Developmental Sequences for
concepts and skills related to
Time, Money and Chores
Assembled by Kate Hanagan, 2011
Why look at typical
It can be helpful to revisit a typical
developmental sequence of these
concepts and skills as we set
expectations for our students
 Often the sequence of development
remains the same even while delayed
Children and Time: What They —
Usually — Know When
Written By Lynne Bertrand
Babies-anticipate feeding
12 to 15 months
Sequence experiments rule. She drops
her cup, you pick it up. Again? Again?
By 21 months
The power word "now" sees heavy use.
"Soon" still means nothing to him.
 He can put together familiar clues and
anticipate what comes next. "Mommy
home?" he says when the Harley roars
into the driveway.
2 years to 2 1/2 years
Lives in the present and uses words to
show it: "Now," "dis day."
He may be able to wait one nanosecond
for his sandwich when you say "soon."
The idea of "playtime after snack time" at
day care means a bit more to him now.
2 years to 2 1/2 years
He's starting to use words for the future,
such as "I gonna."
He has no words yet for things past,
although he's using past tenses of verbs:
"I goed there."
2 1/2 to 3 years
Her time vocabulary blossoms.
Out roll 20 or more new time words,
including some personal catchall terms
like "last day" for the gigantic past.
Sentences map things on a timeline: Me
eat, then play.
3 to 3 1/2 years
Here, researchers begin to see wide
variations in children's orientation in time.
 Mostly, he shows a more refined use of
time words for sequence ("I had it first"),
frequency ("two times today"), rhythm
("every Friday"), and duration ("it's a long
 "Yesterday" debuts, but without accuracy:
"I'm gonna see the ducks yesterday."
4 to 5 years
A child is at home, verbally, in past,
present, or future and is getting verb
tenses right.
 The words "day," "week," and "time" are
dragged off the shelf a lot, with phrases:
"every day," "summertime," "next week."
 what time she goes to bed or eats
4 to 5 years
She says and actually means "in a
minute," "five minutes ago." She has
some sense of holidays and birthdays.
Most likely she can't tell you correctly yet
what time she goes to bed or eats
5 to 6 years
She uses most time words correctly now,
no longer confusing the past with the
 She knows the days of the week and can
tell you what day it is, what day comes
next, how old she is, and when she goes
to bed.
5 to 6 years
She's using those expressions of the
clock ("The big hand is at the bottom") but
likely can't tell time yet.
6 years
He likes to hear about times past,
particularly his own and his parents'
He likes to think about things in
sequence. He travels in his mind into the
future, anticipating holidays and
birthdays. He has a notion of the
sequence of grandparent to parent to15
6 years
He travels in his mind into the future,
anticipating holidays and birthdays.
He has a notion of the sequence of
grandparent to parent to child.
He still likely can't tell time by the clock.
7 to 10 years
A child in the years from 7 to 10 gains
real competence with both clock and
calendar, and the math to use in reading
Easy Money
Written By Catherine Newman
Easy Money: 21 Ways to Teach Kids About the Green
Stuff - Child Development | Wondertime
Birth to 1 year
Its first appeal is as a shiny, forbidden
thing, a glass jar of gleaming coins she
can't even reach, never mind touch.
Ages 1 to 2 years
"At around 12 months dumping sets in,"
says Claudia Quigg.
Ages 2 to 3 years
After dumping comes the stacking of
coins, the flinging, and then "counting,"
very loosely defined.
 "Without the concept of one-to-one
correspondence" — meaning each
number relates to an object — "kids are
still just rattling off the names of
Ages 3 to 4
The Sorting Years.
"To sort, you need to conceptualize what
makes things the same,"
He can separate the silver coins from the
copper ones,big from the little, ridged
from the smooth.
Ages 4 to 5
Have truly learned to count
 can start to think about coins in terms of
value and equivalence: a pair of dimes is
2 but also 20 cents; a quarter is 25
pennies, 5 nickels, or 2 dimes and 1
Ages 5 to 6
Their understanding of basic math
 Barbara B. McGrath identifies money as
a favorite counting tool (after candy and
snacks, of course).
 "hands-on manipulatives" are a good
way to ensure an interest in math.
Ages 6 to 7
They begin to (fitfully) grasp fiscal
abstraction. "Stores should just keep a
bucket of money by the cash register," my
son once mused. "It would make it so
much easier for everyone to buy things."
Ages 6 to 7
Concepts like how you can spend money
when you don't have it, how you get it,
and what it pays for are hard enough for
adults to grasp — it's no surprise most
children are mystified by them.
 Kids may be baffled that an entire box of
toothpicks costs a mere 79 cents ("Didn't
someone have to whittle all of those?").
Ages 7 to 8
With allowance comes deferred
gratification, earned interest, and learned
 And when your kids become historians of
inflation ("A Coke really cost five cents?"
we asked then; "Candy bars were only 25
Ages 9 to 10
As the complexity of mathematics
multiplies, money buys your child a reallife occasion to practice new skills.
"It's a fantastic way to learn about
decimals and place value,"
"But fractions are trickier.
Ages 11 to 12
Quigg describes financial abstraction as
"an ever-evolving understanding," and
now the age of innocence is past.
 Big kids are full of hard questions about
loans and credit.
The Right Chore for the Right Age
By Cheryl Roberts
Choose the Right Chore for the
Right Age - Child Development |
12-month-olds: "Great imitators."
Characteristic: Newfound mobility
Skill: Grasp and release
Good jobs:
Picking up toys to drop in a bin
Smoothing bed covers,
sweeping — by imitating
18-month-olds: "Can't do everything
they think they can."
Characteristics: Problem solving; new attention span
Skills: Strength and coordination
Good jobs:
Serving from a tray
Watering a garden, washing produce
Helping to feed or groom a pet
Using a mechanical carpet sweeper
2-year-olds: "Routine and ritual are
very important."
Characteristics: Increased hand-eye coordination and
Skills: Following directions, sorting
Good jobs:
Spreading peanut butter or cheese
Dusting, sweeping, wiping a counter, washing windows
Sorting laundry, silverware, toys
Washing, stirring, mashing food
3-year-olds: "Work is still play."
Characteristic: More awareness of significance of help
Skills: Sorting and arranging
Good jobs:
Setting the table
Using kitchen gadgets, with supervision: sifter, rolling pin,
cheese grater, mortar and pestle
Planting, weeding, raking, digging, arranging flowers
Pouring tasks
4-year-olds: "Love anything new and
relish their independence."
Characteristics: Increased precision; increased sense
of responsibility
Skills: Making things; taking things apart and putting
them back together
Good jobs:
Using still more gadgets: peeler, pitter, slicer, food mill,
juicer, whisk, even — with close supervision — a true
paring knife
Hanging wash on a line, neatly folding dry clothes
5-year-olds: "Like to please."
Characteristics: Sense of confidence; expanded
curiosity about how things in the house work
Skills: Understanding what a job is; tackling even
uninteresting jobs
Good jobs:
Big supervised jobs, such as vacuuming or taking out
Behind-the-scenes jobs, such as removing the vacuum
bag or coming along to the dump
6-year-olds: "Full of energy and
Characteristic: Independence
Skills: Beginning reading and math
Good jobs:
Measuring — for recipes, pet food, laundry soap
Reading to a younger sibling
Noticing what needs to be done, and helping out
Hope this sparked
some ideas!

Developmental Sequence for concepts and skills related to