Psychological Testing
What is Intelligence?
Who Is the Most Intelligent?
Serena Williams
• Age 22 won a recordsetting three Grand
Slam tennis titles in a
row for an unheard-of 6
Grand Slams
• Won the 2003
Wimbledon title
• First woman tennis
player to earn $4
million in a single year
Bill Gates
• At age 48 he became
the richest man in the
US- worth $61 billion
• He began writing
computer programs in
8th grade
• Wrote one of the first
operating systems to
run a computer
• In his 20s he founded
Kim Ung-Yong
• Scored a 210 IQ on the
Stanford-Binet test and
made the Guinness Book of
World Records
• By age 3 he learned
differential calculus
• By age 4 he could read &
write 4 languages
• He received his Ph.D in
physics at age 15 and then
began work for NASA
• Age 3 she began playing
the violin
• She could memorize
and flawlessly perform
long and complicated
pieces of classical music
• By age 10 she was
considered a musical
prodigy and played with
the NY Philharmonic
So, who is more intelligence?
• It depends how you define
• Psychometrics- area of psych
concerned with developing
intelligence tests & other individual
abilities (I.E- skills, beliefs,
personality traits)
Psychological Tests
Mental Ability Tests
Personality Tests
Have you ever taken any of these? What are
some of the issues that come with these
Types of measures
Intelligence- measures general mental ability- a
standardized measure of a sample of a person’s
– Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: g (general
intelligence) & s (specific mental abilities)
Aptitude- assess specific types of mental
abilities (ex: numerical, abstract reasoning)
Achievement- knowledge of various subjects
(ex: history, literature, psychology)
Standardization and Norms
• Standardization- uniform measure and
• Test norms-the ranking on a particular test
or measurement
• Percentile score- shows how many people
score above and below a particular score
Reliabilityconsistency of a test (similar results upon repetition)
• To determine reliability you must compute
the correlation coefficient between the two
sets of scores
• Most IQ test range into the .90s
• From .7 to 1.0 are considered acceptable
reliability coefficients
• Low motivation or high anxiety could drag
a person’s score down
Validity- ability of the test to
measure what it was designed to
• Are IQ tests valid?
• They measure the kind of intelligence that’s
necessary to do well in academic work (abstract
reasoning & verbal fluency)
• Positive correlations have been found between IQ
scores and school grades (.5-.6)
• The IQ test cannot assess intelligence in a
broader sense (practical problem solving, social
competence, creativity, etc)
Types of Validity
• Content-representative of the entire domain
• Criterion-corresponding to another
measure that is assessed
• Construct- how a test measure a
hypothetical construct
History of Intelligence Testing
• Galton’s Study of Hereditary Genius (late 1800s)
• Alfred Binet (1904)- 1st intelligence test
– But NOT first IQ test
– Mental Age
• Stanford-Binet Test (1916)
– Revised by Lewis Terman
– New scoring based on “intelligent quotient” (IQ)
Chronological AGE
History of Intelligence Testing
• David Wechsler’s WAIS (1939)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Less dependent on verbal ability (p. 240)
New scoring based on a normal distribution
Raw scores translated into deviation IQ scores
and then into percentile scores (p.241)
– Extremes (Gifted & Retarded)- 2 SDs from
Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence
• Involves reasoning
ability, memory
capacity, & speed of
• Ability to apply
acquired knowledge
and skills to problem
Standard Intelligence Curve
Hereditary v. Environment
• Twin & Adoption Studies
• Heritability Ratio -proportion of a trait
variability related to genetics
• Cumulative Deprivation Hypothesis
• Reaction Range –genetically determined
limits in intelligence
• Flynn Effect
• Economic component
Extremes in Intelligence
• Mental retardation or intellectual
disability- deficiencies in adaptive skills
prior to age 18
• Mild- IQ 55-70
• Moderate- IQ 40-55
• Severe- IQ 25-40
• Profound IQ below 25
With all three - Eminence
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of
Contexual- behaviors considered intelligent by a given
culture (Adaptation Selection Shaping)
Experimental- relationship between experience and
intelligence (Novelty Automation)
Componential- types of mental processes that intelligent
thought depends on (practical, analytical, & creative)
Sternberg: Why Intelligent people
lack of motivation
lack of impulse control
lack of perseverance
fear of failure
inability to delay gratification
too little/too much self-confidence
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple
Creativity & Intelligence
• RAT Test- based on the assumption that creative
people see unusual relationships between items
• No correlation between creativity & intelligence
• Correlation between creativity & mental disorders
– General population: 15% has a mood disorder
– Writers & artists: 50%
– Composers: 45%
Test your creativity
• What does it say about you?? Lets score it
and see!
Cultural Differences in IQ
• Jensen’s Heritability Explanation & the
controversial “Bell Curve”
• Stereotype Vulnerability
• Cultural Bias on IQ Tests (take the cultural
bias test)

Intelligence and Psychological Testing