Internationalizing Teacher
Education in the United States
Beverly D. Shaklee, Ed.D.
Director, Center for International Education
George Mason University
College of Education & Human Development
Four target areas
 Expanded views of diversity to include international
global viewpoints
 Professional development experiences that lead to
inter-cultural competence for faculty and students
 Foreign language & intercultural communication
requirements
 Use of curriculum, technology and other resources to
expand the ‘view from Virginia’ in relation to the
world
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U. S. Teachers
 Primarily from western or westernized nations
 Primarily English speaking < 10% another language
 Primarily prepared in western models of teacher
education
 Primarily prepared to teach in the English medium
 Primarily female: ratio is 3 to 1
 Primarily Caucasian
 Primarily live away from the school community
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Comparisons
Areas of potential conflict
Teaching Practices
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Western Perspectives
Personal Control
Change
Time/Control
Equality
Individualism
Self- Help
Competition
Future Orientation
Action/Work
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Other Countries
Fate
Tradition
Human Interaction
Rank/Status/Hierarchy
Group’s Welfare
Birthright Inheritance
Cooperation
Past Orientation
“Being”
 Cushner, McClelland,Safford
2013
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Our students
 Virginia, 135 school districts = 1,250,852 students
 36.7% are on free/reduced lunch
 14.4% speak a language other than English at home
 7% receive ELL services
 41% classified as ‘minority’
 11% were born internationally
 22.9% are under the age of 18
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With a partner
What are ways in which your
professional development
programs or teacher education
programs attempt to bridge the
gap between teachers and
students?
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Vivian Gyssin Paley
 “ It is often hard to learn from people
who are just like you. Too much is taken
for granted.
Homogeneity is fine in a bottle of
milk, but in the classroom it diminishes the
curiosity that ignites discovery.”
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Where Cultures Intersect
 Schools and Classrooms
 School Culture
 Student Culture – norms, traditions, religion and values
 Teacher Culture
 “Best” predisposed to regard diversity as interesting
 “Worst” diversity = deficit
 “Seldom” is diversity seen as exciting and enriching
 Cushner, McClelland, Safford, 2012
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Sara Lawrence Lightfoot
Many good teachers are wishing
that the diversity they see in
September will somehow fade
away as the class becomes a
group.”
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Multicultural-International
 Teachers who are prepared for multicultural
settings normally focus on diverse domestic
population, which may include some students
who have recently immigrated…it is not clear
how the knowledge and skills used with
national students apply to international
students or their families.
 Levy, 2007
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International - multicultural
Social justice
Race
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MME
IE
Domestic US Civil
Rights Era
Post WW I
Socio Economic
Status
League of Nations
New “American”
Populations
Peace Activism
Cross-national
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Social Justice
Mobility
Globalization
Expanding views
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Cross-cultural experiences
Knowledge of diverse cultures
Understanding of globalization
Intercultural Communication skills
Enhanced ability to work with and learn from people
different from themselves
 Shared belief in values that support diversity, equity
and global connectedness
 Merryfield, 2001
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International
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STATE
State of Virginia – what does it mean to be a citizen?
NATIONAL
United States of America – what does it mean to live
and contribute to a democratic society?
 INTERNATIONAL
 The World – what does it mean to be inter-dependent
with the world? What is my responsibility?
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Low-Performing Schools
 There is a chance that international curriculum and
practices will be seen as only for high performing
schools creating an opportunity gap.
 There is research that indicates children in lowperforming schools that internationalize the
curriculum “students perceive themselves as modern
day explorers” raising their motivation and
performance (Asia Society, 2008).
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Teachers
 The focus has been on preparing our students for the
21st Century – for a global and inter-connected world.
 Who is preparing the teachers?
 Programs ‘dance’ around terms such as social justice,
culturally responsive classrooms, global citizens…
 There is much language but little practice.
 There is little implementation in teacher education
programs.
 Shaklee & Baily, 2012
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In small group
 How do you foster the inter-cultural competence of
your administrators and teachers?
 How do you study the values, roles, traditions of the
international students you serve?
 What is the role of international parents in your
school?
 How have you moved beyond “food, festivals and
fun” approach to culture?
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Becoming inter-culturally competent
 Able to manage the stress associated with
intercultural interactions
 Able to communicate verbally and nonverbally across cultures
 Able to establish and maintain positive new
relationships across cultures
 (Brislin & Yoshida, 1994)
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An Example: Okay?
U.S.A. & U.K = okay
Japan = money
Russia = zero
Brazil = insult
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Pyramid of Intercultural Competence
– Initial
 Affective – respect, openness and curiosity
is a pre-requisite to developing
 Cognitive - cultural self-awareness, culturegeneral as well as culture-specific
knowledge
 And Skills sets such as:
 Listening, observing, and interpreting
 Deardorff, 2006
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Pyramid of Intercultural Competence
(Deardorff)
 All of which are needed prior to being able to
develop a more enhanced behavioral repertoire of:
 flexibility,
 empathy,
 adaptability, and
 more culturally competent communication and
interaction
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Inter-culturally minded
 Ultimately, people who are interculturally minded move from the
avoidance or tolerance of difference to a
respect and appreciation of difference,
and from an unconscious ethnocentrism
to a more conscious awareness of their
own and others’ cultures (Bennett, 1993).
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Inter-culturally competent
 Instead of being conscious of what not to do to
avoid racism, sexism, and other prejudices, they
understand what they can do to create
respectful, productive intercultural relationships.
 Inter-culturally effective people, thus, are
proactive in nature and seek out diverse
perspectives and contributions when making
decisions and taking actions (Cushner, 2012).
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Ethnocentric
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Ethnorelative
◦ Denial
◦ Acceptance
◦ Defense
◦ Adaptability
◦ Minimization
◦ Integration
Where do your teachers
stand?
How do you help them?
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Cultural Identity of a Teacher
 Emerges out of one’s cultural upbringing that is carried
throughout one’s life and relations with others.
 Identity motivates and colors the social dynamics of
teaching as well as pedagogical approaches used to teach.
 If a teacher does not reflect on the aspects of culture
upon his/her identity the ramifications on students can be
immense.
 Romano & Cushner, 2007
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To be an inter-culturally competent
teacher
 Openness to other ways of living, of speaking and of
interacting
 Propelled to be curious and then to search
 Non-judgmental, understands that comparisons lead
to judgments
 Able to go beyond comfort zone of the familiar
 Able to tolerate ambiguity
 Able to understand and empathize with a diverse
range of people
 Able to speak another language fluently
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Strategies to enhance
 Conversational Partner
 Cross-cultural pairing to better understand another culture
 Meet six to eight times during the term (online)
 Discussions range from reading newspapers together to
family to “how to get things done”
 Sharing at a general level/level of comfort
 Changes in substantive knowledge of culture, personal
understandings and interpersonal relationships (Wilson &
Flournoy, 2007)
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Strategies to enhance
 Curriculum development teams
 Recognize teachers may have come from
pedagogical approaches that are “tell &
show” & highly westernized
 Design teams that can scaffold teacher’s
ability to become a “curriculum maker”
 Focus then becomes on perpetual inquiry
and research in order to create learning
around specific concepts and designing
activities to foster those concepts
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Strategies to Enhance
 Foster study abroad or joint international student
teaching placements for candidates
 Fulbright Teacher Programs –
http://fulbrightteacherabroad.org
 Foster immersion programs within another culture
 Foster teacher education study abroad
 Foster World Language for Teachers
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What does it take?
 An inter-culturally competent faculty
 National standards for teacher education that expand
our boundaries
 Teacher candidates – high academic standards
 Different clinical experiences
 Internationalized coursework that includes
knowledge of cultural heritage, intercultural
competence, immersion in a significantly different
culture, world language skills
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
Are we preparing teachers for the 21st
Century?
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 Byram, M. (2008). From foreign language education to education for
intercultural citizenship: Essays and reflections. Chapters 1 and 3 (pp. 5 – 18, 4354). Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.
Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2005). Teaching and researching intercultural
competence. In E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of research in second language
teaching and learning (pp. 911-930), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Cushner, K. & Brennan, S. (2007). Intercultural Student Teaching. Lanham, MD:
Rowman & Littlefield,
 Lunenberg, M., & Willemse, M., (2006). Research and professional
development of teacher educators. European Journal of Teacher Education,
29(1), 81-98.
 Dooly, M., & Villaneuva, M. (2006). Internationalisation as a key dimension to
teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(2), 223-240.
 Duckworth, R. L., Walker Levy, L., & Levy, J. (2005). Present and future
teachers of the world’s children: How internationally-minded are they? Journal
of Research in International Education, 4, 279 - 311.
 Fox, R. K. (2012). Critical languages: Working with world language students in
the classroom. In B. Shaklee and S. Bailey, (Eds.), Internationalizing U.S.
teacher education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
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 Fox, R., & Diaz-Greenberg, R. (2006). Culture, multiculturalism, and
world language standards: Toward a discourse of dissonance. European
Journal of Teacher Education, 29 (3), 401-422.
 Goncalves, M., & Andrade, A. (2007). Connecting languages: The use of
the portfolio as a means of exploring and overcoming frontiers within
the curriculum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2), 195-213.
 Heyward, M. (2002) From international to intercultural: Redefining the
international school for a globalized world. Journal of Research in
International Education, 9(1), 9 - 32.
 Lam, W.S.E (2006). Culture and learning in the context of globalization:
Research directions. Review of Research in Education, (Special Issue on
Rethinking Learning: What Counts as Learning and What Learning Counts)
30, 213-237
 Sercu, L. (2005). Foreign language teachers and the implementation of
intercultural education: A comparative investigation of the professional
self-concepts and teaching practices of Belgian teachers of English,
French and German. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(1), 87-105
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 Shaklee, B. (Spring, 2011). Leading for Diversity. InterEd: The Journal of the
Association for the Advancement of International Education,Vol., 38 (112),
22-24.
 Shaklee, B. and Baily, S. (Eds.) (2012). Internationalizing Teacher Education in
the United States, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education Publishing
Group.
 Vasquez, O. (2006). Cross-national explorations of sociocultural research on
learning. Review of Research in Education (Special Issue on Rethinking Learning:
What Counts as Learning and What Learning Counts) 30, 33-64.
 Wang, E., Lin, E., Spalding, E., Odell, S., & Klecka, C. (2011). Understanding
teacher education in an era of globalization. Journal of Teacher Education,
62(2), 115-120.
 Wiseman, A., & Fox, R. (2010). Supporting teachers’ development of cultural
competence through teacher research. Action in Teacher Education, (32) 4, pp.
26-37.
 DOI: 10.1080/01626620.2010.549708
 Zhao, Y. (2010). Preparing globally competent teachers: A new imperative for
teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5), 422-431.
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Resources
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B. Shaklee, 2013
American Council on Education, http://www.acent.edu
Asia Society, http://asiasociety.org/education-learning
Global Issues Network, www.global-issues-network.org
Global Teacher Education, www.globalteachereducation.org
Kidz Connect, http://www.kidzconnect.org
Longview Foundation, www.longviewfdn.org
Student News Action Network, http://newsaction.tigweb.org
Teacher Education Goes Global,
www.teachereducationgoesglobal.org
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Internationalizing Teacher Education in the United States