Intelligence
and
Psychological Testing
What is Intelligence?
Define…..
Who Is the Most Intelligent?
Serena Williams
• Age 22 won a recordsetting three Grand
Slam tennis titles in a
row for an unheard-of 6
Grand Slams
• Won the 2003
Wimbledon title
• First woman tennis
player to earn $4
million in a single year
Bill Gates
• At age 48 he became
the richest man in the
US- worth $61 billion
• He began writing
computer programs in
8th grade
• Wrote one of the first
operating systems to
run a computer
• In his 20s he founded
Microsoft
Kim Ung-Yong
• Scored a 210 IQ on the
Stanford-Binet test and
made the Guinness Book of
World Records
• By age 3 he learned
differential calculus
• By age 4 he could read &
write 4 languages
• He received his Ph.D in
physics at age 15 and then
began work for NASA
Midori
• Age 3 she began playing
the violin
• She could memorize
and flawlessly perform
long and complicated
pieces of classical music
• By age 10 she was
considered a musical
prodigy and played with
the NY Philharmonic
Orchestra
So, who is more intelligence?
• It depends how you define
intelligence
• Psychometrics- area of psych
concerned with developing
intelligence tests & other individual
abilities (I.E- skills, beliefs,
personality traits)
Psychological Tests
Mental Ability Tests
Intelligence
Aptitude
Personality Tests
Achievement
Have you ever taken any of these? What are
some of the issues that come with these
tests?
Types of measures
Intelligence- measures general mental ability- a
standardized measure of a sample of a person’s
behavior
– Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: g (general
intelligence) & s (specific mental abilities)
Aptitude- assess specific types of mental
abilities (ex: numerical, abstract reasoning)
Achievement- knowledge of various subjects
(ex: history, literature, psychology)
Standardization and Norms
• Standardization- uniform measure and
procedures
• Test norms-the ranking on a particular test
or measurement
• Percentile score- shows how many people
score above and below a particular score
Reliabilityconsistency of a test (similar results upon repetition)
• To determine reliability you must compute
the correlation coefficient between the two
sets of scores
• Most IQ test range into the .90s
• From .7 to 1.0 are considered acceptable
reliability coefficients
• Low motivation or high anxiety could drag
a person’s score down
Validity- ability of the test to
measure what it was designed to
• Are IQ tests valid?
• They measure the kind of intelligence that’s
necessary to do well in academic work (abstract
reasoning & verbal fluency)
• Positive correlations have been found between IQ
scores and school grades (.5-.6)
• The IQ test cannot assess intelligence in a
broader sense (practical problem solving, social
competence, creativity, etc)
Types of Validity
• Content-representative of the entire domain
covered
• Criterion-corresponding to another
measure that is assessed
• Construct- how a test measure a
hypothetical construct
History of Intelligence Testing
• Galton’s Study of Hereditary Genius (late 1800s)
• Alfred Binet (1904)- 1st intelligence test
– But NOT first IQ test
– Mental Age
• Stanford-Binet Test (1916)
– Revised by Lewis Terman
– New scoring based on “intelligent quotient” (IQ)
IQ = MENTAL AGE x 100
Chronological AGE
History of Intelligence Testing
(cont.)
• David Wechsler’s WAIS (1939)
–
–
–
–
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Less dependent on verbal ability (p. 240)
New scoring based on a normal distribution
Raw scores translated into deviation IQ scores
and then into percentile scores (p.241)
– Extremes (Gifted & Retarded)- 2 SDs from
mean
Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid
• Involves reasoning
ability, memory
capacity, & speed of
information
processing
Crystallized
• Ability to apply
acquired knowledge
and skills to problem
solving
Standard Intelligence Curve
Hereditary v. Environment
• Twin & Adoption Studies
• Heritability Ratio -proportion of a trait
variability related to genetics
• Cumulative Deprivation Hypothesis
• Reaction Range –genetically determined
limits in intelligence
• Flynn Effect
• Economic component
Extremes in Intelligence
• Mental retardation or intellectual
disability- deficiencies in adaptive skills
prior to age 18
• Mild- IQ 55-70
• Moderate- IQ 40-55
• Severe- IQ 25-40
• Profound IQ below 25
Giftedness
With all three - Eminence
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of
Intelligence
Contexual
Experimental
Componential
Contexual- behaviors considered intelligent by a given
culture (Adaptation Selection Shaping)
Experimental- relationship between experience and
intelligence (Novelty Automation)
Componential- types of mental processes that intelligent
thought depends on (practical, analytical, & creative)
Sternberg: Why Intelligent people
fail
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
lack of motivation
lack of impulse control
lack of perseverance
fear of failure
procrastination
inability to delay gratification
too little/too much self-confidence
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Intelligences
• TAKE THE TEST!
Creativity & Intelligence
• RAT Test- based on the assumption that creative
people see unusual relationships between items
• No correlation between creativity & intelligence
• Correlation between creativity & mental disorders
– General population: 15% has a mood disorder
– Writers & artists: 50%
– Composers: 45%
Test your creativity
• What does it say about you?? Lets score it
and see!
Cultural Differences in IQ
• Jensen’s Heritability Explanation & the
controversial “Bell Curve”
• Stereotype Vulnerability
• Cultural Bias on IQ Tests (take the cultural
bias test)
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Intelligence and Psychological Testing