Psychoanalysis Conclusion & Continuation Fetishism as an Example Outline Sigmund Freud Jacque Lacan Fetishism Continuations – ego psychology & object-relations theory – Connections with Marxism Freudian Psychoanalysis: General Comment --Deconstruction Freud begins with a series of hierarchical oppositions: – – – – – normal/pathological, Sanity/insanity, Experience/dream, Conscious/unconscious, Life/death. The first –prior and richer; The second– negation or complication; Freud: the first –”a special case of the fundamentals designated by the second term.” (Jonathan Culler qud in Wright 124) Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism A. Psyche, Id psychology & Child development: The theory of Oedipus complex and penis envy -- helps explain gendering processes in patriarchal society. -- Freud's limitations or our misunderstanding? -- inability to explain female sexuality--"What do women want?" -- its focus on infantile psychology. "Between ordinary adult personality traits and infantile psychology there are layers upon layers of relationships, experiences, values and meanings." Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism B. Psychobiography and Art as Dream work. -- psychobiography (treating artists as patients, art as dream work, and explaining art in terms of his/her life) can be reductive, ignoring art’s aesthetic aspects on the conscious level. (e.g. E. Bishop’s objectification/distantiation of her loss ) -- We can examine our own transference in reading. -- interpretation of dream: helps us understand the languages of dream. Freudian Psychoanalysis: possible functions & criticism C. Psychological Pattern & Disorders Pattern: -- repression displacement/sublimation or fixation/regression -- repetition compulsion, defense mechanism, death/life instincts 2) Disorder -- the return of the repressed through symptoms. -- Helpful for character and self analysis; -- entering the symbolic order means having reality checks; otherwise, we may become psychotic. 1) Freudian Psychoanalysis: Lacan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Add linguistic elements to Freud’s analysis. Barred subject: S-ier/S-ied; or S; The differences between need, demand (with language) and desire. The mother as feminine Other, our needs for the “others” (objet a). The three orders of human existence: constant antagonism between the Real and the Symbolic, our mirror images and the need to “look.” --Is this another fiction? Fetishism An example of controversies and continuation Fetishism – of Different Kinds (Religious fetishism 拜物教--人體、物 體、神像和護身符四大類 ); Erotic/Sexual fetishism; Commodity fetishism and Colonial fetishism FETISHISM—general def. Erotic fetishism-- the dependence on particular objects (part of a body or an inanimate object) to obtain sexual arousal. Most common fetish objects are Female underwear, Leatherwear, and Rubber. Using female underwear for fetishistic purposes is one reason for partial crossdressing. http://www.schools out.org.uk/san_definitions.html Erotic fetishism- Examples Clothing Fetishism - underwear - uniforms (e.g. Exotica) - gloves - shoes/boots/pantyhose (Body) Modification - tattoos - piercing Material Fetishism - leather - fur - velvet (e.g. Blue Velvet) Erotic fetishism- Examples Body Fetishism - legs/feet - hair - nails/claws - belly buttons Other Fetishism - manaquins/robots - cross dressing - cigarette Erotic fetishism- Freud’s analysis Disavowal: The little boy sees the mother’s genitals and simultaneously denies his perception of her castration. //his castration fear Solution -- denial/acceptance of her castration, and by extension his own, by finding a substitute. Fetish: – A substitute for the mother’s missing penis; – Linked metonymically to the female genitalia; – Never the same as the original, which is a fiction. (imaginary phallus or phallic mother) Erotic fetishism- Reasons Fetishization: – eroticizes an object or a non-genital part of one’s body; – allows the boy to remain intimate with the “phallic mother” while at the same time enter the symbolic, accepting the father’s law and developing his masculinity. Lacan’s example: Little Harry (Grosz 11920) Is fetishism all about need for power and identification? Are we all fetishists, one way or another Fetishism: example •Fazio's Mistress, 1863.D.G.Rossetti •Prosperine, 1877 Erotic fetishism- Extention 1. 2. -- Visual Pleasures in Hollywood films –the camera takes a male perspective, watching female stars as passive object of look Satisfy two kinds of desire: Male voyeurism –peeping in order to possess Fetishism --look and identify with the glamorized female stars; fetishizing women’s body on the screen; in order to project them as “phallic mother” (//e.g. film noire: the woman has to be a lack, losing memory of her identity.) Erotic fetishism- Criticism Reflects Freud’s emphasis of-– Female castration, male castration anxiety – Freud’s privileging the phallus Feminist responses 1. Rejection –fetishism coincides with the norm of phallocentrism. 2. Female fetishism: e.g. collection of memorabilia; self-fetishization; 3. Rewriting: female disavowal—women disavow their own castration through narcissism or hysteria. It also explains female development of lesbianism. Examples for analysis: Mulholland Dr. –its “Narcissistic” Elements As a revision of film noire, it has a woman, but not a man, in pursuit of a femme fatale (who is mysterious and amnesiac). The fetishistic images in the film turn to be those of herself. Mirror/reality forms a vicious circle, and there is no outlet for her. Greta Garbo vs. Diane Rene Magritte, The Dangerous Liaison http://bertc.com/magritte_ menu.htm The woman hides behind a projected “phallic” image of herself. contradiction between soliciting gaze with the gesture of modesty and self-projection. (Cf. Wright 185) Fetishism: Literary Examples Hemingway his male heroes – all amputees. (Jake Barnes is missing his penis. Harry Morgan is missing his arm. Harry Walden has a gangrenous leg. Colonel Cantwell has been shot "twice through the hand.“) – a fear of castration envy of masculine grace. – an unsettling identification with the "castrated" woman, which paradoxically intensifies castration anxiety. e.g. Fetishism: Literary Examples “問金庸情是何物：禮物、信物、證物” – by 張 小虹； -- Some fetishes may not be sexual in nature e.g. -- green light in The Great Gatsby (national fetish) -- commodity fetish (e.g. The commodities in such realist novels as Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath or Sister Carrie) Fetishism of Other Kinds: Colonial Fetish sexual fetish the sexualized "fetish of colonial discourse" (Homi Bhabha) colonial fetish: – in the ambivalent space "in between“ • an imposed identity and the reality of their humanity for the colonized • between the recognized and the disavowed, • between fear and desire for the colonizers. The tropes of the sexual fetish are present in the colonial fetish, but syncretized with certain tropes of colonialist experience and identity to embody the larger socio-political context of colonial relations. Fetishism of Other Kinds: Colonial Fetish e.g.1. the image of the submissive and sweet Oriental woman (Madame Butterfly); 2. Jimmie Durham SelfPortrait (1986) Sexually powerful aborigine. -- sea shells for ears, bits of animal hide hair; one turquoise eye is just to show a little "Indianness," and the feathers revealed by an open chest cavity imply a certain "lightheartedness." and defiantly "large and colorful" genitals. Fetishism of Other Kinds: Commodity Fetish The charming and enigmatic nature of commodity Exchange values added to it; relations between the products // relations between men e.g. Cell phone, Hello Kitty, etc. More next time. Psychoanalysis: continuation ego psychology & objectrelations theory Ego psychology – deal with the management of fantasies for the maintenance of identity; (id psychology– instinctual drives and private fantasies) Object-relations: – feelings about the mother projected to an external object; multiple interactions with the object establish one’s relations with reality. Combined with Marxism The symbolic order – filled with signs of ideologies; Commodity –as a sublime object of our desire (to hide the inner split in us). Analyzing cultural symptoms. e.g. the need for stigmatization when SARRS occurs. Treating Psychoanalysis as a discourse that gets form when traditional families are challenged. (e.g. Foucault) Reference Psychoanalytic Criticism: A Reappraisal by Elizabeth Wright. Polity,1998.\ Elizabeth Grosz Jacque Lacan: A Feminist Introduction Next Week Reader: chap 5 to p. 214 "Snowed Up"