CRCT Review Book
CLEAR YOUR DESK EXCEPT FOR A
PENCIL OR PEN
Latin America and the
Caribbean
The student will discuss Environmental
Issues in Latin America
► Mexico
City – air pollution is bad b/c of
factories and cars, they live in a bowlshaped crater, Ideas to fix are to not drive
some days
► Brazil – destruction of the rainforest
(deforestation)– caused by road building,
logging, mining
► Venezuela – oil drilling causes pollution –
but its 50% of their economy
The student will explain the impact of location,
climate, distribution of natural resources on Latin
America and the Caribbean
► Mexico
sends 80% of its exports to U.S. – most
people live in cities, rich in natural resources
► Venezuela gets most food from U.S. – most people
live along the coast – oil is most important natural
resource
► Brazil – most people live along the coast in cities,
rich farmland
► Cuba – most people live in cities and towns – don’t
trade with U.S.
The student will describe the cultural characteristics
of people who live in Latin America and the Caribbean
► Spain
and Portuguese conquered so most
people speak Spanish and Portuguese.
-meztizos = Spanish and Indian
-mullattos = Spanish and blacks
-most people are catholic because that’s what
Spanish and Portuguese are.
► Higher
literacy rate = higher GDP = higher
standard of living
The student will explain the impact of
location, climate, distribution of
natural resources, and population
distribution in Canada
► About
75% of people live in cities in
southern Canada. Within 100 miles of the
U.S/Canada border.
► Most imports and exports are with U.S.
The student will discuss
environmental issues in Canada
► Environmental
issues in Canada =
Acid rain from factories into Great Lakes,
also waste from industries
The student will compare and contrast
various forms of government
► Unitary=
central has power over regional
► Confederation = regional has power over central
► Federal = share power btw central and regional
► Autocratic = one ruler
► oligarchy = small group
► Democratic = people vote
 Parliamentary = people vote for parliament
 Presidential = people vote for president and parliament
The student will explain the structures
of national governments in Latin
America and the Caribbean
► Brazil = federal presidential democracy
 – required to vote, average level of freedom
► Mexico
= federal presidential democracy
 18+ choose to vote
 president has 1, 6 year term
► Cuba
– unitary, autocratic dictatorship
 One political party, little freedom
The student will explain the structure of
the national government of Canada
► Canada
 Constitutional monarchy
 Federal Parliamentary Democracy
The student will analyze different
economic systems
► Traditional-
customs and habits of the past
► Command – government makes decisions
► Market – citizens make decisions
► All countries are mixed on a continuum
► Canada – market -> mixed
► Brazil – Market -> mixed
► Cuba – Command
The student will give examples of how voluntary trade
benefits buyers and sellers in Latin America, the
Caribbean, and Canada
► Specialization
– each country picks a few products
to get good at and make money off of
► Tariffs – tax
► Quota = restriction on number
► Embargo = no trade
► NAFTA – free trade agreement btw US, Canada,
Mexico
► We have to exchange currencies b/c we all have
different money
The student will describe the factors that
influence economic growth and examine their
presence or absence in Latin America
► More
education, training, healthcare =
higher GDP
► Better factories and machinery = higher
GDP
► More useful natural resources = better
economy
► Entrepreneurs = businesses = jobs =
money made – money spent = higher GDP
The student will explain personal money
management choices in terms of
income, spending, credit, saving, and
investing
► Don’t spend money you don’t have.
► If you want something, save for it.
► Investing means you make money off of
what you put in
The student will describe the impact of
European contact on Latin America
► Aztecs
–Cortes conquered, Tenochtitlan was
capital, Montezuma was leader
► Inca’s – Pizarro Conquered – took Atahualpa
capture, guns played large role
► Columbian Exchange – movement of things
from America to Europe, Europe to America
 Indigenous people died, both got more food,
horse helped indigenous people
The student will explain the development of Latin
America and the Caribbean from European colonies to
independent nations
► African
Slavery meant countries got rich now make up large part of population
► Portuguese and Spanish are most widely
spoken language and religion is catholic
► Toussaint freed Haiti
► Bolivar helped free all of South America
► Hidalgo inspired Mexico’s independence
movement
The student will analyze important 20th century issues
in Latin America and the Caribbean
► Cuban
revolution changed Cuba to
communist and made U.S. cut ties with
Cuba
► Zapatista movement meant they had
representation in the government
The student will describe the impact of
European contact on Canada
► French
and English settled = languages in
Canada are French and English
► Parliament in Britain created the Dominion
of Canada and other provinces joined
► Canada was independent by 1931
The student will analyze
contemporary issues in Canada
► Quebec
wants to be independent because
they identify with French
 Speak French, are Catholic
Label your maps
QUIZ
Europe
The student will discuss
environmental issues in Europe
► Germany
– acid rain, destroys forests and
eats away at buildings. Strict laws to stop
pollution
► UK – air pollution from factories and cars,
causes smog
► Ukraine- nuclear disaster at Chernobyl
contaminated farmland, caused cancer
The student will explain the impact of location,
climate, natural resources, and population distribution
in Europe
► Britain
– most people live in urban areas,
mild climate
► Russia – most people live in west, very cold,
lots of resources
► Germany – moderate climate, strongest
economy, most people live in cities
► Italy – moderate climate, few natural
resources, most people live in the north
The student will describe the cultural
characteristics of Europe
► Germanic
– German and English
► Romance – based on Latin, Italian, French,
Spanish
► Slavic- Russian
► Judaism – first monotheistic religion, Torah
► Christianity – based on teachings of Jesus
► Islam – fastest growing religion, Allah is God,
Muhammad is Prophet
► High literacy rates throughout Europe
The student will compare and contrast
various forms of government
► Unitary=
central has power over regional
► Confederation = regional has power over central
► Federal = share power btw central and regional
► Autocratic = one ruler
► oligarchy = small group
► Democratic = people vote
 Parliamentary = people vote for parliament
 Presidential = people vote for president and parliament
The student will explain the structure of
modern European governments
► Germany
– Federal Parliamentary democracy,
Chancellor is most powerful, Bundestag and
Bundesrat
► Russia – federal presidential democracy
 Federation Council, State Duma
► United
Kingdom – unitary parliamentary
democracy, House of Commons and House of
Lords
► European Union – create peaceful environment in
Europe, free trade among countries, one currency
called the Euro.
The student will analyze different
economic systems
► Traditional-
customs and habits of the past
► Command – government makes decisions
► Market – citizens make decisions
► All countries are mixed on a continuum
► United Kingdom – market -> mixed
► Germany –mixed
► Russia – mixed -> market
The student will analyze the benefits of trade barriers
to voluntary trade in Europe
► Specialization
– each country picks a few
products to get good at and make money
off of
► Tariffs – tax
► Quota = restriction on number
► Embargo = no trade
► We have to exchange currencies b/c we all
have different money
The student will describe the factors that
influence economic growth and examine their
presence or absence in Europe
► More
education, training, healthcare =
higher GDP
► Better factories and machinery = higher
GDP
► More useful natural resources = better
economy
► Entrepreneurs = businesses = jobs =
money made – money spent = higher GDP
The student will analyze the impact of
European exploration and colonization on
various world regions
► Reasons
to explore = spice trade, renaissance,
new land, God, gold, glory
► Prince Henry was one of first explorer
► Spanish -Caribbean, middle and south America
► British – Caribbean, North America, India
► France – Canada, Louisiana, islands in Caribbean,
Africa
► Competition over building empires, nationalism,
alliances, militarism caused WWI
The student will explain conflict and
change in Europe in the 21st century
► After WW1:
► Treaty of Versailles very harsh on Germany
► Russian Revolution made them communist
► Rise of Nazism – grew bc Germany was struggling
so much
► WWII erupts – Holocaust = mass genocide of
Jews
► Cold War after WWII – Berlin wall built by Soviet
Union
► 1989 – Berlin wall torn down, Germany reunified
► 1991- Soviet Union collapses
Label your maps
QUIZ
Australia
The student will explain the impact of
location, climate, distribution of natural
resources and population distribution on
► Desert
Australia
covers 2/3 of island
► Climate is temperate
► Many natural resources
► Most live along the coast in cities
The student will describe the cultural
characteristics of people who live in Australia
► British
settled – speak English and are
Christian
► High literacy rate = high GDP = high
standard of living
The student will compare and contrast
various forms of government
► Unitary=
central has power over regional
► Confederation = regional has power over central
► Federal = share power btw central and regional
► Autocratic = one ruler
► oligarchy = small group
► Democratic = people vote
 Parliamentary = people vote for parliament
 Presidential = people vote for president and parliament
The student will explain the structure of
the national government of Australia
► Australia
= Federal parliamentary
democracy
► Required to vote at 18+
The student will analyze different
economic systems
► Traditional-
customs and habits of the past
► Command – government makes decisions
► Market – citizens make decisions
► All countries are mixed on a continuum
► Australia has the freest economy in the
world = market
The student will give examples of how voluntary trade
benefits buyers and sellers in Australia
► Specialization
– each country picks a few
products to get good at and make money
off of
► Tariffs – tax
► Quota = restriction on number
► Embargo = no trade
► We have to exchange currencies b/c we all
have different money
The student will describe the factors that
influence economic growth and examine their
presence or absence in Australia
► More
education, training, healthcare =
higher GDP
► Better factories and machinery = higher
GDP
► More useful natural resources = better
economy
► Entrepreneurs = businesses = jobs =
money made – money spent = higher GDP
The student will describe the culture and
development of Australia prior to
contact with Europeans
► Aborigines are one of oldest civilizations in
world
► Relied on the land
► Dreamtime = religion
The student will explain the impact of
European Exploration and colonization had on
Australia
► Britain
settled and created Penal colony
 Relieve overcrowded jails
 Used prisoners to build colony
► Diseases
and war killed many Aborigines
because of mistreatment
Label your maps
QUIZ
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CRCT Review Book