Other ways to loan dissertation
• Check the Union Catalogs of the nationwide
e.g. RLIN, OCLC’s WorldCat
• Borrow the items via Interlibrary Loan
Other ways to get articles
Check the Index/Abstract at your library
Check the Catalog of your campus( Webpac)
Copy from the library
Apply Interlibrary Loan from the other
Evaluating Internet Resources
• Criterion #1: Authority
1. Is it clear who is sponsoring the creation and
maintenance of the page?
2. Is there information available describing the purpose of
the sponsoring organization?
3. Is there a way of verifying the legitimacy of the page's
sponsor? For instance, is a phone number or address
available to contact for more information?
4. Is it clear who developed and wrote the material? Are
his/her qualifications for writing on this topic stated?
Evaluating Internet Resources
• Criterion #2: Accuracy
1. Are the sources for factual information given so they can
be verified?
2. Is it clear who has the responsibility for the accuracy of the
information presented?
3. If statistical data is presented in graphs or charts, are they
labeled clearly?
Evaluating Internet Resources
Criterion #3: Objectivity
Is the page and the information included provided as a
public service?
Is it free of advertising?
If there is advertising on the page, is it clearly separated
from the informational content?
Evaluating Internet Resources
• Criterion #4: Currency
1. Are there dates on the page to indicate the following:
• a. When the page was written?
b. When the page was first placed on line?
c. When the page was last revised or edited?
1. Are there any other indications that the material is updated
frequently to ensure currency of the data?
2. If the information is published in print in different editions,
is it clear what edition the page is from?
Evaluating Internet Resources
• Criterion #5: Coverage
1. Is there an indication that the page has been completed and
is not still under construction?
2. If there is a print equivalent to the Web page, is there clear
indication of whether the entire work or only a portion of it
is available on the Web?
3. If the material is from a work that is out of copyright (as is
often the case with a dictionary or thesaurus), has there
been an effort to update the material to make it more
Examples (Evaluation)
• Compare these two statistical sites related to
AIDS. Which one of the two do you think is
a reliable resource for research about AIDS?
– http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/internat.htm
V. How to Write a Research
Research Steps
• Select a topic
• Formulate a Topic Statement
• Find Basic Information
• Broaden or Narrow your Topic
• Locate and Retrieve Materials
• Determine Relevancy of Materials
• Take Notes
• Write the Paper
Select a Topic
a topic of interest
assigned topic
availability of materials on the topic
time you need to complete your assignment
Formulate a Topic Statement
• Topic > Marketing analysis in industry.
• Initial topic statement > Does marketing analysis
help industries compete?
• Final topic statement > The use of marketing
analysis helps computer companies identify a
competitive advantage within the industry
• Keywords > marketing, computer industry,
competitive advantage
Find Basic Information
• Reference Books, such as encyclopedias,
bibliographies, directories
• Library Catalogs, for books on your topic.
• Periodical Indexes, for articles on your topic.
• Internet Resources, for Web sites on your
Broaden or Narrow your Topic
• Searching related words or synonyms, for example:
marketing = advertising, selling
• Searching keywords in different combinations, for
example: comparative marketing or industrial
marketing and computer industry
• Searching related periodical indexes
• Checking book or article bibliographies or
footnotes for additional sources on your topic
too much information ?
• Qualifying the topic by date, by region, or
by another aspect of your topic. For
example: computer software companies
• Checking other sources for specific aspects
of your topic. For example: Encyclopedia of
American Industries
Determine the Types of Information
Resources Needed
• Encyclopedias - Provide excellent background
information. There are general encyclopedias such
as the Encyclopedia Britannica, as well as
specialized encyclopedias such as the Social
Sciences Encyclopedia.
• Dictionaries - Provide definitions for unfamiliar
terms. There are general dictionaries, and also
specialized dictionaries such as computer
Types of Information Resources Needed
• Directories - Provide basic information such
as names and addresses. Often used to find
company information.
• Books - Usually provide a broad view of
your topic and are able to go into depth.
• Articles - Provide current information.
Types of Information Resources Needed
• Bibliographies - When looking at books and
journals, look at the bibliographies listed at the
end of the articles or book chapters. These
bibliographies list all the resources used in that
work. Use them to find additional information on
your topic.
• Internet Resources/Web Pages - Depending on
your topic, you may want to use Web pages as
Select the Appropriate Research Tool
• Library Catalogs - Used to find books and
journals, dictionaries and encyclopedias.
• Periodical Indexes - Used to find articles
from journals, magazines, and newspapers.
• Internet Search Tools - Used to find Web
pages and other Internet resources.
Determine Relevancy of Materials
1. Authority
• Can you identify the author of the article or book?
• Is the author an expert in the field?
• Is the source an acknowledged authority?
• Can you identify the publisher?
• If so, is this a well-respected or well-known
publishing house for the topic being searched?
Determine Relevancy of Materials
2. Accuracy
• Are the sources for factual information
given so they can be verified?
• Is the information correct?
• Are there inconsistencies in the information,
particularly statistical data?
Determine Relevancy of Materials
3. Objectivity
• Is the presentation objective?
• Or is the viewpoint biased?
4. Currency
• Is the material up-to-date?
5. Coverage
• Is the information presented complete?
• Or is data missing?
Take Notes
• Taking notes that include major points of
the books and journal articles will save time
and effort.
• Keep a record of all the materials you use.
Write down the complete citation, including
the author, title, publication date, page
numbers, and other information.
Citation format
• Modern Language Association (MLA) Style - This style
is used most often in the humanities (literature, languages,
etc.). The MLA Style Manual, 4th edition, provides
information on how to cite resources using the MLA style.
• American Psychological Association (APA) Style - This
style is used in the sciences, including the social sciences
(psychology, business, etc.). It is the style used by all
students in the UMUC Graduate School of Management
and Technology. The Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, 4th edition, provides
information on how to cite resources using the APA style.
Citing Electronic Resources: APA Style
• American Psychological Association. (1999, June 1).
Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the
American Psychological Association, [Announcement].
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Retrieved June 10, 1999 from the World Wide Web:
• Author, I., Author, I., & Author, I. (Date). Article title.
Journal Title, volume(issue), pagination or indicator of
length. Retrieved month day, year from MdUSA database
(Database Name) on the World Wide Web:
Citing Electronic Resources: MLA Style
• Author. "Article Title." Journal Title
Volume.Issue (Year): Pagination or length.
Supplier. Database. Access date <URL>
• Research is a process
• The research steps contained in this library information
guide can be used in any library.
• Make your research interesting
• Pick a topic that you would enjoy learning more about.
• Plan ahead
• No library has everything written on every subject.
Check early in your search process to see if the material
you need is readily available.
• Avoid plagiarism
• Keep a list of the sources you use and give credit to
other people's words and ideas.
• Help is available if you need it
• Ask at the Reference Desk if you need help. Other
library information guides are also available to assist
you in your research.
• Budget your time
• You cannot do your best work when you start your
assignment the night before it is due.
Writing your paper
Step 1. Chose your topic
Step 2. Find Information
Step 3. State your thesis
Step 4. Make a tentative outline
Step 5. Organizing your note
Step 6. Write your first draft
Step 7. Revised your outline and draft
Step 8.Check List
• Do some critical thinking and write your
thesis statement down in one sentence.
Your thesis statement is like a declaration
of your belief. The main portion of your
essay will consist of arguments to support
and defend this belief.
• All points must relate to the same major topic
that you first mentioned in your capital
Roman numeral.
• The purpose of an outline is to help you think
through your topic carefully and organize it
logically before you start writing.
• A good outline is the most important step in
writing a good paper.
• Check your outline to make sure that the
points covered flow logically from one to the
Example of an outline
?I. Shakespeare's life
– A. Early life in Stratford
• 1. Shakespeare's family
– a. Shakespeare's father
– b. Shakespeare's mother
• 2. Shakespeare's marriage
– B. The Elizabethan Theater
• 1. The Globe Theater
– a. History of the Globe
– b. Owners of the Globe
– c. Structure of the Globe
• 2. Acting companies
– a. Men and boys
– b. Sponsorships
– II. Shakespeare's plays
• A. Hamlet
• B. Romeo and Juliet
Include in your outline an
• INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the
purpose of your research paper clearly. What
is the chief reason you are writing the paper?
State also how you plan to approach your
topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a
comparison, or an analysis of a problem?
Explain briefly the major points you plan to
cover in your paper and why readers should
be interested in your topic.
• This is where you present your arguments to
support your thesis statement. Remember the
to find 3 supporting arguments for each
position you take. Begin with a strong
argument, then use a stronger one, and end
with the strongest argument for your final
• Restate your thesis. Summarize your
arguments. Explain why you have come
to this particular conclusion.
.Organize all the information you have gathered
according to your outline. Do not include any
information that is not relevant to your topic.
Make sure the information you have gathered
is accurately recorded. Devise your own
method to organize your notes.
• One method may be to mark with a different
color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in
your outline.
• IA3b - meaning that the item
"Accessing WWW" belongs in the
following location of your outline:
I. Understanding the Internet
A. What is the Internet
3. How to "Surf the Net“
b. Accessing WWW
• Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the
relevant notes you have gathered that have been
marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.
• Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each
idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique
that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or
quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined
paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with
your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.
• Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your
outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor on a
computer, create filenames which match your outline
codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final
• Read your paper for any errors in
content. Arrange and rearrange ideas to
follow your outline. Reorganize your
outline if necessary, but always keep
the purpose of your paper and your
readers in mind.
• 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?
• 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?
• 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical
• 4. Are all sources cited to ensure that I am
not plagiarizing?
• 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong
supporting arguments?
• 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear
in the essay?
• 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper
topic sentence?
• 2. Have I supported my arguments with
documented proof or examples?
• 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?
• 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?
• 5. Varying lengths of sentences?
• 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly
into the next
• 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?
• 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and
• 9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?
• 10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use "cannot"
instead of "can't", "do not" instead of "don't"?
• 11. Did I use third person as much as possible?
Avoid using phrases such as "I think", "I guess", "I
suppose", "I believe", etc.
• 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but
remained objective?
• 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my
reader(s) at the end of the paper?
Other useful references
VI. Discussion
• The Teaching Library. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/
• Library Research Methods. http://www.scups.edu/library/ls107/ls107os.htm
• Library Research at Cornell: A Hypertext Guide.
• Research Methods. http://www-staff.socs.uts.edu.au/~maolin/IR/
• Basic Steps In Library Research.
• ICYouSee: T is for Thinkinghttp://www.ithaca.edu/library/Training/hott.html
• Evaluating Quality on the Net. http://www.hopetillman.com/findqual.html
• A Research Guide for Students.
• Element of Style http://www.bartleby.com/141/index.html
Good Luck & Have a nice trip

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