The Renaissance
What do you know
about the
Renaissance?
• The Renaissance was an important time period!!
1st Century (BCE)
2ndCentury (CE)
1 - 100
1 - 100
-100
1st Century (CE)
0
101 - 200
100
200
– Middle Ages: 4th – 14th century
– Renaissance : 15th – 16th century
• The Renaissance stretched from 1350 CE to 1600
CE
– CE – Common Era.
– BCE – Before Common Era
• Era – a historical time period
th
4 Century: Western & Eastern Empire
Middle Ages
• Between the fall of the Roman empire in the
4th century, to the beginning of the
Renaissance in the 14th century, Europe
was in the middle ages.
 During this time,
empires in northern
Africa and Asia were
flourishing,
The Silk Road
• Starting in 300 BCE, when the Roman Empire extended
into the middle east, people in the west welcomed
exotic goods from as far away as China and Japan
– Silk, Glassware, Paper, Pepper, Cinnamon
• With the large number of people moving, goods
weren’t the only thing that was moving along the silk
road.
– Ideas and Knowledge of religion, science and math,
technology, philosophy, and music
– Disease like the Black Death started in Asia, and made its
way to Europe killing millions
Modern Day Silk Road Map
Silk Road Map
Think about it:
• What are some products that are from
places other than Europe:
THEN
NOW
• Silk
• Glassware
•Paper
• Pepper
• Cinnamon
Role of the Islamic Civilization
• In the Beginning of the 7th century, the Islamic
faith spread quickly
• By 750 CE, it spread from Spain to Indonesia
• The center of the Islamic empire was in the
crossroads of the silk road
• The Muslim middle men were everywhere on
the route, and made the Muslim Empire very
wealthy
• More importantly, it became a center of
learning during the middle ages.
• Islamic scientists and scholars collected
mathematical and astrological documents in
libraries. They then studied and improved on
them.
– Astrolabe (Navigate by the stars)
– Ibn Sina (980 – 1037), studied diseases and the
human body. He wrote medical texts that were
used for hundreds of years
Q 1-2 pg 24
Refer to the map on pgs. 16-17
In your notebook answer the following:
• How difficult was it to move goods from China
to Italy in the Middle Ages? Compare the
transportation in the Middle Ages to today.
• How would the geographic location of the
Islamic Empire made it a centre for leaning &
discovery
• HW: What other inventions/discoveries can be
attributed to the Islamic Empire in the Middle
Ages?
Middle Ages: Religion
• God was the centre of human existence
• During the middle ages, a majority of Europeans
shared a religious worldview put in place by the
Roman Catholic Church
– The poor accepted they would suffer and live
short lives, but be rewarded in heaven
– The rich would donate money and land to the
church, to be rewarded in heaven
• The Catholic Church was the institution that
would educate, and employ
– Roman Catholic Church had a large amount of
influence on art and architecture
– Almost every European thinker & artist worked
for the Church = most the artwork has a strong
religious connotation
• Roman Catholic Church also had a large
amount of influence with Kings and their
kingdoms (Often power struggles)
• No one questioned the importance of
religion
– No one disagreed with the Church's ideas
about the world (EVER!!)
• The head of the Church (POPE) was a very
powerful man as the head of the church &
ruler of the wealthy papal state (ROME)
The Crusades
• Judaism, Christianity and Islam all grew out of the
same religious history, so they all thought they
had a claim to the ‘Holy Land’ (Israel)
WHY?
• To Christians, it was the place where Jesus was crucified
and ascended to heaven
• To Muslims, it was the place where
Muhammad ascended to heaven
• To Jews, it was the site of the
ancient temple built by Solomon
– Starting in 1095, under the order of the Pope,
Christians in Europe organized crusades to
recapture the area from Muslim control
Why?
• For knights: chance to use their fighting skills for a
worthy cause.
• For peasants: chance to escape from
their dreary life + the promise that if
they died while fighting a holy war,
they would automatically go to
heaven.
• For others: chance to have an
adventure, and get rich
• During the short time that the Christians occupied
the Holy Land, thousands of pilgrims and entire
armies traveled to Jerusalem
– From these pilgrimages, Europeans were
exposed to many different cultures, foods,
spices, exotic goods & cloths
– The travelers returned home with new ideas
and new ways of thinking
Europeans become more aware of other cultures
• The Crusades occurred over approx. 200 years
• Relationships between Christians & Muslims
developed during periods of Peace & period of
War
Middle Ages: Social Structure
• After the fall of the Roman empire, the feudal
system developed. (a hierarchical class structure)
– Monarchs granted land to nobles for military support
– Alliances were formed through diplomacy between
wealthy land owners to give support to one central
monarch.
 King
 Higher Clergy
 Nobles
 Lesser Nobles/Knights/
Clergy
 Serfs/Peasants
In the Feudal System people were not able to move there
social classes and was split into rich and poor.
• Controlled all the laws and made all the
big decisions
• Were advisors to the king and the eyes
and ears for the Pope.
• Controlled land and paid taxes/provided
military support to the King
• Controlled individual plots of land,
leaders of faith, and protected the
people
• 90% of the population
– Peasants – worked hard but were able to
look for other occupations
– Serfs – tied to their lords and had no
freedom
Pic. Pg 24
Lived in
huge
castles or
fortified
manor
houses
Lived in huts
outside of
the walls. If
they worked
in the castle,
they were
able to live
there as well
Black Plague
–Silk Road
–Crusades
–Black Plague
• All of this led to change in their worldview!!
• So in the 21st century, we see the
Renaissance as the era when the modern
western worldview began to develop
• It comes from the French word renaître
– “to be born again”
 It was a rebirth of ideas that were discovered when
Europeans came into contact with forgotten Greek
and Roman ways of thinking, and ways of looking at
the world.
 Discovered the ideas that were being kept by Muslim,
Jewish & Roman Catholic scholars.
Picture of Michelangelo
showing a pupil the Belvedere
Torso. The torso was created
by an Athenian sculptor and
was lost during the time of the
fall of the Roman Empire. When
found, it influenced the artists
during the renaissance.
Why did their Worldview Change
Trade
• By the late middle ages, Europeans wanted more exotic
items that were brought back by the crusaders
• Many of the cities that grew were port cities.
– Some people established businesses to provide goods
for city residents
– Industries began to specialize in goods and trade.
– Workers began to find and create jobs that were not
part of the feudal system
– Some communities became so prosperous and
powerful, they became city-states
– Individuals begin to feel a sense of belonging to their
larger community
Urbanization
• Many of the peasants
thought they could find
safety and work in the
cities
 Land owners didn’t have
workers, so they moved to
the cities and started
businesses
City-States Emerged
• Cities prospered in Italy because;
– Mountains to the north helped
protect Italy from invaders
– Trading cities began to thrive in
Italy
– The ruins from Roman times
reminded people of how effective
that style of government was
– The feudal system was not strong
in Italy due to urban lifestyle
– The pope moved his court to France
leaving Italians without much
interference from the Church
• Most of those city states
were controlled by
despots or by oligarchies
• Some of the city states in
Italy signed a treaty,
backed by the papacy,
that would not allow any
one city state to become
powerful enough to
threaten or overthrow
any other city
Renaissance = Increased Contact
• Increased trade  more people travelled = more exposure to
different goods & materials
• Merchants grew wealthier  could afford to visit other areas
• Towns & cities grew larger  more daily contact with other
people
• Warfare  soldiers saw more different lands
• Treaties were signed  travel was safer
• Diplomacy  increased contacts in other lands
• Royal families inter-married  servants had to travel with
the family to different parts
• Pope moved to Avingon  people had to travel to France,
not Rome, to see him
How did the increased contact affect
their worldviews?
CULTURE
• Artwork included new materials & ideas from other areas
• Books & documents began from other areas, had new ideas
• New materials meant new fashion
• Building styles & materials were inspired by other
architecture
• New foods & spices to enjoy
SOCIAL SYSTEMS
• Education included ideas from new areas & was offered by
other organizations
• People were able to choose where to work
• Feudal system began to fall apart
POLITICAL & ECONOMIC
• Wealthy people became powerful
• Church’s power weakened
• City states became strong
• Citizens became proud of where they lived
How did the Governments in Italy change? How
did it affect their worldview
• Government changed from republics to oligarchies /despots
• People had less say & control over government decisions
• Wealthy merchants were able to purchase power
• Stable government creates steady supply of jobs
POLITICAL & ECONOMIC
• Central control & less power with the Church
• People felt like citizens and not servants
• Military to protect a state was important
CULTURE
• Artisans & their products became valuable to the wealthy
SOCIAL SYSTEM
• Wealthy leaders donated buildings, statues & paintings to beautify
their city-state
Social
Systems
Political &
Economic
Systems
Culture
•Education
•Medical
•Social services
•Social Classes
•Type of Government: Oligarchy, Despot OR Republic
•Role of citizens
•Employment
•Trade
•Services/Business
•Military/Defense
•Language
•Rules of behaviour
•Religion
•Arts
•Architecture
•Literature
•Science
Social Systems
Florence
Venice
Culture
•Merchant class gained
status
•Guilds (unions)
organized
•Nobles lived outside
the city
•Centre for wool, cloth
& silk
•Banking
•Ruled by Medici
family= Oligarchy
•Painters, sculptors,
architects
•Patron of the arts
•3 social classes
•Doge as head of state =
Oligarchy
•Sea trade
•Centre of book trade
•Religion – cathedrals
built
•Merchant class
supported the arts
•Carnevale celebrations
•Founded banks
•Navy, shipbuilders,
merchants
•Clans/famillies
controlled sections of
the city, then dictator
took over power =
Despot
•Arts, architecture
•University of Genoa
Aristocrats
Original citizens
Common people
•Scuole provided
support to members &
the poor
•Social class system
based on wealth
Genoa
Political & Economic
Systems
•
•
•
•
•
What the City States had in
common:
Located on important trade routes
Commercial centres
Populations of more than 100, 000
Hierarchical social class systems
The wealthy were patrons of the arts
Unique Aspects of each City State:
FLORENCE
• Richest city state
• Centre of the Renaissance
• Hilly area was good for sheep = wool
• Good trading location on Arno River
VENICE
• Canals as streets
• Centre of trade between Asia & Europe
• On shallow islands along coast of Adriatic Sea
GENOA
• Strongest city state
• Controlled other ports in the Mediterranean
• On a narrow strip of land between sea & mountains
• Crossroads between Europe & Mediterranean
How has Canada’s urbanization affect people &
their worldview
• do not have much contact with the natural environment
• Used to not knowing people in their community
• May have to travel out of community to work, play, etc
• Greater variety of jobs, larger variety of goods & services
POLITICAL & ECONOMIC
• Expect wide variety of services, supports & job opportunities
• May have less say in local government decisions
CULTURE
• More access to entertainment & recreational facilities
• Architecture is more varied
• More diverse cultures & many languages spoken
SOCIAL SYSTEM
• More schools, libraries, advanced education
• Support for families & individuals in need
• Need to provide services for homeless
Michael Angelo’s Pieta
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The Renaissance