Beginnings of Vocational
Education
David Agnew
Historical look at
Apprenticeship Programs
What is an Apprenticeship?
Form of instruction in which a novice learns
from a master of a craft or art
Purpose was to provide a type of education in
exchange for work.
Oldest Type of Vo Ed.
Involved a formal binding agreement that
required the employer (Master) to provide
formal training in return for work
History of Apprenticeships
Until the late 19th century apprenticeship was
the only means for people to acquire skills for
most occupations.
Used in Vocational areas as well as Medicine
and Law.
The Industrial revolution helped to bring this
method almost to a complete stop by the mid to
late 1800s.
History of Apprenticeships –2
1562 The Statue of Artificers transfor
Apprenticeship programs from local to a
national system.
English Poor law of 1601 allowed churches
to place children of the poor under a Master
apprentice so they could learn a skill.
History of Apprenticeships –3
Two kinds of apprenticeships
Voluntary
Involuntary
Provisions of the Master were….
Reasons for decline in America
Apprenticeships in Recent History
1934 Federal committee created
In 1940 11 states had enacted Apprenticeship
laws.
1990s saw a new interest in apprenticeships
Department of Labor provides federal oversight
DWE has person who is the lasion with DOL
Two types
Youth
Adults
Department of Labor provides
federal oversight
The Office of Apprenticeship, is responsible for developing materials
and conducting a program of public awareness to secure the adoption
of training in skilled occupations and related training policies and
practices used by employers, unions, and other organizations;
developing policies and plans to enhance opportunities for minority
and female participation in skilled training; and coordinating the
effective use of Federal, labor, and resources to create a clear trainingto-employment corridor for customers of the workforce development
system. OA engages in partnership activities, ensuring quality service
and customer satisfaction.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write or call the Office of
Apprenticeship, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave, NW,
Washington, D.C. at (202) 693-3812. You may also contact your
nearest OA Regional Office.
National Apprenticeship Act
honored with a stamp--1962
Apprenticeships
continue today:
Adult
Youth
State Level
National Level
Most every night of the week you can go to
Delta Technical Institute here in Jonesboro
and find apprenticeship classes being
conducted in electricity, plumbing, etc…..
The Land Grant College
With Commentary from Kemp P. Battle (President
of the University of North Carolina, 1876-1891)
and Leonidas L. Polk (President, National Farmers
Alliance, Populist Party Founder, NC Grange
Leader, Commissioner of Agriculture and Founder
of the Progressive Farmer Magazine)
Colleges - 1860
Less than 3% of the
Colleges had
Departments of
Science. The emphasis
was on the liberal arts.
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
No Science
Science
Background Information
1851 - Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois
proposed a new model for higher education.
He said there were:
Two classes of people
• Well-to-do people
 Universities
• Industrial Classes
 No university
Background Information
Turner’s Industrial University Plan (1851)
Experimental Farm
Lectures would be held during cold weather
all types of livestock and crops
Turner’s Plan (1851)
Dormitories and buildings
Commencement to be like a fair
Funding to come from the Central Government
Designed for the industrial classes
Turner
Advocated federal land grants to support
such universities (1852)
Convinced Representative Yates of Illinois
to introduce a Bill into Congress (1854)
Yates was defeated
Senator Justin Morrill (Vt.)
Introduced a resolution to Congress in 1856
to establish a national agricultural college
(like the naval academy)
Resolution failed
Morrill Bill
Turner sends all his land grant information
and ideas to Morrill
Morrill introduces land grants acts in 1857,
1858 and 1859
1859 bill passes both houses but is vetoed.
Southerners were opposed to the bill because it
infringed on state rights. President Buchanan
was concerned that Southerners might secede if
he signed the bill.
Morrill Act
1862 - Morrill Act finally enacted (however,
North Carolina had seceded from the Union
and was not eligible to receive the benefits
of the act)
The Morrill Act of 1862
Gave federal lands to each state to sell to
support the establishment of a college
States received 30,000 acres per senator and
representative in Congress
If no public lands were left in the state, land
in other states (generally out west) was
given to states to sell in the form of “land
scrip”
The Morrill Act of 1862
The money generated from the sale of lands
was to be invested and the income
generated was to support the college.
Funds could not be used to build buildings.
It was expected the state would furnish this.
Morrill Act - Purpose
“to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at
least one college where the leading object shall be,
without excluding other scientific and classical
studies and including military tactics, to teach
such branches of learning as are related to
agriculture and the mechanic arts...in order to
promote the liberal and practical education of the
industrial classes in the several pursuits and
professions in life.”
Morrill Act - Accountability
“An annual report shall be made regarding
the progress of each college, recording any
improvements and experiments made, with
their costs and results, and such other
matters, including State industrial and
economical statistics, as may be supposed
useful; ...one copy to the Secretary of the
Interior”
The Failure of the
University of North
Carolina as the Land-grant
College
As viewed by Leonidas Polk
Background Information
Born in Anson County, 1837 (died
1892)
Attended Davidson and studied
agriculture
Plantation Manager
Confederate Colonel
State Grange Leader
Influential in creating the Board of
Agriculture
President, National Farmers
Alliance
Founder, Progressive Farmer
U.S. Presidential Candidate,
Populist Party
The Truth
The University of North Carolina was never
serious about teaching agriculture
President Battle was primarily concerned
with using the land-grant funds to support
the general work of the university
He interpreted the Morrill Act to his own
way of thinking
Agricultural Education
1823 - Governor Gabriel Holmes
recommended the purchase of a farm near
the University of North Carolina. The farm
was “to be put under the care of a scientific
and practical farmer” on which experiments
could be conducted. It didn’t happen.
Agricultural Education
1844 - Governor Morehead made a
recommendation similar to that of Holmes.
He also advocated the establishment of an
agricultural professorship at UNC or the
creation of a school where agriculture might
be taught.
Agricultural Education
In 1872 I called for "an agricultural college
somewhere in North Carolina…” At this
time the University of North Carolina was
closed
Agricultural Education
1886 – this editoral appeared in the August
25 issue of Progressive Farmer:
"After a period of eleven years of laborious
effort, and with an expenditure of $82,500
of money given our people by the
government, …
Editorial...
... we have at last succeeded in getting a
College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts.
It is a model of architectural beauty and
admirably equipped in all its departments.
It is located on the forty-eighth page of the
catalog of the University...
Editorial...
...The catalog says that 'two courses are
offered' in this elegant paper college.
'Offered' is a good word! These 'courses'
we presume, have been 'offered' to our
farmer boys for these eleven years, but we
search the catalog in vain to find one who
has availed himself of the offer."
The Second Morrill Act
It was evident early on that the original
Morrill Act did not provide enough funds to
adequately establish the new colleges
land sold for less than expected
money couldn’t be used to erect buildings
original money was to serve as an endowment
2nd Morrill Act
Morrill introduced legislation providing
more money to support land-grant colleges
in:
1872
1873
and in six other years prior to 1890
The legislation failed each time
2nd Morrill Act
Why did the legislation fail?
Public’s perceptions of land-grant colleges was
less than favorable
Northerners didn’t want southern states to
benefit from the legislation because of
segregation
2nd Morrill Act
2nd Morrill Act finally passed in 1890
Three major components to the bill
• 1. Provided more funding for land grant colleges
 Each state would have direct, annual appropriations
 Sum would eventually reach $25,000 per year
2nd Morrill Act
Three major components to the bill
• 2. Greater accountability
 subjects to be taught were specified:
 “ instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the
English language and the various branches of
mathematical, physical, natural, and economic
science, with special reference to their applications in
the industries of life, and to facilities for such
instruction’
2nd Morrill Act
Three major components to the bill
• 2. Greater accountability
 More detailed annual reports required
 “An annual report by the president of each of said
colleges shall be made to the Secretary of Agriculture,
as well as to the Secretary of the Interior, regarding
the condition and progress of each college, including
statistical information in relation to its receipts and
expenditures, its library, the number of its students
and professors, and also as to any improvements and
experiments made under the direction of any
experiment stations attached to said colleges”
2nd Morrill Act
Three major components to the bill
• 3. Black land grant colleges established
 “no money shall be paid out under this act to any State or
Territory for the support and maintenance of a college
where a distinction of race or color is made in the
admission of students, but the establishment and
maintenance of such colleges separately for white and
colored students shall be held to be a compliance with the
provisions of this act if the funds received in such State or
Territory be equitably divided as hereinafter set forth”
2nd Morrill Act
Legislation said money should be divided
equitably
• There is a big difference between equal and
equitable
• State legislature was to determine what equitable
meant
• In the South, the word equitable meant the new land
grant colleges didn’t get much
2nd Morrill Act
After the passage of the 2nd Morrill Act,
NC State officials approached Shaw
University to see if they would teach a few
agriculture classes for black students. The
intent was to make Shaw the 1890
institution but give it a very limited role and
funding.
2nd Morrill Act
North Carolina A&T State University was
established in 1891 as the second land grant
institution in North Carolina.
1994 Land Grant Schools
The federal congress passed legislation in 1994
according land grant status to 29 tribally
controlled (Native American) colleges.
This was primarily so that could tap into funds for
extension purposes
There are none in North Carolina
Most of the colleges are in Montana, the Dakotas,
Minnesota, Wisconsin and New Mexico.
Farmers’ Institutes
Farmers’ Institutes
Found in nearly every state in the late 1800s
Structure varied from state to state
Modeled after the teacher institutes
Farmers’ Institutes
Ohio (1847) - County agricultural societies
sent lecturers out on request
Farmers’ Institutes
New York (1842-43)- State agricultural
society started a program of itinerant
lecturers
Farmers’ Institutes
Institutes were held in counties,
occasionally there would be 2-3
in a county
Meetings were 1-3 days in length,
2-3 days at first, then one day
Variety of speakers featured
Typically balanced between local
people and outside experts
Farmers’ Institutes Program
Welcome by local dignitary
Overview by Institute official
Speakers followed by question and
answer period
Speeches were normally 30 minutes
or less
Question box used to overcome
hesitancy to ask questions
Farmers’ Institutes
Lunch prepared by the ladies (a time to
socialize)
Afternoon session consisted of more
speakers
Program, cont.
If there was an evening
session, it was often light
hearted entertainment (had to
entice farmers back from
doing their evening chores)
Farmers’ Institutes
Recreational activities
were provided for young
people (baseball, games,
races)
Institutes were scheduled
for “down time” on the
farms
Farmers’ Institutes
Once a year there was often
a state wide Farmers’
Institute or Round-up
Farmers’ Institutes
By 1900 Farmer’s Institutes
were operated primarily by:
Land-grant colleges (19 states)
State Departments of
Agriculture (17 states)
Counties (Delaware, Iowa)
Independent Board
(Minnesota)
Typical Topics
How to increase profits in dairying
Maintaining soil fertility
Are sheep profitable?
Potato growing
Good citizenship
National Grange
Rural Roads
Speakers
University Professors and Experiment
Station staff
Farmers often had a deep suspicion of
scientists and few trained men could
speak in a manner intelligible to the
farmer
Well known farmers in the state
Local farmers
State Department of Agriculture staff
Farmers’ Institutes
American Association of Farmers’ Institute
Workers organized - 1896
Farmers Institutes
1903 - Office of Experiment
Stations (USDA) added an
Farmers’ Institute specialist
1903 - Congress
appropriated $5,000 for
Farmers’ Institute work
Women’s Institutes (NC)
A separate Women’s Institute program was
started in 1906
Program conducted at the same time as the
Farmers’ Institute
Some joint
meetings held
The NC Women’s
Institutes claim to
be the first in the nation
Train Institutes in NC
1908 - First Demonstration Train
1909 - Two Demonstration Trains
Bladenboro to Rutherfordton, 800 miles round
trip, Seaboard
Air Line Rail
Road - 30 institutes held
Hillsboro to Murphy
- 900 miles round trip,
Southern Railway 27 institutes held
Demonstration Trains
One car was equipped with modern kitchen
appliances
Women’s Institutes were held in this car
Equipment was demonstrated and lectures
given
Demonstration Trains
One car contained farm implements
At each stop, the workings of the
implements were explained
If a team was available, the implements
were demonstrated
Demonstration Trains
The trains continued
in popularity for
a number of years.
A provision in the
Smith-Lever Act
doomed the trains.
The End
Two factors contributed to the demise of
Farmers’ Institutes
Establishment of the Cooperative Extension
Service
World War I
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Joseph Caldwell, President