Paris District Training
June 1st and 2nd 2015
Barbara L. Preston
For the next two days we are going to look at critical reading (close
reading) and writing.
Please give your group a name. This name will be yours for the two
days we are in session.
Please be aware that we are all at different spots in our knowledge
of reading and writing.
• Stay on task
• No sidebars that will interfere with listening, learning, and
• Reflect when we take breaks on how you can use the information
at your grade level and move around. The brain needs that time.
• Try to be present. Ask questions. I am here to support you in
what you do for your students.
• Last, but not least, thank you for all you do as educators.
Here is what you said you needed
• Finding 2 texts to compare for literary analysis
and also the strategies to teach students to use
for this task.
• Where to find good close reading materials and a
review of close reading procedures
• Telling a narrative from a different point of view
Students were expected to do this on PARCC, and
we had not addressed this task.
• Kids were confused on the wording of the
questions and tasks on PARCC. How can we
address this problem?
Close Reading Materials and Resources
• Show
/642/text-complexity-collection Go to What
Makes This Text Complex
• Beginning
of understanding critical thinking and reading
Model Content Frameworks
5th Gr. ELA
Let’s look at this and see if it makes sense to
spend time throughout this year to understand
it and use it.
Look at what PARCC says a student should be
closely reading and writing throughout the year
Close Reading Bookmark
Look at the bookmark and see if you could use
this or revise it for your grade level.
Talk to a partner about it.
Handout 1 Bookmarks
Critical Reading Needs:
vocabulary in context
Summarizing/inferring main idea)
To non-critical readers, many texts offer the truth, the whole
truth, and nothing but the truth.
To the critical reader, any single text provides but one
portrayal of the facts, one individual's "take" on the subject.
Dan Kurland
Let’s look at handout 1 and 1 a and 2
Rubric for Critical Thinking and Critical Reading
Critical Reading Skills-Dan Kurland
• The initial step of critical reading involves
recognizing a text as a presentation in its own
right. This step is concerned with identifying such
elements as:
• The existence of a beginning, middle, and end
The use of illustrations to explicate remarks The
use of evidence to support remarks
• The use of stylish language to portray topics
Organization, or a method of sequencing remarks
– such as whether chronological, different
aspects of the topic, steps in a logical sequence
Step 2 in Critical Reading
• The next step involves describing the nature
of these aspects of the text, of classifying the
nature of the material within the text
– The nature of the examples – what the examples
are examples of
– The nature of the evidence – what kinds of
authorities are invoked, what types of evidence
are provided
– The nature of the choice or terms– what types of
terms are applied to what topics
Step 3 Critical Reading
• The final step involves inferring the underlying
assumptions and perspectives of the discussion, taking
into account of all of the elements of the text being as
they are throughout the text as a whole.
• This step is concerned less with sequential
development and more with recognizing patterns of
elements interwoven throughout the presentation as a
– What is achieved by describing topics a certain way?
– What is assumed by selecting certain types of evidence?
Final Step in Critical Reading
• Throughout, critical reading relies on abstracting, on
classifying the nature of things,
The nature of the structure of the text
The nature of the language employed
The nature of the examples invoked
The nature of the illustrations brought to bear
And the nature of the thinking that would explain all
aspects of the text being as they are.
• In the end, readers must take control of the text, not
just repeat its assertions. At its core, critical
reading involves becoming the author of
one's own understanding.
• Free tool to use SHOW
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
• Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
• Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
• Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later
how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card,
write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your
• Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your
version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new
• Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology
you have borrowed exactly from the source.
• Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that
you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into
your paper. online help
Inference a mental process by which we reach a conclusion
based on specific evidence. Keith Pollete
• A text does not contain a meaning. Readers construct
meaning by what they take the words to mean and how
they process sentences to find meaning.
• What do students need to know in order to
infer? Talk to a partner and come up with a
list of skills needed for inference.
ading.htm Resource for inference instruction
Share your list
With your group, come up with a list of skills
that need to be taught K-12.
Assign your list a grade level for mastery.
Please list on sticky note and place on chart
paper on the wall.
According to Keith Polette
Pieces of Learning
Four Kinds of Inferences:
• Generalities (emotions, ideas, values, traits, concepts)
• Associations (comparisons & contrasts)
• Causes (motives, purposes, intentions, origins,
• Effects (results, problems, benefits, solutions)
Some inferences will be more accurate than others
(spectrum of inferences).
uts/California%20Gifted/Inference.pdf SHOW
Visual Aids in Reading- Activity
ine.htm Let’s look at a table and critically
think about it. Answer the questions at the
end of the table.
Summary Writing
• Video to use
for older students
• Elementary students can use the Summary
Handout 3 on Summaries
Specify what annotation will be used and make a list of them –Create a legend
on the side of the paper
2. If you are looking for something specific as you read, make note of that and
create a way to annotate that specific thing as you read.
3. If you can mark in the book, great. If not, decide how you will be able to
annotate. Copy the pages, scan the pages etc.,
nGuide.pdf digital apps for annotations
20the%20Yellow%20Highlighter.pdf Use this for today
e.pdf Use this article for writing Literacy Graffiti an online tool for reading.
llow%20Highlighter.pdf Use this for today
• You will be reading for 10 minutes. As you read,
please annotate. We want to be able to share
out what was important about this article for
students in a classroom.
• Handout 4 Beyond the Yellow Highlighter
Turn and Talk Please
• Do we need a set of annotations for each
genre or one default one we can use across
grade levels. Discuss this.
PARCC Writing Tasks
Writing on the PARCC Assessment
• Students will write three responses as part of
the Performance Based Assessment (PBA).
– A literary analysis task (LAT)
– A narrative task (NT)
– A research simulation task (RST)
Grade 3
Literacy Analysis Task/Research Simulation Task Rubric
Narrative Task Rubric
Grades 4-5
Literacy Analysis Task/Research Simulation Task Rubric
Narrative Task Rubric
Grades 6-11
Literacy Analysis Task/Research Simulation Task Rubric
Narrative Task Rubric
All rubrics can be found on:
Look carefully at this website
Select PARCC resources for your grade level
Select PARCC Assessment, Sample Questions, Rubrics are on the left side.
PARCC ELA/Literacy Rubrics (Updated and Refined)
The PARCC ELA/literacy Rubrics have been updated to reflect lessons learned from the
extensive PARCC field test. These rubrics are included in the available materials to help
support a stronger understanding of what the Prose Constructed Response items are asking
students to know and be able to do.
Updates include:
•Score points for the Conventions trait were reduced from 4 score points to 3 points.
Educators saw that there was not enough difference between student responses to have
both a score point of 4 and a score point of 3 and apply the rubric with reliability.
•PARCC created a separate rubric for scoring of narrative writing. The narrative criteria for
Written Expression was separated so that both teachers and scorers could easily apply the
correct criteria.
•PARCC added an additional bullet for score point 1 in Written Expression. During the
review of the field test items, educators saw responses that were well-developed and
text-based, but not clearly tied to the prompt. Language was added to score point 1 to
recognize the writing ability demonstrated in this type of response.
•While the criteria themselves did not change, the descriptors for some score points
were refined to clearly delineate the lines between score points and to ensure
clarity of the criteria.
Let’s look at the rubrics. Handout 5 on Rubrics
3rd Grade Sample
3rd grade PCR-Literary Analysis
• Old Mother West Wind and the Sandwitch
both try to teach important lessons to
characters in the stories.
• Write an essay that explains how Old Mother
West Wind's and the Sandwitch's words and
actions are important to the plots of the
stories. Use what you learned about the
characters to support your essay
7th Grade PCR
• You have read a passage from the Count of
Monte Cristo and a scene from Blessings. Think
about the similarities and differences in how the
two authors develop theme.
• Write an essay in which you identify the theme
from each text and analyze how the theme is
developed. Include specific evidence from both
Let’s talk with your table group about this
question. Why are these questions literary
analysis prompts?
Literary Analysis Resource
1. Turn the prompt into a question.
Literary Analysis Writing, which typically
requires students to compare and contrast two
pieces of literature that deal with a common
Turn this into a question.
With a partner, please…
• Old Mother West Wind and the Sandwitch
both try to teach important lessons to
characters in the stories.
• Write an essay that explains how Old Mother
West Wind's and the Sandwitch's words and
actions are important to the plots of the
stories. Use what you learned about the
characters to support your essay.
How to begin….
Reframe the question:
In the readings Old Mother West Wind and Sandwitch try to
teach important lessons to the characters. What words and
actions are important to the plots of the stories?
Write your answer in an essay from and use evidence from
the characters to support your essay.
Then pick evidence from each story:
Write the evidence in a clear manner.
Old Mother West Wind
Me First
End with what the characters learned and maybe what you
have learned from this too.
We will try our hand at this.
You have two articles on annotations. Yellow Highlighter and I’ll Have Mine Annotated, Please. Get
them back out for this activity.
Your group will decide how to divide up the articles to read and annotate. Then you will share your
piece of the article to each other so that everyone understands the main ideas and please give some
evidence for your ideas to the group. Then together, on chart paper, you will write the essay answering
the question below.
Each of you will read a portion of two readings. As you read, please, annotate the readings
to answer this PARCC like question.
 You have read two articles on annotations. Each one of them gave specific examples for
teachers and students to use for annotating texts and why. Write a literary
analysis of why annotating is an important tool for reading.
Give evidence from each article that supports “why” the
authors think annotation is a great reading and writing
You will be working on your own chart paper and it will be shared with others in the room.
You can work with your group to write your essay.
You will need Handout 4 and 6 (We already looked at 4 earlier)
Time to Read-15 minutes
Time to Discuss-15 minutes
Time to Write -15 minutes
5th Grade Sample
Let’s look at this short ppt.
Narrative Elements
Elements of Narrative
• Characters
• Scene Setting
• Action
Narrative Writing
Purposes of Narrative Writing
• Convey an experience, either real or
• Uses time as its key structure.
(Note: There can be some overlap in
purpose since a narrative account
might be non-fiction and serve to
inform the reader of a particular topic.)
Graphic Organizers
Sentence/Paragraph Frames
Graphic Organizers are a helpful way to organize
They help students
• understand how things go together,
• remember things better,
• make it easier to write a draft (in a student’s own
6th grade and beyond need to understand all
the elements of narratives.
Narrative Strategies
 Start to Finish - Grades K-2
 Postcard – Grades 3-5
 Using Mentor Texts – Grades 6-8
 Write Alouds – Grades 11-12
Narrative Task 7th Grade
• In the passage, the author developed a strong
character named Miyax. Think about Miyax
and the details the author used to create that
character. The passage ends with Miyax
waiting for the black wolf to look at her.
• Write an original story to continue where the
passage ended. In your story, be sure to use
what you have learned about the character
Miyax as you tell what happens to her next.
5th Grade Narrative Task
• You have read a passage from "The Growin' of
Paul Bunyan." Think about how the story
would be different if it were told from
Johnny’s point of view.
• Write a narrative story retelling the story from
the point of view of Johnny. Be sure to use
supporting details from the passage.
Narrative-Point of View SHOW
• 5 things to
remember when writing from a character’s point of view
Writing.pdf K-5 grade stuff for narrative writing
• Spend a day in my
shoes activity SHOW
• 6 types of
point of view writing and worksheets, if you have to use
worksheets. I would take the ideas and come up with another way
beside copying off a worksheet.
PARCC Resources
Look at this one in particular
• Look at evidence tables for your
grade level.
Literary Analysis Task – provides students an opportunity to show their understanding of
literature. It asks students to read two literary texts, answer six multiple-choice questions about
the texts, and write an extended response that analyzes key ideas (development of theme,
interaction of literary elements, structure’s relationship to meaning, effects of point of view,
etc.) in the texts.
Grade 8 PARCC Practice Test
• In “Confetti Girl” and “Tortilla Sun,” the narrators have points of view different from those of
their parents. Write an essay analyzing how these differences in points of view create
tension in both stories. Remember to use details from both texts to support your ideas.
Research Simulation Task – mirrors the research process by presenting two or three texts on a
given topic. Students answer nine multiple-choice questions about the texts and then write an
extended response about some aspect of the related texts (the purpose, the use of
illustrations, the relationship of ideas, the argument presented, etc.)
Grade 7 PARCC Practice Test
• You have learned about electricity by reading three articles, “Energy Story,” “Short Circuit,”
and “Conducting Solutions.” In an essay, analyze how each source uses explanations,
examples, and/or descriptions to help accomplish its purpose. Support your response with
evidence from each source.
Narrative Writing Task – asks students to read a literary text, answer five multiple-choice
questions about the text, and then create a narrative related to the text (finish the story, retell
the story in another narrative form, or from a different point of view, etc.)
Grade 6 PARCC Practice Test
• In the passage from “Magic Elizabeth,” the author creates a vivid setting and two distinct
characters, Mrs. Chipley and Sally. Think about the details the author uses to establish the
setting and the characters. Write an original story about what happens when Sally arrives at
Aunt Sarah’s house. In your story, be sure to use what you have learned about the setting
and the characters as you tell what happens next.
Examples from Mississippi PARCC TESTING examples 2015
10th Grade Sample
Research Simulation Task
The research simulation task is a nonfiction task
only. Students will be asked to read an anchor
text and read/view two other sources that
connect to that text. These could be in a variety
of modes if using the computer to take the
assessment. Students will have to answer
questions about each text and then write to a
prompt synthesizing the texts.
Research Simulation Task 10th Grade PARCC example
You have just read or listened to three sources discussing the Supreme Court case
of Tinker v. Des Moines:
• the United States Supreme Court majority opinion by Chief Justice Abe Fortas,
• the United States Supreme Court dissenting opinion by Justice Hugo Black, and
• an audio clip of an interview with law professor Catherine Ross.
• Consider the points made by each source about the
issues surrounding the Tinker v. Des Moines case.
• Write an essay analyzing the arguments of those
who believe certain kinds of speech should be
prohibited within an educational setting and
those who believe the opposite. Base the analysis
on the specifics of the Tinker v. Des Moines case
and the arguments and principles put forth in the
three sources. The essay should consider at least
two of the sources presented.
4th Grade Sample
Synthesis Writing
• Use your writing to show that you have understood all the
readings. Synthesize the readings, to bring them together,
in some interesting way around a central question.
• One key to successful synthesis papers is to bring your own
voice and ideas into the paper sufficiently to actually
direct the flow of the paper. If you find yourself just pasting
together summaries of the readings in some kind of order,
stop! You should find yourself, instead, identifying some
interesting question that has grown out of your reading
and answering it.
• Your answer will usually become the thesis statement that
directs the paper. You will use your reading, then, to
develop your thesis--showing your reader what you mean
by it and why you believe it is true.
Academic Writing/ Research Writing
Reading and Writing Logically
Please Read……..
ofProseConstructedResponseItems.pdf Look at the first
section of this website.
• The PARCC Summative Assessments will include three
performance-based tasks, each culminating in a prose
constructed response (PCR) item. The narrative writing
task requires that students write using a text stimulus, but
the response is scored only for written expression and
knowledge of language and conventions. The other two
PCRS, associated with the Research Simulation Task and
the Literary Analysis Task, are scored for reading, written
expression, and knowledge of language and conventions.
Standards #4 - #6
Production and Distribution of Writing
#4 - Produce well developed and organized writing –
appropriate to task, audience and purpose. (Begins in
grade 3)
#5 – Develop and strengthen writing
#6 – Produce and publish writing – use technology
Grades K-2:
Shared Research
K-1st – With guidance and
support, recall/gather
information from provided
sources to answer a question.
2nd – Same as above with
scaffolds toward independence.
Taken from Foundational Writing
Grades 3-5
3rd – Gather info. from
sources, take notes, sort
4th – Take notes (draw
evidence), categorize, list
5th – Same as above with
summarizing and
Standards #7- #9
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
6th -8th Grades
• Conduct short research projects
to answer a question from several
sources by drawing evidence
• Gather info from print and digital
• Assess credibility (accuracy 7th –
8th )of sources
• Quote or paraphrase info while
avoiding plagiarism
• Provide basic bibliographic info.
• Use search terms effectively and
a standard form of citation (7th –
8th )
9th -12th Grades
• Same as 6th – 8th plus
• Conduct more sustained
research projects.
• Synthesize multiple and
more authoritative
• Integrate information into
the text selectively to
maintain the flow of ideas
• Use advanced searches
History Sites to Use
• all sites for history teachers
Science and Other Resources
• All new
standards for science and lessons to match them
Software to use with students
%20to%20CCSS.pdf K-4 lessons that are aligned to
CCSS, Science, math, and SS
NASA and Nest Gen Science
1000’s of lessons K-12
Standard #10: Range of Writing
A Balanced and Generous Diet of
Grades 9-12:
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for
research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time
frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
tasks, purpose, and audiences.
What writing goes on in your classrooms?.
1. Write down the types of writing
happening in your classroom over the
course of the year.
PARCC Writing Forms
2. Using the standards, place standard
number next to each type to indicate
targeted standard.
Poetry – W.3, W.10
Notes – W.9, W.10
Travel Brochure – W.2, W.4-6, W.7, W.10
May need writing standards here
for this one.
3. Next to each writing task, place an L,N or R
to indicate PARCC task preparation.
Specify if it is routine writing that happens
daily or long term writing by writing the word
Question W. 6.7 Routine
Look carefully at the chart paper to see if all
types of writing are being covered.
1. Am I meeting the writing standards?
1. Which standards do I need to cover more?
2. Am I aligning any of my writing to PARCC
Task adapted from Foundational Writing Training
Connections from CCSS
Shift Kit Writing Connections
Implementation Guide
 Shift Two (Extract & Employ
EQuIP Rubric
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
“We do it”
“You do it
“You do it
A Model for Success for All Students
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual
release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
“I do it”
Focus Lesson
“We do it”
“You do it
“You do it
A Model for Success for All Students
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual
release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Shared Writing
• Reinforces and supports reading as
well as writing
• Makes it possible for all students to
• Encourages close examination of
texts, words, and options of
• Demonstrates the conventions of
writing-spelling, punctuation, and
• Focuses on composing and leaves
transcribing to the teacher
s_for_shared_writing.pdf K-3 slide share ppt to look at K-5
Scroll down on this site to see lessons K-12 that are
already done for you.
Kelly Gallagher talks about writing and how the teacher
must be the expert in the room. 6-12
K-5 Opinion site
Common Graphic organizers
Name the book or topic:
State Opinion:
K-5 Opinion
1st & 2nd Grade Opinion Graphic
Name the book or topic:
State Opinion:
Support Opinion:
K-5 Opinion
3rd Grade Opinion Graphic
Introduce topic and list reasons (for organizational structure):
State Opinion:
Support Opinion: (reasons)
K-5 Opinion
4th Grade Opinion Graphic
Introduce topic and group ideas to support opinion (create organizational
State Opinion:
Support Opinion: (reasons with facts and details)
5th Grade Opinion Graphic
Introduce topic and logically group ordered reasons (create organizational
State Opinion:
Support Opinion: (logically ordered reasons with facts and details)
2nd – 5th Grade
Would You Rather…
Introduction to Text or Topic
Opinion Statement
Support Facts and Details
Support Facts and Details
K-5 Opinion
Would you rather…6-12 gr.
live without music?
live without
Taken from Foundational Writing Training
What is Argument Writing? HO 8
An argument’s intent is to make a point or claim
and substantiate it with evidence. It is not about
winning the argument, either….. By sixth grade….
• Start with an organizer HO 8 and with a group
of students.
• Use the organizer to have a debate on a subject
that they have text evidence in front of them.
• They will then use the organizer and the
evidence to have an ARGUMENTATIVE debate
before they write an argument paper.
Look at HO 8
Take this organizer and discuss how this can be
used for a debate before you teach argument
Then talk about if this would be a good
organizer for argument writing.
What grade level would start argument writing
using counterclaims, warrants, and refutation?.
• One common strategy is an appeal to the credibility,
character, or authority of the writer (or speaker). When
writers establish that they are knowledgeable and
trustworthy, audiences are more likely to believe what
they say.
• Another is an appeal to the audience’s self-interest,
sense of identity, or emotions, any of which can sway
an audience
• A logical argument, on the other hand, convinces the
audience because of the perceived merit and
reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered rather
than either the emotions the writing evokes in the
audience or the character or credentials of the writer
• Brainstorm the argument skills students/participants
use in their everyday lives.
• Educators need to specifically instruct students to
identify the difference between claims and evidence—
that they must first examine data and evidence and
then develop claims on the basis of this exploration.
• Explain that students will need multiple opportunities,
both collaboratively and independently, to practice the
thinking involved in argumentation.
• Teachers will need to give students the language
support they need (such as academic phrases and
sentence frames) to introduce, develop, and support
their claims.
• Don't ask students to formulate a claim about an
unfamiliar issue or topic and come up with evidence to
support it.
Terms in Argument Writing Standards
6th – 8th Grade
Credible Sources
Formal Style
Opposing Claims (7th)
Counterclaims (8th)
9th – 12th Grade
Credible Sources
Substantive Topics
Formal Style
Objective Tone
Argument Writing Sample
6-12 and Content
Argument Strategies on Illinois
Writing Matters
Spar – Grades 6-8
Modeling An Argument – Grades 9-10
Informative – convey facts and
Explanatory – coveys a person’s view,
how to do something, or an experience.
Explain how you can tell if a source is
reliable or unreliable on the internet.
Inform your parents of how your school
is doing academically this year.
Also use mentor texts to model…
Kelly Gallagher suggests that if we expect students to write a specific way,
we must provide them with the structure to emulate a few times prior to expecting
them to write in this format.
Sample Paragraph Frame
“Mother box turtles prepare for their babies in a very
interesting way. First, _____________________________.
Next, __________________________________________
__________________. After this, ___________________
_____________. Finally, _________________________.”
1. Model
2. Provide students with a simpler frame to complete on
their own.
3. After enough practice, students will not need a
frame, but be able to write this structure on their own.
Graphic Organizers
Text Structure Graphic Organizers
Text structure refers to how information within a written
text is organized. Not only will teaching students to
recognize common text structures help with
comprehension, but it can help students organize their
own writing. Taken from Foundational Writing
Handout on Text Features and Structures Look at these and see how you could
use them in your classroom. DO THE ACTIVITY. Why is it necessary for
students to understand text structure and features?
Posters to use in classroom
Illinois Writing Matters
 Sketch to Stretch – Grades K-2
 Brainstorm BME – Grades 3-5
 SDQR Chart – Grades 6-8
 Split Screen Notes – Grades 11-12
Standard #10: Range of Writing
A Balanced and Generous Diet of
Grades 3-8:
Write routinely over extended time frames (a time for
research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time
frames (a single sitting or a day or two for a range of
discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Interactive Tools
s/30927_topics.pdf Fiction/nonfiction Close
• Write Alouds
• Teaching with
New Grade Level Resource!
• Guidance for Scope and Sequence Development
– For each grade level
– Outline the types of writing required for New Illinois
Learning Standards and PARCC
– Provides example tasks and resources
Look at this: 3rd grade Model Frameworks that
could work throughout the year.
Sample sites
kes_a_hero/ 4.52 video Good or Evil
• What is a hero?
tives/herosjourney/ interactive fun site for students
on heroes
• Power point
on heroes

Paris District Training