ANANGU EDUCATION CONFERENCE
ALICE SPRINGS
June / July 2003
ESL STRATEGIES: PRIMARY YEARS
Scales 1 – 9 (1 - 6)
Model
Text
of in
Language
Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Tenor
Field
Mode
Field Continuum
everyday fields………...specialised fields……highly technical fields
Tenor Continuum
equal status ……………….…………….. great difference in status
familiar …….………………………………...……………..very distant
great deal of emotional expression….little emotional expression
Mode continuum
most spoken………………….…………….....… most written
Model of Language
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Tenor
Field
Tenor
Mode
Field
Mode
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
•broader strand
Language
•more specific
strand
•resources in the
English
language
Text in Context
Language
•range of genres
•purposes
•structure
language choices •structure texts
•build cohesion
•expand sentences
Field
•informational element
•everyday to technical
vocabulary
•verbs
•noun groups
•nominalisations
•circumstances
•topic specific vocabulary
Tenor
•interpersonal element
•formality to familiarity
•modality
•appraisal
•speech functions
•idioms
•non-verbal elements
Mode
•textual element
•spoken to written
•multimodal texts
•foregrounding
•coherence
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Sociocultural
Context
Genre
Situational Context
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Language
choices •range of genreslanguage
•structure texts
•cohesive
•purposes
•structure
•the ‘what’, or content
•word groups and phrases
•range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure
•cohesion
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity
and attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Language
•the range of
genres
•language
choices
•purposes •structure texts
•structure
language choices •structure texts
•expand sentences
•build cohesion
-
•build cohesion
•the ‘what’, or content
•word groups and phrases
•expand
sentences
•its informational
elements
•the
verbs
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality,
familiarity and attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices organise texts
•focus foregrounding
Genre: Scale 1
• (towards) copying very
short groups of words
Teacher: What did you
do last night, Tanya?
Tanya: Last night…. I….
watch television read a
book went shopping
brush my teeth.
Genre: Scale 2
•participates in short
simple texts where
there are repeated
memorisable items
•copies very short
basic examples of
items relevant to
immediate context
•uses one or two
examples of pronoun
reference
Genre: Scale 3
•constructs elementary
examples of basic
genres by speaking
and writing with a high
degree of scaffolding
•demonstrates an
understanding of the
structure of several
basic genres
•uses basic pronouns:
I
Genre: Scale 4
•organises the meanings
in brief written texts in a
logical order
•writes several pieces of
information about a living
thing
•topic words at the front of
sentences in a report
•begins to expand
information using linking
conjunctions
•uses a limited range of
cohesive resources:
possessive pronouns,
third person pronouns,
demonstrative pronouns
ORAL RECOUNT
Teacher: You can say good morning to everybody.
Johnny: Good morning everyone.
Everyone: Good morning Johnny.
Johnny:
My name is Johnny and I am 10 years old… and…
Sunday I woke up I had breakfast…I had breakfast..
then I…I play…with my brother… cricket and my
friend… next I…had my dinner. I ate fries… and…
meat… round… like a thing.
Teacher: What colour is it?
Johnny:
It’s green.
Teacher: Green peas. Is it a vegetable? Yes? Green peas,
vegetables?
Johnny:
Yes. After that I went to bed.
Genre: Scale 5
•constructs short spoken exchanges relying on
memorising initiating moves only
Genre: Scale 5
•phrases of time and
place to structure
recounts
•linking conjunctions:
and then, but, or, so
•binding conjunctions:
because
•small range of
reference items
Genre: Scale 6
•use conjunctions to organise texts
•a range of linking conjunctions: then, but, or, so, and
•a range of binding conjunctions: because, when,
before, after
•reference items
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Logical order
1. List events in order
1………church
2………camping
3………school
2. Order
I went to school.
1
I went camping.
2
I went to church.
3
3. Write sentences
I went to church. I went camping. I went to school.
4. Draw pictures of activities, in order, and write
sentences
1. ……...……… 2. ……….. 3. …………….
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Time phrases
1. List events
Saturday………church
Sunday………. camping
Monday……….school
2. Order
I went to school.
On Saturday
I went camping.
On Sunday
I went to church.
On Monday
3. Sentences
On Saturday I went to church. On Sunday I went
camping. On Monday I went to school.
4. Cloze using a list.
On Saturday I……...……… On Sunday I ………..
On Monday I …………….
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Conjunctions
1. Order events or pictures on a timeline – label pictures
got up
brushed teeth
went to school
2. Order
I went to school.
1. I got up.
First
I brushed my teeth. 2. I brushed my teeth. Then
I got up.
3. I went to school.
Then
3. Sentences
First I got up. Then I brushed my teeth. Then I
went to school.
4. Cloze using a timeline.
…………I studied English. ……… I played outside.
……….. I studied Maths.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Time Words and Conjunctions
1. Time phrases
8am
before
7.30 = before
8am = at
at
after
8.30 = after 7.30 to 8.30 = from
2. Ordering sentences
Then I studied English.
Before school I played outside with my friends.
At 9 o’çlock I went inside.
I came to school at 8am.
3. Cloze using timetable
7.30 – 8.30 am play
8 am
school
9am
inside
9.00 …..
English
I played ……
I went to school ……
I went inside …….
I studied English ….
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Action Words - Procedure
1. Play bingo with actions, ingredients and utensils
for cooking.
2. Follow spoken instructions and order pictures of
actions. Label each picture with an action verb:
stir, pour, boil…
3. Listen again to the spoken instructions and
complete the table
action what how long
4. Write instructions from the table.
5. Colour the action words and notice their position.
Compare with a recount.
6. Cut and jumble the sentences and give to another
student to order.
7. Complete a cloze of the instructions.
8. List new ingredients.
9. Observe, discuss and write new instructions.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Structure – Topic words - Report
1. List singular and plural forms of words
2. Talk about specific and general nouns
3. Compare sentences
A cat has fur. Cats have fur. My cat has fur.
4. Compare texts with the different sentences.
5. Colour the form of noun in reports
6. Be specific about the form of verb needed for a
report.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Cohesion – Reference Items
1. Understanding of reference items
Where is her book? Put it there.
2. Tracking participants in a short text
Once upon a time there lived a lady.
Her name was Sadie.
She lived in a house.
It was a pretty one
3. Cloze
Once upon a time there lived a man.
………. name was Bob.
…….. lived in a caravan.
…….. was new.
4. Compare the pattern of reference items between
a recount and a procedure.
5.Colour use of reference items in own texts.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Expansion - Linking conjunctions: and, but
1. Shopping basket:
Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread and apples.
Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread, apples and
….. but he didn’t buy chips.
2. Cloze with pictures
didn’t buy
bought
Bob bought ……and …but he didn’t buy ………..
3. True or False
He went to the store but he didn’t buy bread.
He went to the store but he didn’t buy chips.
He went to the store. He bought bread and chips.
4. True stories
Write true stories about Bob.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Expansion - linking conjunctions – so
1. Illustrate sentence pattern:
It was raining when I got up so I got an umbrella.
I was hungry when I got up so I ate some bread.
I was sad when I got up so I played with my friend.
2. Complete sentence starters
I didn’t feel well this morning so ….
3. Watch Mr Bean and answer True or False
He lost his keys so he looked for them in the grass.
He was hungry so he climbed through a window to
get food.
4. Diagrams
Draw diagrams from sentences and write sentences
from diagrams got up
umbrella
rain
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Genre: Expansion - binding conjunctions – because
1. Illustrate sentence pattern:
I got an umbrella because it was raining when I got up.
I ate some bread because I was hungry when I got up
2. Complete sentence starters
I didn’t come to school this morning because…
3. Matching
He caught a bus because he was sick.
He went home because he wanted to visit his aunt.
4. Diagrams
Draw diagrams from sentences and write sentences
got up
from diagrams umbrella
rain
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
language choices •word groups and phrases
•structure texts
•the verbs
•informational
element
•expand sentences
•participants
•build cohesion to highly technical
•circumstances
•everyday
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•verbs element
•the verbs
•informational
•everyday
to technical
•noun
groups •participants
•circumstances
vocabulary
•nominalisations
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•the language choices
•topic specific vocabulary
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity
and attitude
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Field: Scale 2
•uses vocabulary that is
mainly commonsense but
chooses isolated concrete
technical vocabulary
•understands a small
range of vocabulary
expressing immediate
Teacher: What did you
interests:
do last night, Tanya?
•common noun groups
•common actions
Tanya: Last night…. I….
watch television read a
book went shopping
brush my teeth.
Field: Scale 3
•uses vocabulary that
is mainly
commonsense but
chooses some
concrete technical
vocabulary: orange
juice, church
•expands vocabulary
using classifiers:
orange juice
Well the story was about
as a little fish and one..boy
to go to school and he
walk in the jungle and he
pass in the big tree and he
sit, he, he, he..sit on the
thing on the ground and
he look to the water and
he see some fish and
when he come to school
he.. he make some boat
and when he come into the
jungle too, he put some
fish on the boat and it the
boat and the little boy the
boat on the water
Field: Scale 3
•uses vocabulary that
is mainly
commonsense but
chooses some
concrete technical
vocabulary
•uses very basic
phrases of location
•expands vocabulary
using classifiers and
size
Field: Scale 4
•uses vocabulary that is
commonsense but begins
to use some technical
vocabulary: ball chasy,
watermelon
•uses very basic phrases
expressing
circumstances: On
Sunday, outside, at nighttime
Field: Scale 4
•uses very basic
circumstances
•expands vocabulary
using numbers,
describers, classifiers
•uses technical
vocabulary for
educational fields such as
science
Field: Scale 6
•verbs
•actions
•mental
•circumstances
•manner
•location
•noun groups
•describers
Field: Scale 6
•noun groups: number, qualifier
•technical vocabulary
•indirect speech
Field: Scale 6
•verbs: action
•circumstances: time, location
•noun groups: classifiers
•technical vocabulary
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: Noun groups
1. Word groups: build groups following the pattern
one car
one old brown car
one old brown car in the street
one old brown Holden car in the street
2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words
number opinion fact classifier key concept qualifier
3. Multiple choice from a story or picture
Is she wearing a big yellow hat or a small blue hat?
4. Describing people
A student with one set of pictures describes them to
another student with another set, to put them in the
same order.
5. Draw a 3 legged wooden stool with a fur top.
6. Experiment with the effect of positive and negative
describers: sweet smelling /smelly
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: Noun groups with qualifiers
1. Word groups: build groups following the pattern
one car
one old brown car
one old brown Holden car
one old brown Holden car in the street
2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words
number opinion fact classifier key concept qualifier
3. Multiple choice
Is it the old car in the street or is the old car in the
school?
4. Experiment with the effect of different qualifiers
5. Describing people and objects
A student describes objects and pictures to give
clear instructions of where to place them
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: Comparatives
1. Word lists
adjective comparative form superlative form
nice
nicer than
the nicest
happy
happier than
the happiest
good
better than
the best
a lot
more than
the most
2. Contextualise
use statistics or objects to make true statements
3. True or false
Respond to statements based on statistic, objects etc
5. Interview
Model questions and answers, requiring
comparatives or superlatives, about students lives
One student prepares questions and interview
another student
Report back orally and in writing:
Dan likes Darwin better than Alice Springs.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: Circumstances - location
1. Follow instructions
Draw a book near the vase.
Draw a ball under the table.
Draw a man behind the flower.
2. Answering questions
Is the vase on the table?
Is the vase under the table?
Is the vase next to the table?
3. Describe a picture.
next to in behind
The car is …… the garage.
The fence is ……. the tree.
The tree is …….. the house.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: Circumstances - location
1. Questions
Where is the vase?
Where is the ball?
Where is the clock?
Where are the flowers?
2. Noughts and crosses
near in
in front
next to
under
on
behind
over between
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: circumstances - manner
1.Labelling
Use a sentence structure
He is ………..ing ……..
(quickly, slowly, quietly)
to describe the actions of a character in a video
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: verbs
1. Colour the verbs in sentences.
2. Illustrate the verbs.
3. Group the verbs. You may get thinking,
doing, saying, being verbs.
4. Find examples of verbs that have more than
one meaning eg I see
5. Compare the types of verbs in recounts,
reports and procedures.
6. Cloze exercise for verbs.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Field: technical vocabulary
1. Start with what the students know
2. Match the known words with new vocabulary
3. Discuss similarities and differences with other
known vocabulary
4. Use the vocabulary in modelled, jointly
constructed texts
5. Ask questions to check comprehension of the
new vocabulary
6. Use the new vocabulary in new contexts
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•the language choices
•interpersonal elementselement
•who questions or commands
•interpersonal
•deal with formality, familiarity •how degrees of certainty
•familiar
and attitude to formal
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•non-verbal elements
•interpersonal •modality
element
•appraisal
•formality, familiarity
and •speech functions
•modality
attitude
•speech functions
•attitudinal lexis
•idioms •idioms
•non-verbal•theelements
language choices -organise
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
texts
•focus foregrounding
Tenor: Scale 2
•responds in socially
appropriate ways
•chooses common
formulaic expressions
•pronounces most words
Teacher: What did you comprehensively
do last night, Tanya?
Tanya: Last night…. I….
watch television read a
book went shopping
brush my teeth.
Tenor: Scale 4
•uses a narrow range
of evaluative language
to express feelings
and attitudes
Teacher:
Johnny:
Everyone:
Johnny:
Teacher:
Johnny:
Teacher:
Johnny:
You can say good morning to everybody.
Good morning everyone.
Good morning Johnny.
My name is Johnny and I am 10 years old… and…
Sunday I woke up I had breakfast…I had breakfast..
then I…I play…with my brother… cricket and my
friend… next I…had my dinner. I ate fries… and…
meat… round… like a thing.
What colour is it?
It’s green.
Green peas. Is it a vegetable? Yes? Green peas,
vegetables?
Yes. After that I went to bed.
Tenor: Scale 5
•Chooses formulaic polite expressions appropriately
•Demonstrates a good awareness of intonation
patterns of basic spoken statements, questions
Tenor: Scale 5
•auxilliaries
•a small range of
evaluative language to
express feelings and
attitudes
Tenor: Scale 5
•uses a small range of language elements expressing modality
•a range of evaluative language
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Modality: Offers and Commands
1. Compare the meanings of
Can I help you? Can I have your book?
Give me your book.
Explore the relationship between the response,
speaker and the listener.
2. Use pictures
Complete speech bubbles with offers and
commands for a range of pictures, including
pictures from story books.
3. Video exchanges between people and explore
the type of language used
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Modality: Obligation and Certainty
1. Compile statements with degrees of obligation
you might like to
you must
2. Compile statements with degrees of certainty
you might It is likely that I will
3. Script exchanges with degrees of certainty and
obligation and role play. Discuss the impact of the
changes.
4. Video exchanges between people and explore
the type of language used.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Tenor: feeling and attitude
1. Cloze
like don’t like
I ………….. ice cream.
I ………… winter.
2. Find someone who
Find someone who likes winter.
Find someone who doesn’t like icecream.
3. Rehearse
Do you like….? Yes I do. No I don’t
4. Report back
Who likes ice cream? Sue likes icecream.
Who likes winter? Dan and Bill like winter.
5. Experiment with intonation and the use of very, so,
much, really.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Tenor: feelings and attitudes
1. Synonyms
Compile synonyms of adjectives.
Change the adjectives of an existing story.
Explore the effect of the change.
Draw pictures to show the impact of the
change.
2. Feedback
Compile lists of words that give feedback of
an event, an object or student work.
eg like, don’t like, it’s beautiful, it’s hard
3. Role play
Role play being a teacher, a principal etc
giving feedback to a student.
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•textual
element
•its textual elements
•range
of spoken,
and
•spoken
towritten
written
multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
•multimodal
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•textual element
•deals with the range of
spoken, written and
multimodal texts
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
• foregrounding
• voice and tense
•foregrounding
• print conventions
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Mode: Scale 1
•handwriting: legible
letters, direction
Mode: Scale 2
•follows conventions of
printed English:
direction, identifiable
letters
Well the story was about
as a little fish and one..
boy to go to school and he
walk in the jungle and he
pass in the big tree and he
sit, he, he, he..sit on the
thing on the ground and
he look to the water and
he see some fish and
when he come to school
he..
Mode: Scale 3
•chooses highly
repetitive sentence
beginnings: often
personal pronouns
•limited control of
primary tenses
Mode: Scale 4
•chooses repetitive
sentence beginnings in
own writing
•some control of
primary tenses
•spells most common
words and spells
others based on own
pronunciation
•experiments with
punctuation
Mode: Scale 4
•some control of primary tenses for most common
regular verbs but a strictly limited control of secondary
tenses
•experiments with punctuation: fullstops and capitals
used
Mode: Scale 6
•control of primary tenses and past tense form of
most common irregular verbs
•begins to control secondary tenses
•spells with greater accuracy
•legible and uses punctuation
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Mode: Foregrounding
1.Identify foregrounded elements in a recount
and a procedure
My brother took me in his car. We went to my
uncle’s house. On Saturday we went home.
Open the box. Lift the paper. Fold the paper.
2. Compare foregrounding
Recount:
Procedure:
My brother
Person
Open
Action
We
Person
Lift
Action
On Saturday Time
Fold
Action
3. Compile
other time words: Later that night, After a while
4. Experiment
Shifting foregrounded element from the front to
middle to back
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Mode: Tense
1. Lists of verbs
go went
sit
sat
play played
have had
watch watched
2. Model
Everyday I go to school.
Yesterday I played football.
3. Question and answer
What do you do everyday? I go to school.
What did you do yesterday? I played football.
4. Picture cloze
What did the boy do yesterday?
He sat ……………………..
He…………… a game on the computer.
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Mode: Tense
5.Cloze
Yesterday David …………. (drive) a car.
He ………….. (drive) a car everyday.
6. Pattern
I …………… now.
I …………… everyday.
I ……………. yesterday.
I …………….. tomorrow.
7. Time
What are they doing now?
What were they doing an hour ago?
What will they do soon?
What were they doing yesterday?
were …ing
past perfect
…..ed
change word
past
are …….ing
now
will ……….
future
Strategies Scales 1- 6
Comparing texts
Cities are very busy. Some
A
report
people go to work in offices and
about
some people go shopping and
cities
some people go to look at the
old and new buildings.
technical
vocab
simple present
Alice Springs is a beautiful city. description noun groups
about Alice circumstances
B There are many shops. The
mountains are around the city. Springs
evaluative
C I like Alice Springs. I like visiting personal
language
my grandmother there.
response pronouns
D Yesterday I went to visit my
grandmother in Alice Springs.
recount
about
yesterday
time
past tense
pronouns
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ESL Scope and Scales 1