ANANGU EDUCATION CONFERENCE
ALICE SPRINGS
June / July 2003
ESL STRATEGIES: EARLY YEARS
Scales 1 – 6 (1 – 4)
Model
Text
of in
Language
Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Tenor
Field
Mode
Field Continuum
everyday fields………...specialised fields……highly technical fields
Tenor Continuum
equal status ……………….…………….. great difference in status
familiar …….………………………………...……………..very distant
great deal of emotional expression….little emotional expression
Mode continuum
most spoken………………….…………….....… most written
Model of Language
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Language
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Tenor
Field
Tenor
Mode
Field
Mode
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
•broader strand
Language
•more specific
strand
•resources in the
English
language
Text in Context
Language
•range of genres
•purposes
•structure
language choices •structure texts
•build cohesion
•expand sentences
Field
•informational element
•everyday to technical
vocabulary
•verbs
•noun groups
•nominalisations
•circumstances
•topic specific vocabulary
Tenor
•interpersonal element
•formality to familiarity
•modality
•appraisal
•speech functions
•idioms
•non-verbal elements
Mode
•textual element
•spoken to written
•multimodal texts
•foregrounding
•coherence
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Sociocultural
Context
Genre
Situational Context
Text in Context
Sociocultural
Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Language
•range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure
•cohesion
choices range of genres language
•structure texts
•cohesive
purposes
structure
•the ‘what’, or content
•word groups and phrases
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity
and attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Text in Context
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Language
language choices •structure texts
•expand sentences
•build cohesion
•the range of language
genres
choices
•purposes structure texts
•structure
-
build cohesion
•the ‘what’, or content
•word groups and phrases
expand
•its informational elements
•the sentences
verbs
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality,
familiarity and attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices organise texts
•focus foregrounding
Genre: Scale 1
•(towards) copying very
short groups of words
S: Good morning, good
morning everyone.
All: Good morning
everyone
S: My mum buy for me a
gun
T: A gun? What do you do
with that?
S: and Barbie and car
T: Whoo! Do you enjoy
playing with those?
S: nods (goes and sits
down)
Genre: Scale 2
•participates in basic
spoken exchanges
depending on memorising
segments
•responds in basic spoken
exchanges involving two
or three turns
•uses one or two
examples of pronoun
reference
Genre: Scale 3
•constructs elementary
examples of basic
genres by speaking
and writing with a high
degree of scaffolding
•demonstrates an
understanding of the
structure of several
basic genres
•uses basic pronouns:
I
Genre: Scale 4
•organises the meanings
in brief written texts in a
logical order
•writes several pieces of
information about a living
thing
•topic words at the front of
sentences in a report
•begins to expand
information using linking
conjunctions: and, but
•uses a limited range of
cohesive resources:
possessive pronouns,
third person pronouns,
demonstrative pronouns
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Genre: Structure – Logical order
1. List events in order
1………church
2………camping
3………school
2. Order
I went to school.
1
I went camping.
2
I went to church.
3
3. Write sentences
I went to church. I went camping. I went to school.
4. Draw pictures of activities, in order, and write
sentences
1. ……...……… 2. ……….. 3. …………….
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Genre: Structure – Action Words - Procedure
1. Play bingo with actions, ingredients and utensils
for cooking.
2. Follow spoken instructions and order pictures of
actions. Label each picture with an action verb:
stir, pour, boil…
3. Listen again to the spoken instructions and
complete the table
action what how long
4. Write instructions from the table.
5. Colour the action words and notice their position.
Compare with a recount.
6. Cut and jumble the sentences and give to another
student to order.
7. Complete a cloze of the instructions.
8. List new ingredients.
9. Observe, discuss and write new instructions.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Genre: Structure – Topic words - Report
1. List singular and plural forms of words
2. Talk about specific and general nouns
3. Compare sentences
A cat has fur. Cats have fur. My cat has fur.
4. Compare texts with the different sentences.
5. Colour the form of noun in reports
6. Be specific about the form of verb needed for a
report.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Genre: Cohesion – Reference Items
1. Understanding of reference items
Where is her book? Put it there.
2. Tracking participants in a short text
Once upon a time there lived a lady.
Her name was Sadie.
She lived in a house.
It was a pretty one
3. Cloze
Once upon a time there lived a man.
………. name was Bob.
…….. lived in a caravan.
…….. was new.
4. Compare the pattern of reference items between
a recount and a procedure.
5.Colour use of reference items in own texts.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Genre: Expansion - Linking conjunctions - and, but
1. Shopping basket:
Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread and apples.
Bob went to the store. Bob bought bread, apples and
….. but he didn’t buy chips.
2. Cloze with pictures
didn’t buy
bought
Bob bought ……and …but he didn’t buy ………..
3. True or False
He went to the store but he didn’t buy bread.
He went to the store but he didn’t buy chips.
He went to the store. He bought bread and chips.
4. True stories
Write true stories about Bob.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
language choices •word groups and phrases
•structure texts
•the verbs
•informational
element
•expand sentences
•participants
•build cohesion to highly technical
•circumstances
•everyday
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•verbs
•the verbs
•informational element
•noun groups
•participants
•everyday to technical
•nominalisations
•circumstances
vocabulary
•circumstances
•topic specific vocabulary
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity
and attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
S: Good morning, good
morning everyone.
All: Good morning
everyone
S: My mum buy for me a
gun
T: A gun? What do you do
with that?
S: and Barbie and car
T: Whoo! Do you enjoy
playing with those?
S: nods (goes and sits
down)
Field: Scale 2
•uses vocabulary that is
mainly commonsense but
chooses isolated concrete
technical vocabulary:
Barbie
•understands a small
range of vocabulary
expressing immediate
interests:
•common noun groups
•common actions
Well the story was about
as a little fish and one...
boy to go to school and he
walk in the jungle and he
pass in the big tree and he
sit, he, he, he...sit on the
thing on the ground and
he look to the water and
he see some fish and
when he come to school
he.. he make some boat
and when he come into the
jungle too, he put some
fish on the boat and it the
boat and the little boy the
boat on the water
Field: Scale 3
•uses very basic
phrases of location
•expands vocabulary
by describing
according to size
Field: Scale 3
•uses vocabulary that
is mainly
commonsense but
chooses some
concrete technical
vocabulary: orange
juice, church
•expands vocabulary
using numbers,
describers, classifiers:
orange juice
Field: Scale 4
•uses vocabulary that is
commonsense but begins
to use some technical
vocabulary: ball chasy,
watermelon
•uses very basic phrases
expressing
circumstances: On
Sunday, outside, at nighttime
Field: Scale 4
•uses very basic
circumstances
•expands vocabulary
using numbers,
describers, classifiers
•uses technical
vocabulary for
educational fields such as
science
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Field: Noun groups
1. Word groups: build groups following the pattern
a car
a brown car
one old brown car
one old brown Holden car
2. Deconstruct the order and build groups of words
number opinion fact classifier key concept
3. Multiple choice from a story or picture
Is she wearing a big yellow hat or a small blue hat?
4. Describing people
A student with one set of pictures describes them to
another student with another set, to put them in the
same order.
5. Draw a 3 legged wooden stool with a fur top.
6. Experiment with the effect of positive and negative
describers: sweet smelling /smelly
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Field: Circumstances - location
1. Follow instructions
Draw a book near the vase.
Draw a ball under the table.
Draw a man behind the flower.
2. Answering questions
Is the vase on the table?
Is the vase under the table?
Is the vase next to the table?
3. Describe a picture.
next to in behind
The car is …… the garage.
The fence is ……. the tree.
The tree is …….. the house.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Field: Circumstances - location
1. Questions
Where is the vase?
Where is the ball?
Where is the clock?
Where are the flowers?
2. Noughts and crosses
near in
in front
next to
under
on
behind
over between
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Field: verbs
1. Colour the verbs in sentences.
2. Illustrate the verbs.
3. Group the verbs. You may get thinking,
doing, saying, being verbs.
4. Find examples of verbs that have more than
one meaning eg I see
5. Compare the types of verbs in recounts,
reports and procedures.
6. Cloze exercise for verbs.
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘who’
•the language choices
•interpersonal elementselement
•who questions or commands
•interpersonal
•deal with formality, familiarity •how degrees of certainty
•familiar
and attitude to formal
expressed.
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Tenor
Mode
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to
technical vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
•the ‘how’
•its textual elements
•deal with the range of spoken,
written and multimodal texts
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
•modality
•non-verbal elements
•interpersonal element•appraisal
functions
•formality, familiarity•speech
and •speech
functions
•modality
attitude
•attitudinal lexis
•idioms
•idioms
•non-verbal elements
S: Good morning, good
morning everyone.
All: Good morning
everyone
S: My mum buy for me a
gun
T: A gun? What do you do
with that?
S: and Barbie and car
T: Whoo! Do you enjoy
playing with those?
S: nods (goes and sits
down)
Tenor: Scale 2
•responds in socially
appropriate ways
•chooses common
formulaic expressions
•pronounces most words
comprehensively
Tenor: Scale 3
•expresses statements
in basic ways
Tenor: Scale 4
•uses a narrow range of evaluative language
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Tenor: feeling and attitude
1. Cloze
like don’t like
I ………….. ice cream.
I ………… winter.
2. Find someone who
Find someone who likes winter.
Find someone who doesn’t like icecream.
3. Rehearse
Do you like….? Yes I do. No I don’t
4. Report back
Who likes ice cream? Sue likes icecream.
Who likes winter? Dan and Bill like winter.
5. Experiment with intonation and the use of very, so,
much.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Speech functions
1. Understanding of patterns of statements,
questions, offers
Do you have a pen? Do you have a book?
Do you have lunch?
Can I help you? Can I write for you?
Can I visit you?
Can I have your book? Can I have my book?
Can I have your attention?
Give me your book. Give me my book.
Give me your attention.
2. Compare
Can I help you? Can I have your book?
Give me your book.
Note their level of politeness.
Discuss their appropriateness.
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•the
‘how’ element
•textual
•its textual elements
•spoken
towritten
written
•range of spoken,
and
multimodal
texts
•multimodal
•the language choices -organise
texts
•focus foregrounding
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
Text in Context
Language
•the range of genres
•specific purposes
•structure and cohesion
•language choices •structure texts
•cohesive
•the ‘what’, or content
•its informational elements
•range from everyday to technical
vocabulary
•word groups and phrases
•the verbs
•participants
•circumstances
Tenor
•the ‘who’
•interpersonal elements
•deal with formality, familiarity and
attitude
•the language choices
•who questions or commands
•how degrees of certainty
expressed.
Mode
•textual element
•deals with the range of
spoken, written and
multimodal texts
• foregrounding
• •foregrounding
voice and tense
• print conventions
Sociocultural Context
Genre
Situational Context
Field
•voice and tense
•print conventions
Mode: Scale 1
•handwriting: legible
letters
•representing sounds:
some attempt
Mode: Scale 3
•repetitive sentence
beginnings: I
•limited control of
primary tenses: simple
present used instead
of simple past
•print conventions:
spells with some
accuracy
Mode: Scale 4
•some control of primary tenses for most common
regular verbs but a strictly limited control of secondary
tenses
•experiments with punctuation: fullstops and capitals
used
Mode: Scale 4
•repetitive sentence
beginnings
•some control of primary
tenses
•spells most common
words and others on own
pronunciation
•experiments with
punctuation
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Mode: Foregrounding
1.Identify foregrounded elements in a recount
and a procedure
My brother took me in his car. We went to my
uncle’s house. On Saturday we went home.
Open the box. Lift the paper. Fold the paper.
2. Compare foregrounding
Recount:
Procedure:
My brother
Person
Open
Action
We
Person
Lift
Action
On Saturday Time
Fold
Action
3. Compile
time words
action words
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Mode: Tense
1. Lists of verbs
go went
sit
sat
play played
have had
watch watched
2. Model
Everyday I go to school.
Yesterday I played football.
3. Question and answer
What do you do everyday? I go to school.
What did you do yesterday? I played football.
4. Picture cloze
What did the boy do yesterday?
He sat ……………………..
He…………… a game on the computer.
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Mode: Tense
5.Cloze
Yesterday David …………. (drive) a car.
He ………….. (drive) a car everyday.
6. Pattern
I …………… now.
I …………… everyday.
I ……………. yesterday.
I …………….. tomorrow.
7. Time
What are they doing now?
What were they doing an hour ago?
What will they do soon?
What were they doing yesterday?
were …ing
past perfect
…..ed
change word
past
are …….ing
now
will ……….
future
Strategies Scales 1- 4
Comparing texts
Cities are very busy. Some
A
report
people go to work in offices and
about
some people go shopping and
cities
some people go to look at the
old and new buildings.
technical
vocab
simple present
Alice Springs is a beautiful city. description noun groups
about Alice circumstances
B There are many shops. The
mountains are around the city. Springs
evaluative
C I like Alice Springs. I like visiting personal
language
my grandmother there.
response pronouns
D Yesterday I went to visit my
grandmother in Alice Springs.
recount
about
yesterday
time
past tense
pronouns
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Strategies Early years scales1-4