2011-2012
th
6
Grade CRCT prep
Included in this PowerPoint presentation is every Ga. Performance
Standard for 6th grade Social Studies (except reading across curriculum).
SS6G1 The student will locate selected features of Latin America and the
Caribbean.
a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map:
Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, Panama Canal,
Andes Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, and Atacama Desert.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Bolivia,
Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela.
SIERRA MADRES
MTNS.
Atacama Desert – Located in
Chile
La Mano del Desierto (Hand of the Desert)
Andes
Mountains
You Must Know:
Mexico
Haiti
Brazil
Bolivia
Colombia
Venezuela
Cuba
Panama
Question 1
► The
Atacama Desert is in what country?
SS6G2 The student will discuss environmental issues in Latin America.
a. Explain the major environmental concerns of Latin America regarding the issues of air
pollution in Mexico City, Mexico, the destruction of the rain forest in Brazil, and oilrelated pollution in Venezuela.
First thing to remember…pollution is not a good thing. Once you
realize that, it’s not too hard to answer the standard.
Mexico City has most of its
wind currents blocked by
surrounding hills and
mountains. Therefore, air
pollution sometimes can’t
be blown out of the area for
days…sometimes weeks!
The Brazilian Rainforest is
the “lungs” of South
America. Since plants take
in carbon dioxide and let out
oxygen for us to breathe
cutting them down is NOT
good. …not to mention the
destruction of wildlife and
habitat for native peoples
In Venezuela,
there.
the discovery of
oil brought new
wealth to the
government.
That same
government is
supposed to
regulate oil
pollution and
clean up. (does
that look clean to
you?)
Question…
► 2.
What blocks the wind currents from
blowing the air pollution out of Mexico City?
► 3.Why
forest?
► 4.
is it a bad idea to cut down the rain
What environmental problem does
Venezuela have?
SS6G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of
natural resources, and population distribution on Latin America and the
Caribbean.
a. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Mexico and
Venezuela affect where people live and how they trade.
b. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Brazil and Cuba affect
where people live and how they trade.
Teacher Talk: Compare how the location, climate, and natural
resources of ____________affect where people live and how they
trade.
Translation: “How does where a place is, what it feels
like and what it has, compare to another place?”
Now all you have to do is make a simple comparison:
Country A
Country B
Where is it?
What's it
feel like?
What's it
got?
Are there advantages for one country (or countries) over another (or
others)?
MEXICO
VENEZUELA
Where is it?
Both nations have large coastlines and
populations that rely on the sea for
their living. Mexico is part of North
America, but Venezuela is part of South
America.
Climate?
Both Mexico and Venezuela
have warm to semi-tropical
climates in some parts of
their countries. Both are
influenced by weather
patterns brought into their
countries by the oceans.
Natural Resources?
OIL (petroleum) is now the chief natural
resource for both countries. Venezuela
has done a better job of exploiting that
natural resource, but Mexico is working
hard to catch up.
Summary: Mexico and
Venezuela are similar
in climate and natural
resources.
► 5.
How are Mexico and Venezuela alike?
CUBA
BRAZIL
Where is it?
Cuba is located about 90 miles from
the southern tip of Florida. It is an
island nation in the Caribbean Sea.
Brazil is the largest country in South
America, with an extensive coastline
touching the Atlantic Ocean where
most of its people live. Many larger
cities are surrounded by Favelas or
large slum areas.
Climate?
Cuba’s climate is generally warm,
mild and semi-tropical. It is often
affected by ocean storms and
hurricanes. Brazil’s climate is
tropical and humid in many
locations and warm and mild along
the coastline.
Natural Resources?
Cuba has limited natural resources.
It has nickel, copper and arable
land. Brazil has extensive timber
resources, as well as gold and
petroleum deposits.
► 6.
How are Cuba and Brazil alike?
SS6G4 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of people who
live in Latin America and the Caribbean.
a. Describe the results of blending of ethnic groups in Latin America and the
Caribbean.
b. Explain why Latin America is a region based on the languages of
Portuguese and Spanish.
c. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
People of European, African and Native American heritage make up
the 3 main ethnic groups in Latin America and The Caribbean.
When European explorers began to land and colonize, they intermarried with
many of the local Native American people. Those descendants make up a
large percentage of the population in some countries (and are sometimes
referred to as Mestizos)
The importation of African slaves into The Caribbean and Central and South
America introduced another ethnic population into the region. Mixed
descendants of Europeans and Africans are sometimes referred to as
Mulattoes.
Most of the languages spoken
in Latin America today are
based on Spanish or
Portuguese because those 2
European powers did most of
the exploring and conquering
in Latin America.
(Since both Spanish and Portuguese
are based on the old Latin language
of the Romans…..Latin America)
That is also why the Roman
Catholic branch of Christianity
is the predominant religion
there. Both Spain and Portugal
were (and are) Catholic
nations.
A person who is able to read and write is considered literate.
Literacy is a major factor in whether a person is able to get a job and be successful
in the workplace.
The ability to read and write ensures that knowledge can be passed down from one
generation to the next.
The lower the literacy rate the more than likely the country is very poor.
In some cultures it is believed to be more important for boys to have an education
than girls.
In some countries, the government does not, or cannot, provide free public
education.
Many times the communities cannot afford to pay for teachers and schools.
Workers are stuck in the lowest-paying jobs.
People can’t get an education, so they can only get low-paying jobs. Because they
can only get low-paying jobs they cannot get enough money to pay for their
children’s education.
► 7.
List the 3 main ethnic groups in Latin
America.
► 8.
Why are Spanish and Portuguese the
main languages of Latin America?
► 9.
Why is the main religion of people in
Latin America Roman Catholic?
► 10.
How is literacy related to a higher
standard of living?
SS6G5 The student will locate selected features of Canada.
a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the St. Lawrence River,
Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, the Great Lakes, Canadian Shield,
and Rocky Mountains.
The Canadian Shield….what is it?
The Canadian Shield is a large geographic
area in eastern and central Canada
composed of bare rock that is between
540 million to 4.5 billion years old. It is
also called the Precambrian Shield, or
Laurentian Shield. The Canadian Shield is
made up of some of the planet's oldest
rock. It is not ideally suited for farming,
but contains lots of mineral deposits that
are valuable.
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/5471-canada-the-canadian-shieldvideo.htm
The Rocky Mountains are the largest
mountain chain in North America.
The Rockies cross parts of Colorado,
Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, and
Washington in the United States and
parts of Alberta, British Columbia, the
Yukon Territory, and the Northwest
Territories in Canada. The length of the
system is about 3,300 miles; the width
is as much as 400 miles.
The Continental Divide runs along the
crest of the Rocky Mountains
throughout most of their course. Rivers
drain east to the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf
of Mexico, west to the Pacific Ocean, or
north to the Arctic Ocean.
► 11.
Where are many of Canada’s mineral
deposits found?
► 12.
What is the chain of mountains called
that runs from the U.S. into Canada?
SS6G6 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of
natural resources, and population distribution on Canada.
a. Describe how Canada’s location, climate, and natural resources have
affected where people live.
b. Describe how Canada’s location, climate, and natural resources impact
trade.
Most of Canada’s
people live in the
southern part of their
country.
Climate plays a big
role in where
Canadians live as they
share some of the
same latitudes as
countries like Norway
and Russia.
Because of their proximity (closeness) to the United
States, the US is Canada’s leading trading partner.
Even though Canada has great mineral
wealth and many other natural resources,
most of those are not located near large
► 13.
Why do most Canadians live in the
southern part of their country?
SS6G7 The student will discuss environmental issues in Canada.
a. Explain the major environmental concerns of Canada regarding acid rain
and pollution of the Great Lakes, the extraction and use of natural resources
on the Canadian Shield, and timber resources.
Acid Rain in Canada: Because
Logging and timber
so much of its population,
companies are big
cities and industry are located
business in Canada.
in the southern part of
They provide
Canada, so is most of
thousands of jobs for
Canada’s pollution. Gases
Canadians. However,
emitted from factories, cars
because past
and even coal burning stoves
generations of loggers
can mix with water vapor in
failed to replant and
clouds and cause acid rain.
manage their
Acid rain can kill plant life,
forests…Canada is not
Over 35 million US and
poison waterways and
growing its woodlands
Canadian citizens live
destroy buildings (eats away
as fast as it should.
along The Great Lakes.
marble and stone).
The Lakes provide food,
employment,
transportation and
recreation for both
countries. Industrial
pollution and run-off
from cities and large
farms risk pushing the
Great Lakes to the point
where they may not be
able to recover.
► 14.
Name 3 environmental problems in
Canada.
SS6CG1 The student will compare and contrast various forms of
government.
a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary,
confederation, and federal.
b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic,
oligarchic, and democratic.
c. Describe the two predominate forms of democratic governments:
parliamentary and presidential.
Governmental System, not type of government = How is the power
moved?
= The Central Government (The “Big Government”)
= The States or Provinces Government (The Little
Government)
= The People…that’s us (or them, since it’s
Canada!)
Understanding a governmental system means understanding how these
groups interact.
There are 3 basic governmental system models to choose from: Unitary,
Confederation or Federal
UNITARY GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEM
In a Unitary System,
power flows from the
“Top down”. The
people have little or
no say in how their
government operates.
Ex: dictatorships and
absolute monarchies
Benefits: Government
policies are enacted
quickly.
Downside: Little to no
way for the people to
have much say so in
government
A CONFEDERATE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
In a Confederate System, the
States or Provinces can tell the
Central Government what to do.
Benefits: Each state has an
equal say in how the
National Government is run.
Downside: It can take a long
time to get all of the states to
agree on legislation.
Government is forced to wait
on agreements.
FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Federal System: Much
more interaction between
the Central Government
and the States or
Provinces. Power is
shared.
► 15.
In which type of government system is
power divided or shared between the
central and local governments?
b. ….determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic,
etc……
Democracy - a form of government in which governmental power is
held by the people. (usually indirectly through a system of
representation and regulated by elections)
Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of
individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power. (ex:
Large landowners of European descent in Central and South America)
Theocracy - a form of government in which a religious figure or
belief is recognized as the supreme ruler, but the everyday laws are
interpreted by religious leaders; a government subject to religious
authority (Iran).
Autocracy - A system of government in which supreme political power
is held by one person (Cuba).
BIG QUESTION TO ASK: “How much say so would the people have
under each of these forms of government?”
► 16.
Which form of government is subject to
religious authority or led by a religious
leader?
c. ….the two predominate forms of democratic governments: parliamentary
and presidential
Sounds complicated, but it’s not…….
Parliamentary government –
The executive branch of
government is nominated to
its position by parliament,
and is directly responsible to
it; this type of government
can be dissolved at will by the
parliament.
Ex: In Canada, the Prime Minister
gets his job from the members of
Parliament. They can boot him out
if they aren’t happy with his
performance at any time.
Therefore…he has to keep the
members of Parliament happy most
of the time in order to keep his job.
Presidential - a system of
government where the executive
branch exists separately from a
legislature and is generally
elected by the people themselves.
Ex: In Mexico, the President is
elected directly by the people.
He (or she) doesn’t have to
worry about making
congressmen and senators
happy all the time. His position
is stable for 6 years. It is not a
“popularity contest” with the
legislative branch of
government.
► 17.
In which form of democracy do people
vote for the leader?
SS6CG2 The student will explain the structures of national governments in
Latin America and the Caribbean.
a. Compare the federal-republican systems of the Federative Republic of
Brazil (Brazil) and the United Mexican States (Mexico) to the dictatorship of
the Republic of Cuba (Cuba), distinguishing the form of leadership and the
role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.
Compare Governments
Mexico
► Presidential democracy
► Leadership:
 President
 Elected for 6 year term
►
Cuba
► Autocracy (Communist
dictatorship)
► Leadership:
 President
 Appointed by National
Assembly of People’s Power
(only political party)
Role of Citizen:
 vote for president
 Vote for Congress
►
Role of Citizen:
 vote for members of
National Assembly of
People’s Power
► 18.
Which country has an autocracy
(Communist dictatorship) – Mexico or Cuba?
SS6CG3 The student will explain the structure of the national government of
Canada.
a. Describe the structure of the Canadian government as a constitutional
monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and a federation, distinguishing the
role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.
CANADA is all three……..
Canada is a constitutional monarchy
In 1534 the King of France claimed possession of what is now Canada. Later, Great
Britain made Canada part of its Empire, and then granted it independence. The British
Monarchy is part of all three branches of government. The Prime Minister reports to
the Queen’s representative in Canada (The Governor General); the monarchy is also a
part of Parliament, and finally, all decisions made by the courts are given in the
Crown's name.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy
The people elect members of Parliament to represent them. The executive
branch of government is nominated to its position by Parliament, and is
directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by
the Parliament.
Canada is a federation
Power is divided and shared between the central government and the
provinces so that each region retains some management of its internal
affairs. The central government, in Ottawa, create policies that directly affect
upon both individuals as well as the provinces and territories
Canadian citizens are able to exercise their rights through
a federal democratic election process that allows them to
elect members of Parliament, who represent them in the
central government
► 19.
True or false: Canada is a constitutional
monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and
a federation.
SS6E1 The student will analyze different economic systems.
a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer the
economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom
to produce.
b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum
between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare and contrast the basic types of economic systems found in
Canada, Cuba, and Brazil.
A traditional economy - a very underdeveloped economy that often
based on agriculture. A traditional economy is sometimes known as a
subsistence economy. In some cases, currency may not even be used
and barter may take place. Ex: Yanomamo Indians of Brazil
A market economy - prices are determined by what the market will
bring. Whatever people are willing to pay determines the market
value of an item. Ex: Mexico
A command economy - prices and supplies are determined by the
government.
Ex: Cuba
Most countries have a mixed economic system. Areas like military
defense cannot be allowed to operate as “free market” so the
government controls them.
Dear Soldier,
Our Free Market
economy didn’t raise
enough money in taxes,
so we couldn’t afford
bullets. Please tell the
enemy not to invade us,
Love,
Uncle Sam
How much the government controls the economy really determines what
type of economic system countries have.
Ex: Cuba = Communist gov’t. = lots of gov’t. control =
Command
Canada = Parliamentary democracy = less gov’t. control
(except military, education, health care) = Mixed
► 20.
Which country has a command economy
– Mexico, Canada, or Cuba?
SS6E2 The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers
and sellers in Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada.
a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs,
quotas, and embargos.
c. Explain the functions of the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA).
d. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging
currencies between nations.
Specialization – economic term that refers to a country relying on a
limited number of sources to generate income. Ex: Venezuela has
oil…but not much food. Yes they are rich, but they HAVE to buy
groceries from other countries.
TRADE BARRIERS: barriers that can limit trade
Examples would be:
tariff – a tax that can be placed on goods coming into a country from
another country. “Yes Japan, you can sell your Toyotas here, but it’ll
cost you $300.00 per car.”
quota – a limit on the amount of goods that one country will allow
another to bring into their country.
“Japan will only be allowed to sell 1000 Toyotas in The United
States.”
embargo – a complete trade restriction on some or all goods being
sold between nations.
“Japan is not allowed to sell Toyotas in The United States anymore.”
NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement
1994 Agreement between
The United States, Canada
and Mexico designed to
promote trade and eliminate
trade barriers between the 3
nations.
► 21.
Which 3 countries are part of NAFTA?
► 22. Why?
► 23. If you wanted to block trade with
another country because they were violating
the basic human rights of their citizens,
which type of trade barrier would be best?
SS6E3 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth
and examine their presence or absence in Latin America.
a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education
and training) and gross domestic product (GDP).
b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories,
machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP).
c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.
First, Just what is Gross Domestic Product (GDP)?
GDP is value of all goods and services produced within a
nation in a given year.
Ex: The US has many different resources that we can use to make
money. We have gold, silver, petroleum, etc… (things of value)
For countries that do not have many high valued resources, their GDP
is probably very low.
So how can they maximize what they DO have????
1) Educate and train their people = human capital
2) Purchase or build items that will allow you to make more money
ex: a tractor or build an airport = capital investment
Bottom line: countries with limited natural resources are less likely to be as
successful as those with lots of natural resources…not always, but usually.
► 24.
How can a country boost its GDP?
SS6E4 The student will explain personal money management choices in
terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing
Income- Money received in exchange for labor or
services, from the sale of goods or property, or as
profit from financial investments.
Ex: salary
Spending- To pay out or expend money. Ex: buy
something or pay a bill
Credit - An arrangement for deferred payment of a
loan or purchase. Ex: Visa or MasterCard credit card
Savings- Avoidance of excess expenditure; economy.
(2) A reduction in expenditure or cost. (3) Something
saved
Ex: savings account or a reduction in what is owed
Investing- To commit (money or capital) in order to
gain a financial return
Ex: college education, buying stock
SS6H1 The student will describe the impact of European contact on Latin
America.
a. Describe the encounter and consequences of the conflict between the
Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas and the roles of Cortes, Montezuma,
Pizarro, and Atahualpa.
b. Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and
Europe in terms of the decline of the indigenous population, agricultural
change, and the introduction of the horse.
The Spanish Arrive in Latin America….
1502 Montezuma II becomes Aztec emperor
1519 Hernando Cortés arrives in Mexico, is welcomed by Montezuma,
and captures him.
1521 Cortés captures and destroys Aztec city Tenochtítlán which will
be renamed by the Spanish as Mexico City. Gold is sent back to
Spanish king.
1532 Pizarro, with 180 men, kidnaps Sapa Inca Atahualpa, kills him,
takes Peru and destroys Inca Empire. Gold and silver are sent back to
Spanish king.
The impact of The Columbian Exchange on Latin America (or after
Columbus, then what…?)
Exactly what types of things were “exchanged”?
To the New World
FROM EUROPE (or because of it):
To Europe
Gunpowder
FROM THE NEW WORLD:
Slaves
Corn
Christianity
Potatoes
Horses
Tomatoes
Cattle
Peppers
Pigs
Pumpkins
Sheep
Squash
Wheat
Chocolate
Oranges
Sweet Potatoes
Bananas
Turkey
Coffee
Tobacco
Rice, Sugar Cane, Grapes
Olives
Killing thousands
Smallpox
who did not have
Influenza
any immunity to
Measles
these sicknesses
► 25.
Name 1 good thing and 1 bad thing
about the Columbian Exchange.
SS6H2 The student will explain the development of Latin America and the
Caribbean from European colonies to independent nations.
a. Describe the influence of African slavery on the development of the
Americas.
b. Describe the influence of the Spanish and the Portuguese on the language
and religions of Latin America.
c. Explain the Latin American independence movement; include the
importance of Toussaint L’Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hidalgo.
Influence of Slavery on the
Americas
► Spanish
& Portuguese imported Africans to
work as slaves in Latin America (Indians
died too easily from disease or ran away).
 Result: many Latin Americans today have
African ancestors.
► Much
wealth was shipped back to Spain &
Portugal
 Result: Today many Latin American countries
are poor
Influence of Spanish and
Portuguese on Languages and
Religions of Latin America
► Portugal
colonized Brazil. People in Brazil now
speak Portuguese.
► Spain colonized most of the rest of Latin America.
Most Latin Americans speak Spanish.
► Spain’s and Portugal’s main religion is Catholic.
Most people in Latin America are Catholic today.
► But… indigenous cultures have BLENDED their
beliefs with Catholic beliefs (ex.: Day of the Dead
celebration in Mexico)
► 26.
Why did Europeans import people from
Africa to the New World to work as slaves?
► 27.
Why are many Latin American countries
poor?
► 28.
Why do many Latin Americans speak
Spanish or Portuguese?
► 29.
Why is the religion of much of Latin
America Catholic?
Toussaint
L’Ouverture
Haiti
Led a slave uprising against the
French. British and Spanish forces
invaded the French colony. Haitian
leader Toussaint L’Ouverture
defeated the European generals in
battle, then ruled Haiti until 1802.
Toussaint L’Ouverture’s success
inspired others in Latin America to
strive for independence from
colonial rule.
Simon Bolivar Bolivia, Colombia,
Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
the most
important man in
South American
history, Simón
Bolívar helped win
independence
from Spain for
Bolivia, Colombia,
Ecuador, Peru, and
Venezuela.
Revered
throughout South
America, Bolívar
earned the name
The Liberator.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexico
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla,
a Mexican priest and
supporter of the poor and
native Meso-Americans,
became a revolutionary
hero when he led an
unsuccessful rebellion
against Spanish rule in
1810. Killed by Spanish
soldiers.
► 30.
Who was Toussaint L’Ouverture?
► 31.
Who was Simon Bolivar?
► 32.
Who was Miguel Hidalgo?
SS6H3 The student will analyze important 20th century issues in Latin
America and the Caribbean.
a. Explain the impact of the Cuban Revolution.
b. Explain the impact and political outcomes of the Zapatista guerrilla
movement in Mexico.
The Cuban Revolution
In 1959, Cuban rebels (led
by Fidel Castro) overthrew
the corrupt government of
President Fulgencio
Batista.
Fidel Castro
Castro turned to
communist countries for
financial and military aid.
Cuba was the first country
in the western hemisphere
to become communist.
Castro actively attempted
to spread communism to
other nations.
Impact: Threat of Communism
in the Western Hemisphere
forced the U.S. to stay actively
involved in Latin American
politics.
U.S. started a trade embargo
against Cuba.
The revolution proved that the
poor of Latin America could be
open to the idea of
communism.
The Zapatista Guerrilla Movement in Mexico
Based in the Mexican state of Chiapas,
they are a revolutionary group that has
declared war on the Mexican
government.
Many of the poor in that area have been
attracted to the Zapatistas because they
claim that the Mexican government has
forgotten them and only cares about
making money and big businesses.
In 1994 they openly took control of
several towns in southern Mexico in
response to Mexico signing NAFTA. The
Mexican army was forced to go in and
put down the rebellion. The Zapatistas
still have a lot of support in the poorer
areas of Mexico.
► 33.
What happened during the Cuban
Revolution?
► 34.
What do the Zapatistas want?
SS6H4 The student will describe the impact of European contact on Canada.
a. Describe the influence of the French and the English on the
language and religion of Canada.
b. Explain how Canada became an independent nation.
The earliest discovery of the New
World was made by Norse
seafarers known as Vikings.
In AD 985 Norse seamen sailing
from Iceland to Greenland were
blown far westward off their
course and sighted the coast of
what must have been Labrador
off the Canadian coast.
In AD 1000 Leif Ericson became
the first European to land in
North America
http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/discovery.html
John Cabot
The 2nd European discovery of Canada was by
John Cabot, an explorer who worked for King
Henry VII of England.
He left Europe in 1497 and sailed west. He
hoped to find a shortcut to Asia. Instead, he
landed on the east coast of what is now
Canada.
This was important, because in later years,
Great Britain claimed much of the territory
located on the east coast of North America as
theirs…since Cabot was working for them
when the east coast was discovered.
In 1524, French King Frances I sent Giovanni
da Verrazano to explore the eastern shore of
what is now Canada. From those explorations,
France would also claim ownership of Canada.
After Verrazano’s voyage, French King Frances
sent another explorer to the New World.
Jacques Cartier
In 1534, Jacques Cartier was sent to further
explore the new land. France wanted to know
what the interior of the territory was like.
Over a 2 year period, Cartier sailed up the St. The Royal Flag of France
Lawrence River and explored Canada,
discovered the Native Americans (Indians) that
lived within the country and discovered what
would become the cities of Quebec and
Montreal.
Because of his efforts, the French government
(not England) actually understood what natural
resources and potential wealth really lay within
the new land.
Early French Success
French explorer Samuel Champlain
established France’s first permanent
colony in Canada at Quebec in 1608.
He made friends with the Huron tribe
and helped them fight their traditional
enemy the Iroquois Indians. The
Iroquois swore to fight the French,
from then on.
The colony became wealthy by trade in
furs, timber and fish
Considered a French-Canadian Hero
► 35.
Who were the first Europeans in
Canada?
► 36.
Which 2 European countries made
claims on Canada?
British and French Rivalry in Canada
In general, English settlers and
soldiers controlled the eastern
coastal areas.
France controlled the interior of the
country and limited eastern areas.
BUT, when the French were able to
sail all the way from Canada down
the Mississippi River and establish
trading posts, it posed a threat to
what England had done in America.
In essence, they were controlling the
“backdoor” of America.
In 1689 and again in 1697 the British
and French fought each other in
Canada.
Credit: Image:Claude Bernou Carte de lAmerique septentrionale.jpg
America’s Impact on Canada’s Early
History
The British American colonies were much more
populated than the French Canadians.
In 1754, the French and Indian War broke out
in the northern part of America and into
Canada. At almost the same time France and
Great Britain opened hostilities in Europe and
the 7 Years War broke out there.
The British were able to use their superior
numbers, better navy and Indian allies to
defeat the majority of French forces on the
North American continent. By 1763, Great
Britain controlled Canada and America.
► 37.
What was the French and Indian War
about?
► 38.
► 39.
Who won?
What animal caused Europeans to
explore Canada?
SS6H5 The student will analyze important contemporary issues in Canada.
a. Describe Quebec’s independence movement.
Quebec remained mostly French after Great Britain took control of
Canada.
British efforts to control the region were always met with defiance.
Both language (French) and religious (Catholic) differences kept the
Quebec area isolated from the rest of the country.
Beginning in the 1960s, many people in Quebec wanted to separate
it from Canada and establish a French-speaking nation. In 1970
terrorist acts by alleged separatists were climaxed by the
kidnapping and murder of Quebec's minister of labor and
immigration. The federal government sent in troops and temporarily
suspended civil liberties. In 1974 French became the official
language of the province.
Quebec voters narrowly rejected secession from Canada in a 1995
referendum.
► 40.
Why does Quebec want to become
independent from the rest of Canada?
SS6G8 The student will locate selected features of Europe.
a. Locate on a world and regional political- physical map: the Danube
River, Rhine River, English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, European
Plain, the Alps, Pyrenees, Ural Mountains, Iberian Peninsula, and
Scandinavian Peninsula.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries
of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Ukraine,
and United Kingdom.
ENGLISH
CHANNEL
Iberian Peninsula
Major Mountains of Europe
The Pyrenees
separate Spain
and France
The
Ural
Mtns.
Pyrenees
The Alps are
shared by
Switzerland,
Germany, Italy
and France
The Urals
separate the
European part
of Russia from
the Asian part
of Russia
European countries
you must know:
Belgium
France
Germany
Italy
Poland
Russia
Spain
Ukraine
United Kingdom of Great
Britain
SS6G9 The student will discuss environmental issues in Europe.
a. Explain the major concerns of Europeans regarding the issues such
as acid rain in Germany, air pollution in the United Kingdom, and the
nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine.
Acid Rain in Germany
► Caused
by burning fossil fuels which mix
with rain.
► Damages wildlife and buildings
► Solution: Burn less fossil fuels – but polluted
air still drifts in from other countries.
Air Pollution in U.K.
► Caused
by burning fossil fuels.
► Dirty air + fog = SMOG (Great Smog of
1952 killed thousands)
► Hurts lungs, can kill people
► Solution – cleaner factories, burn less coal,
use public transportation
Chernobyl - the Dead City
On April 25th -26th, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power accident
occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (now Ukraine). A chain
reaction in the reactor went out of control creating explosions and a
fireball which blew off the reactor's heavy steel and concrete lid.
The Chernobyl accident killed more than 30 people immediately, and
as a result of the high radiation levels in the surrounding 20-mile
radius, 135,000 people had to be evacuated….forever.
The abandoned city. Note
the reactor in the
background
► 41.
Name 3 pollution problems in Europe
and possible solutions.
SS6G10 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, natural
resources, and population distribution on Europe.
a. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of the
United Kingdom and Russia affect where people live and how they
trade.
b. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of
Germany and Italy affect where people live and how they trade
Russia vs. UK
► Russia:
Largest country. Most people live in
cities near Europe. Most of Russia is
extremely cold and resources are hard to
get. Ports are frozen most of the year.
► U.K.:
small island warmed by Gulf Stream.
Ports open all year. Lots of resources –
using up many of them.
Germany vs. Italy
► Germany:
most people live in cities near
rivers. Rivers provide transportation. Has
border on ocean. Mountains in south. Lots
of minerals.
► Italy:
peninsula in Mediterranean Sea. Lots
of seaports. Lots of fishing. Warm & dry in
summer – grow lots of grapes for wine.
► 42.
How does Russia compare with the
U.K.?
► 43.
How does Germany compare with Italy?
SS6G11 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of Europe.
a. Explain the diversity of European languages as seen in a
comparison of German, English, Russian, French, and Italian.
b. Describe the major religions in Europe; include Judaism,
Christianity, and Islam.
c. Explain how the literacy rate affects the standard of living in
Europe.
Explain the diversity of European languages as seen in
a comparison of German, English, Russian, French,
and Italian.
► Europe’s
many languages make it hard for people
to communicate, so schools teach 2 languages and
the EU has many official languages.
► 3 language groups:
 Germanic (largest): English & German
► English
“good morning”
► German “guten morgen”
 Romance: Italian & French
► Italian:
“buon giorno”
► French: “bon jour”
 Slavic: Russian (uses Cyrillic alphabet)
► Russian:
“доброе утро”
Major European Religions
► Christianity
– largest; founder is Jesus; holy
book is Bible
► Islam – fastest growing; founder is
Muhammad; holy book is Quran
► Judaism – founder is Abraham; holy book is
Torah
► All
are monotheistic (1 God)
► All trace back to Abraham
Literacy and Standard of Living
► Most
European countries have a high
literacy rate.
► Most European countries have a high
standard of living.
► Usually,
High Literacy = High Standard of
Living (less in Russia and not in Cuba)
(Why??)
► 44.
What are 3 major language groups in
Europe?
► 45.
How do Europeans solve their
communication problems?
► 46.
How are the 3 major religions of Europe
similar?
SS6CG4 The student will compare and contrast various forms of
government.
a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary,
confederation, and federal.
b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation:
autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic.
c. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments:
parliamentary and presidential.
Unitary, Confederation, Federal
► U.K.
is unitary – power is held by central
government.
► European
Union is confederation – 27 countries
VOLUNTARILY join to solve economic issues – all
power at local levels (in individual countries)
► Federal:
Russia & Germany are federal – power is
shared/divided between central & local
governments
Oligarchic, Autocratic, Democratic
► Oligarchy:
rule by the few (Europe in the
Middle Ages) – citizens have little/no power.
► Autocracy:
rule by one (kings and queens,
dictators) (Russia under czar Nicholas II;
Germany under Hitler) – citizens have
little/no power.
► Democracy
(U.K., Germany, Russia today) –
rule by the people – citizens VOTE
Parliamentary and Presidential
Democracies
► Parliamentary:
citizens vote for members of
Parliament. Leader of winning political party
in Parliament becomes leader. Ex: U.K. and
Germany
► Presidential:
citizens vote for members of
legislature. Citizens vote for leader
(president). Ex: Russia
SS6CG5 The student will explain the structure of modern European
governments.
a. Compare the parliamentary system of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), the federal system of the Federal Republic of
Germany (Germany), and the federation of the Russian Federation (Russia),
distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting and
personal freedoms.
b. Describe the purpose of the European Union and the relationship between member
nations.
Compare Governments
U.K.
►
Germany
unitary,
► federal,
parliamentary
parliamentary
democracy, and
democracy, and
constitutional
welfare state
monarchy (queen’s
 chief executive:
chancellor
power is limited by
 head of state:
constitution)
 chief executive:
prime minister
 head of state:
queen
 people vote for
members of
parliament
president
 people vote for
members of
parliament
Russia
►
federal,
presidential
democracy
 chief executive:
president
 Vice president:
premier
 people vote for
president; he
picks premier
 People vote for
legislature
European Union
► Confederation
(VOLUNTARY!) of 27
countries in Europe.
► Purpose: economic strength
 Free trade among EU countries
 Free travel among EU countries
 EU countries keep their own leaders and their
own militaries.
► 47.
Compare the governments of U.K.,
Germany, and Russia.
► 48.
True or False: The EU is a
confederation.
► 49.
What is the purpose of the EU?
SS6E5 The student will analyze different economic systems.
a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer the economic
questions of 1 -what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between
pure and market and pure command.
c. Compare the basic types of economic systems found in the United
Kingdom, Germany, and Russia.
Compare Economic Systems
Russia
► Mixed
► 51% on
economic
continuum
(100% = pure
market)
U.K.
Germany
►
►
Mixed
73% on
economic
continuum
(100% = pure
market)
►
►
Mixed
75% on economic
continuum (100%
= pure market)
► 50.
Which is more market economy: U.K. or
Russia?
SS6E6 The student will analyze the benefits of and barriers to voluntary trade
in Europe.
a. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and
embargos.
b. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging
currencies between nations.
Why International Trade Requires
a System for Exchanging
Currencies
► Each
country has its own type of money.
► The value in comparison to ours changes
daily.
► In order to trade, or do business with
people in other countries, we have to
change our $ to theirs.
► Companies that do this charge a fee.
► Most
of Europe uses the Euro.
► U.K. uses the pound.
► Russia uses the ruble.
► Mexico uses the peso.
► Brazil uses the real.
► Canada uses the Canadian dollar.
► Australia uses the Australian dollar.
► 51.
Why does international trade require a
system for currency exchange?
SS6E7 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and
examine their presence or absence in Europe.
a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital
(education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP).
b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories,
machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP).
c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.
GDP and Human Capital
► In
a market or mixed economy, investing in
training, education, and health care for
people (human capital) increases the GDP.
GDP and Physical Capital
► In
a market or mixed economy, investing in
technology, equipment, machinery, and
factories (physical capital) increases the
GDP.
Natural Resources and the
Economy
► Countries
that have more natural resources
and know how to use them have better
economies.
► They either sell the natural resources to
make money or
► They use the natural resources to make
things they sell to other countries.
Entrepreneurs and the Economy
► Entrepreneurs
help the economy and the
GDP because they start businesses.
► They hire workers.
► They make goods to sell.
► They pay taxes.
► 52.
Investing in human capital and physical
capital (increases/decreases) the GDP.
► 53.
True or False: countries that have better
resources and know how to use them
usually have better economies.
SS6H6 The student will analyze the impact of European exploration and
colonization on various world regions.
a. Identify the causes of European exploration and colonization; include religion, natural
resources, a market for goods, and the contributions of Prince Henry the Navigator.
b. Trace the empires of Portugal, Spain, England, and France in Asia, Africa, and the
Americas.
c. Trace the colonization of Australia by the United Kingdom.
d. Explain the impact of European empire building in Africa and Asia on the outbreak of
WWI.
European Colonization… Why?
► The





Crusades started it all.
People began to travel.
They made new maps.
They got new ideas.
They wanted more money.
Italy grew rich because of its location in the
Mediterranean Sea.
► Other
European countries wanted to find
another way to Asia and $$$.
► They started exploring.
► The Portuguese explored the coast of Africa
and India.
► The Spanish found the New World.
► The British and French came and got the
northern part of the New World.
► These countries also grabbed lands in the
rest of Asia and Africa.
WHY?
► For
natural resources (wealth)
► To gain more land
► To convert people to Christianity
► To keep each other from getting the land
(remember Scramble for Africa)
► 54.
How did the Crusades lead to
exploration?
Great Britain got Australia
► After
our Revolutionary War with Great
Britain, Georgia told the English to take
their prisoners somewhere else. So they
did…
► They grabbed Australia, killed many
Aborigines, and sent their prisoners there.
► It was a great place to trade from, dock
boats, and it kept the French from getting
Australia.
► 55.
Why did Great Britain want Australia?
Leading to WWI – The War to
End all Wars
► Countries
wanted each others’ resources
and lands.
► People in each country became willing to die
for their countries.
► There was more money for bigger militaries.
► Countries developed alliances.
► Then Austria declared war on Serbia--- and
it was on! WWI!!! 1914-1918.
► 56.
What led to the first World War?
SS6H7 The student will explain conflict and change in Europe to the 21st
century.
a. Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian Revolution, the
Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of Nazism.
b. Explain the impact of WWII in terms of the Holocaust, the origins of the Cold War,
and the rise of Superpowers.
c. Explain how the collapse of the Soviet Union led to the end of the Cold War and
German reunification.
Russian Revolution
► 1917
– Russian soldiers were dying in the
fight against Germany. Russian people were
hungry and mad. They had a revolution and
got rid of their czar (king). They became
communist under Lenin. They quit the war
and lost good land to Germany.
► 57.
► 58.
Why did Russia have a revolution?
What were the results of Russia’s
revolution?
Treaty of Versailles
► After
Germany lost WWI, the winners
(especially France) wanted to keep Germany
from ever fighting another world war.
► Germany was forced to..




Pay a huge amount of $$ to the winners
Lose many lands it had gained in war
Cut back its military
Hand over its leader to be tried for war crimes.
Great Depression
► After
WWI, many people were so happy to
be alive that they partied hard. It was called
the Roaring Twenties.
► The
stock market crashed in 1929. Most
people lost everything they owned. Some
killed themselves. Some starved to death.
Many were hungry and homeless. It didn’t
end until WWII in 1939.
Rise of Nazism
► Germans
were also starving.
► The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were
too harsh.
► Hitler promised to make life better for
Germans.
► He promised they would regain their former
glory.
► They voted for him.
► Then he changed laws and became dictator.
► 59.
What events led to WWII?
Holocaust
► Hitler
believed Jews had caused WWI and all the
troubles of the world-wide depression.
► Anti-Semitism is hatred of the Jews. Many people
agreed with Hitler.
► He created a plan to kill all the Jews in the world.
► He put them in concentration camps and worked
them to death or killed them outright.
► He killed 6 million before he was stopped.
WWII
► Germany,
Japan, and Italy were the Central
Powers.
► UK, France, and the U.S. and … Soviet Union (at
first it was on Germany’s side till Hitler doublecrossed it) were the Allied Powers.
► We entered the war because Japan bombed Pearl
Harbor in Hawaii.
► 60.
► 61.
What was the Holocaust?
Who was responsible for the Holocaust
(name as many as you can)?
Superpowers
► The
Allies won. We divided Europe with the
Soviets. They got ½ of Germany and all
east of it.
► This was called the Iron Curtain – the split
between east and west Europe. The Berlin
Wall was built in Berlin, Germany to split it.
► The U.S. and the Soviet Union were the 2
Superpowers.
Cold War
► The
U.S. and Soviets were pretty evenly matched.
Both had spies, nuclear weapons, big armies, and
power in the United Nations. Both sides distrusted
each other.
► We wanted to win the world for democracy. The
Soviets wanted to win the world for communism.
► It was a tense 50 years.
► It finally ended in the early 90s. The Soviet Union
had an economic collapse. The Berlin Wall was
torn down. Eastern Europe was free again.
► Russia was reformed.
► 62.
What was the Cold War all about?
SS6G12 The student will be able to locate selected features of Australia.
a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the
Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Ayers Rock, and Great Victoria
Desert.
Bass Strait
SS6G13 The student will explain the impact of location, climate,
distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on
Australia.
a. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural
resources have affected where people live.
b. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural
resources impact trade.
Things to think about:
1)Notice that the
names look “English”.
That’s a good hint as
to who colonized
them.
2) Ask,”why are most of
the cities located on
the East Coast of
Australia”?
3) Why haven’t they
developed the
interior of the
country?
► Australia
has many types of climate. The
nicest climate (temperate) is on the
southeast coast, so most people live there.
► It is hot and dry in the center of Australia.
There are lots of minerals, but it is hard to
live there.
► In the north there is a rainforest.
► Australia is near China and Japan. It trades
with them as well as us.
► It trades minerals, wheat, wool, and cattle.
► Tourism is important. Most tourists come
from New Zealand (nearby)
6 states and 2
territories;
-Australian Capital
Territory
-New South Wales
-Northern Territory
Queensland
-South Australia
-Tasmania
-Victoria
-Western Australia
SS6G14 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of
people who live in Australia.
a. Explain the impact of English colonization on the language
and religion of Australia.
b. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.
► Since
the British colonized Australia, the
people there speak English.
► Because the prisoners were Catholic and
their jailors were Anglican (both Christian),
most people’s religion is either Catholic or
Anglican.
► The British treated the Aborigines badly.
They killed them with small pox and guns,
then treated the remaining people as
servants.
► Australia
has a high literacy rate.
► Australia has a high standard of living…
► …except for the Aborigines, who are only
just beginning to be treated better.
► 63.
Why do australians speak English
nowadays?
► 64.
Why are the main religions in Australia
Catholic and Anglican?
SS6CG6 The student will compare and contrast various forms of
government.
a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power:
unitary, confederation, and federal.
b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation:
autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic.
c. Describe the two predominate forms of democratic
governments: parliamentary and presidential.
Australia’s government
► Federal
► Parliamentary
democracy
► Part of British commonwealth
(confederation)
► Chief executive is prime minister
► Head of state is Queen of England –
represented by governor general
► Legislature is Parliament – people Must
Vote! For members of Parliament.
► 65.
Compare the governments of U.K.,
Australia, and Canada.
SS6CG7 The student will explain the structure of the national
government of Australia.
a. Describe the federal parliamentary democracy of Australia,
distinguishing form of leadership, type of legislature, and the role of the
citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.
SS6E8 The student will analyze different economic systems.
a. Compare how traditional, command, and market, economies answer
the economic questions of 1 -what to produce, 2-how to produce, and
3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a
continuum between pure and market and pure command.
c. Describe the economic system used in Australia.
Australia’s Economy
► Mixed
► 83
% on continuum (100% = pure
democracy)
► Very easy to start a business
► High literacy and investment in capital
means good workers and money for
businesses.
► 66.
Why is Australia a good place to start a
new business?
SS6E9 The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits
buyers and sellers in Australia.
a. Explain how specialization makes trade possible between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas
and embargos.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency
between nations.
SS6E10 The student will describe factors that influence economic
growth and examine their presence or absence in Australia.
a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education
and training) and gross domestic product (GDP).
b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories,
machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP).
c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.
SS6H8 The student will describe the culture and development of Australia
prior to contact with Europeans.
a. Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines
Aborigines
► Indigenous
people of Australia
► Probably arrived 10000 years ago from
southeast Asia
► Adapted to Australia’s environment
► Organized into tribes by languages, and
hordes (family groups)
► Traditional economy
► Still survive today despite British invasion
(smallpox and guns).
► 67.
Where did the Aborigines come from?
► 68.
Why did the British treat them so badly?
Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about
40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th
century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when
Capt. James Cook took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six
colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they
federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
SS6H9 The student will explain the impact European exploration and
colonization had on Australia.
a. Explain the reasons for British colonization of Australia; include the use of prisoners
as colonists.
b. Explain the impact of European colonization of Australia in terms of diseases and
weapons on the indigenous peoples of Australia
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2009-2010 6th grade CRCT prep