Attitudes, Motivation and Ethnic
Identity in French Immersion
Graduates
Erin Goldberg, Kimberly A. Noels, & Kristie Saumure
University of Alberta
Outline
 Introduction
• French Immersion
• Faculté Saint-Jean
 Motivation
• Self-Determination Theory
• Hypothesis, Method, Quantitative & Qualitative
Results
 Ethnic Identity & Language Use
• Situated Ethnic Identity Theory
• Hypothesis, Method, Quantitative & Qualitative
Results
 Conclusions
What is French Immersion?
• Program in which children are immersed in French language
instruction so that they are functional in two languages upon
completion of the program.
• In 1999, 7.9% of Canadian students (and 7.3% of Alberta’s
high school students) were enrolled in a second language
immersion program, 92% of these outside of Quebec
(Statistics Canada, 2004).
QUEBEC
• French immersion in Alberta
ALBERTA
– early vs. late French immersion programs
– French immersion in high school: an iffy topic.
Faculté Saint-Jean
• The only post-secondary institution west of
Manitoba with an exclusively French curriculum.
• Offers degrees in education, arts and sciences, as
well as business and engineering degrees in
conjunction with University of Alberta.
• Approximately 500 students attend each year.
• Students come from diverse locations across
Canada as well as other Francophone nations,
particularly African countries.
Grand Design
Motivation
?
Ethnic Identity
Language Use
The purpose of this research is to discover:
• What motivates students to continue to learn French?
• What types of identities do French immersion high
school graduates have? Are these identities situationspecific?
• Is there a fundamental difference in the identities of
French immersion students who continue in a French
university and those who do not?
• How does identity relate to language use?
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
AMOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
Intrinsic Motivation
The motivation to engage in an activity because it is
enjoyable.
“I love speaking, understanding, and the ability to
use French.”
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
Integrated Regulation
Extrinsically-motivated behavior fits in with the
rest of the person’s life goals.
“French is a part of my background and who I am.”
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
Identified Regulation
Performing an activity due because of personallyrelevant reasons.
“Receiving a bilingual undergraduate degree will
offer me so much in the future.”
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
Introjected Regulation
Performing an activity due to internal pressure (i.e.,
guilt).
“I figured as I already knew French, I’d best not
lose it.”
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
External Regulation
Performing an activity to achieve some instrumental
end (i.e., earning a reward, avoiding punishment).
“I got a lot of scholarships to continue French. Once
they’re gone I will transfer to English.”
Motivation to Learn French
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
AMOTIVATION
INTEGRATED
REGULATION
IDENTIFIED
REGULATION
INTROJECTED
REGULATION
EXTERNAL
REGULATION
Amotivation
Having no reason, intrinsic or extrinsic, for
performing an activity.
“I am not continuing French language training cause
it is not the most important thing for me right now.”
Motivation to Learn French
Gardner, 1985
INTEGRATIVE ORIENTATION
Integrative Orientation
The desire to learn a second language in order to
have contact and identify with members of the
second language community.
“I am happy to be able to communicate with a
segment of our population that comes from another
cultural tradition.”
Hypothesis
1. Faculté Saint-Jean (FSJ) students are more
motivated to learn French for self-determined
intrinsic reasons (e.g., enjoyment), while
University of Alberta (UofA) students are more
motivated to learn French for external regulation
reasons (e.g., course credit).
Method
Participants
– 47 University of Alberta students in introductory
psychology classes.
– 25 Faculté Saint-Jean students in introductory classes.
– All participants speak English as a native
language and were registered in a French
immersion program in high school.
Materials
– Language Learning Orientation Scale (Noels et al., 2000)
• e.g., I would feel embarrassed or ashamed if I didn’t
know French.
Eureka!
Figure 1: Motivational Orientations for Language Learning (full sample)
7
6
Mean
5
4
3
2
1
Amotivation
External
Introjected
Identified
Intrinsic
Integrative
Orientation
• All students had a clear reason for learning French.
• French is important and personally relevant to both groups
of students.
• No significant differences between the motivational
orientations of the UofA and FSJ students in the
quantitative analysis.
Qualitative Analysis
BUT…
Qualitative analysis suggests that Faculté SaintJean students reported that they are learning
French for identified regulation reasons more
often than University of Alberta students.
UofA
FSJ
Intrinsic
Integrated
Identified*
Introjected
External
Integrative
n
4
2
4
7
3
9
%
8.3
4.2
8.3
14.6
6.3
18.8
SR
-0.8
0.0
-2.3
-0.1
-0.5
0.2
n
5
1
14
4
3
4
%
20.0
4.0
56.0
16.0
8.0
16.0
SR
1.1
0.0
3.2
0.1
1.0
-0.2
* x2= 23.173 , p < .05
Ethnic Identity
– Allegiance to a group with which one has shared
experiences.
– Subtractive bilingualism
Native
Language &
Culture
New
Language &
Culture
– Additive bilingualism
Native
Language &
Culture
New
Language &
Culture
– Situated Ethnic Identity
• One’s ethnic identity may depend on the situation one
is in (e.g., public vs. private).
Hypotheses
2. FSJ students have a higher Francophone
identity than do UofA students, especially in
the school domain.
3. Francophone identity is higher in situations
involving school and friends, which parallels
patterns of language use.
Method
Materials
– Situated Ethnic Identity Scale (Noels, 2003)
• e.g., I am discussing an assignment with a student in
my class. I feel…
Never
been in
this
situation
1
Not at all
Anglophone
2
3
Slightly
Anglophone
4
5
Quite a bit
Anglophone
6
7
Very strongly
Anglophone
1
Not at all
Francophone
2
3
Slightly
Francophone
4
5
Quite a bit
Francophone
6
7
Very strongly
Francophone
– Language Use Index
• e.g., How often do you speak French at home?
Eureka!
Figure 2: Identity as a function of group and situational domain.
University of Alberta
Anglophone identity
Francophone identity
Identity (mean)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
family
friend
school
public
Domain
Faculté Saint-Jean
Identity (mean)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
family
friend
school
Domain
public
• Additive bilingualism is
demonstrated in both
groups.
• UofA students show a
constant Anglophone
identity and a variable
Francophone identity.
• Compared to the UofA
students, FSJ
students have a higher
Francophone identity
at school and a higher
Anglophone identity
with family.
Eureka!
Figure 2: Language Use Index Scores
Faculté Saint-Jean
5
4
Mean
• Patterns of
language use
parallel patterns
of ethnic
identity within
and between the
two groups of
students.
University of Alberta
3
2
1
Family
School
Friends
Public
Domain
• FSJ students speak French significantly more than
UofA students at school and with friends.
Qualitative Analysis
Ethnic Identity Labels
Bilingual- EnglishCanadian Canadian
Canadian
Other
(e.g.,
FrenchCanadian,
ChineseCanadian, etc.)
University
of Alberta
44.6%
27.6%
14.9%
12.9%
Faculté
Saint-Jean
60.0%
12.0%
24.0%
4.0%
Qualitative Analysis
When asked about the link between language and
their ethnic identity, participants responded with the
following themes:
– French makes me feel proud.
– French makes me feel Canadian.
– French connects me to French Canadians and their
culture.
– French is a character-building skill that will be
advantageous in the future.
– French helps me understand my cultural and historical
heritage.
– I’m just Canadian – knowing French does not change that.
– French does not affect my ethnic identity at all.
Therefore…
• FSJ students were not found to be more
intrinsically motivated than UofA students…
 but qualitative analysis suggests that they
have a greater identified regulation.
• FSJ students have a higher Francophone identity
than UofA students in the school and public
domains, and a higher Anglophone identity in the
family domain.
• Language use parallels the patterns of ethnic
identity.
Questions?
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The Social Context of Language Learning Motivation