in and interact
daily with others from a different culture.
Learning Objective
Chapter 20:
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Gender
• Between 1970 and 1990, the number of
women in the workforce doubled.
International
Communication
Challenges
• Today, approximately 25 percent of
managerial jobs are held by women.
Competent
Communication
• Women are under represented as the
managerial level.
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
• Communication differences between men and
women have been noted in several contexts:
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
• Superior-subordinate and peer communication
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
• Supervision and leadership styles
• Approaches to conflict
Global
Communication
Situations
1. Relationships with others are more central to all
actions for female supervisors than they are for male
supervisors
International
Communication
Challenges
2. Building a sense of community is more often an
essential part of a woman’s supervisory style than it is
for that of a man.
Competent
Communication
• Working in teams
Steps to Better
International
Communication
People of Diverse Cultural and Ethnic
Backgrounds
Building a
Shared Culture
Other differing values affect team work.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
• People from cultures that view relationships in
terms of hierarchy have a preference for
highly structured teams.
• People from cultures that see relationships in
terms of groups prefer teamwork.
• People from cultures that emphasize
individualism are most comfortable with
informal teams.
Guidelines for communicating intercultural:
• Different cultures have different value
orientations
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
• Do not assume that what is “normal” behavior
in your culture is “normal” for another culture.
• Recognize that other cultures differ in
nonverbal behavior, personal space, eye
behavior, and time orientation.
Differently Abled Workers
• The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA):
Americans with disabilities benefit from the
same rights and privileges afforded to all
American workers.
• Emphasize the person, not the disability.
• People with disabilities are not abnormal.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
Individual-Group Orientation
Cultures can differ greatly depending on how
they view the role of the individual.
Individualistic cultures: value the distinct and
unique characteristics of the human being.
• ex. The United States
Group-centered (collectivist) cultures:
emphasize the importance of belonging to,
and promoting, the goals of the group.
• These cultures downplay individual achievement
• ex. Japanese and Latin American cultures
Learning Objective
Chapter 20:
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Explain why cultural diversity is
important in the work place.
High- and Low-Context Communication
High and Low Context Cultures
Low-Context
High-Context
• One-way
communication.
• Speakers and listeners
must coordinate their
meaning from the
context.
• Feedback is less
important.
• Words and phrases are
meant to communicate
one meaning.
• Responsibility for
communication success
usually lies with the
receiver.
• Feedback is important.
• Words and phrases can
represent multiple
meanings.
• Communication success
is negotiated between
communicators.
Learning Objective
Chapter 20:
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Recognize the importance
of globalization.
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
GLOBAL COMMUNICATION SITUATIONS
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
• Conducting business is no longer a national
affair.
Global
Communication
Situations
• NAFTA
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
• With increasing globalization comes:
• the need to communicate effectively with people
who speak different languages.
• facing developing messages that represent what
they are selling
• the need to ensure that messages do not offend ,
repulse, or confuse international audiences
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Understand and describe
cultural differences.
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
CHALLENGES
• The largest obstacle for global communication
is language.
• It is not reasonable to assume that
international business associates or
colleagues will learn your native language.
• Learning the language can help avoid costly
business mistakes.
• Linguistic ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s
own language is superior to the language of
others.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Summarize the steps necessary for
communicating competently in a culturally
diverse workplace.
DEVELOPING COMPETENT
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
• Intercultural communication: communicating
with members of other groups.
• Competent intercultural communication:
• Organizations must develop a climate that
encourages open and honest communication
among all types of people.
• Develop your own intercultural skills that lead to
competent communication.
Communicating in a Diverse Workforce
Organizations can promote diversity by:
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Summarize the steps necessary for
communicating competently in a culturally
diverse workplace.
• Encouraging employees to communicate with
culturally diverse employees.
• Cultivate knowledge and skills among
culturally diverse employees.
• Deliver objective performance evaluations
emphasizing skill, not race or status.
• Develop a work climate that focuses on the
advantages of cultural diversity.
Developing intercultural competency:
Building motivation: creating a more sincere
interest
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Summarize the steps necessary for
communicating competently in a culturally
diverse workplace.
Changing Stereotypes
dismantle: realizing that numerous sub-categories
exist for a cultural group instead of just one
disintegrate: perceiving members of a cultural
group as individuals
Appreciating Differences: no one cultural group has
a lock on the right answers
Developing Intercultural Communication
Skills
• Use the Model of Communication from Chapter1
• Take stock of yourself: your cultural identification
• Take responsibility for competent
communication: do not assume all people strive
for effective communication.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Summarize the steps necessary for
communicating competently in a culturally
diverse workplace.
• Search for positive elements of the other
person: put aside a person’s cultural heritage and
focus on his/her favorable qualities.
• Listen for emotional meanings: voice, gestures,
facial expressions, and posture
• Ask for clarification: understanding meaning
• Develop patience: attempts at understanding can
be frustrating
• Integrate culturally different people into your
own social and task groups: skills are developed
when they are used and practiced
• Remain flexible in forming assumptions: most
assumptions formed about a culture are based on
stereotypes that may not be accurate.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Develop skills for improving
international communication.
STEPS TO BETTER INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
Selecting The Appropriate Channel
Global
Communication
Situations
• Some messages require richer or poorer
media than other messages.
International
Communication
Challenges
• Be aware of what technology is available and
acceptable in another culture.44
Competent
Communication
Verbal communication Skills
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
• Limit distractions: find a place conducive to
communication
• Use formal English: avoid slang, idioms
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Develop skills for improving
international communication.
• Simplify, describe, and clarify: use words
that are likely to be understood
• Pronounce the names of people and
companies correctly: don’t use first names
unless invited to do so
• Summarize: recap what you said or wrote in
a slightly different manner
Nonverbal Communication Skills
• Learning the greeting ritual: the mood of
the interaction is set by the greeting
• Follow the norms of space and touch:
close or distant
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
Global
Communication
Situations
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
Develop skills for improving
international communication.
• Be aware of eye contact: norms for eye
contact change dramatically from culture to
culture
Written Communication Skills
• Enclose a translation into other languages
• High-context cultures need as much
information about you and your firm as
possible
• Foreign audiences may require more formal
or informal presentation than normally
expected
• Provide concise, clear, courteous, complete,
and accurate information50
Learning Objective
Chapter 20:
Intercultural and
International
Communication
Develop skills for improving
international communication.
Cultural
Diversity in the
Workplace
BUILDING A SHARED CULTURE
Understanding
Cultural
Diversity
• You can build a shared culture that allows a
mutual level of understanding
Global
Communication
Situations
• Members of different cultures may share:
International
Communication
Challenges
Competent
Communication
Steps to Better
International
Communication
Building a
Shared Culture
• language
• beliefs
• behaviors
• More critically is how shared cultural parties
develop mutual understanding of the
messages they exchange.
Chapter 20:
Learning Objective
Intercultural and
International
Communication
The End
Copyright © 2000 South-Western College Publishing Co.
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