Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter #1
1.1 Introduction
• Early interest in the human body probably
developed as people became concerned about
injuries and illness.
• Primitive doctors began to learn how certain
herbs and potions affected body functions.
• The belief that humans could understand forces
that caused natural events led to the
development of modern science.
• A set of terms originating from Greek and Latin
words in the basis for the language of anatomy
and physiology.
1.2 Anatomy and Physiology
• Anatomy describes the form and
organization of body parts.
• Physiology considers the functions of
anatomical parts.
• The function of an anatomical part
depends on the way it is constructed.
Anatomists continue to discover new
anatomical features of the body.
• Anatomy deals with the FORM or STRUCTURE
(morphology) of the body and its
ORGANIZATION.
• Physiology studies the FUNCTION of these
parts.
• The topics of anatomy and physiology are
difficult to separate because the structures of
body parts are so closely associated with the
functions. Ex. The chambers of the heart are
adapted to pump blood through blood vessels.
1.3 Characteristics of Life
• Fundamental characteristics of life are
traits shared by all organisms.
• Characteristics of life include: - 10
characteristics
Movement, responsiveness, growth,
reproduction, respiration, digestion,
absorption, circulation, assimilation,
excretion
Characteristics
1.
Movement- change in position of the body or of a body
part; motion of an internal organ. Ex. Migration
movement from place to place.
2. Responsiveness-Reaction to a change taking place
inside or outside the body.
3. Growth- increase in body size without change in
shape. When an organism produces new body
materials faster than old ones are worn out.
4. Reproduction- production of new organisms and new
cells.
Reproduction and growth are NOT synonymous.
Characteristics continued…
5. Respiration- Obtaining oxygen, removing
carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from
foods. 6O2 + C6H12O6 = 6CO2 + 6H2O
6. Digestion- breakdown or food substances into
simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
7. Absorption- is the passage of substances
through various body membranes and into
body fluids.
Characteristics continued again..
8. Circulation- movement of substances
from place to place in body fluids.
9. Assimilation- changing of absorbed
substances into chemically different
forms.
10. Excretion- removal of wastes produced
by metabolic reactions.
Metabolism- acquisition and use of energy.
1.4 Maintenance of Life
Requirements of Organisms
1. Water- The most abundant chemical in
the body. It is used in many metabolic
processes, provides the environment for
metabolic reactions, and transports
substances.
2. Food-are substances that supply the
body with chemicals and water
necessary in vital reactions.
Requirements of Organisms
continued…
3. Oxygen- releases energy from food
materials.
4. Heat- is a product of metabolic reactions
and it controls the rate at which chemical
reactions take place in the body.
5. Pressure- is a force on something.
Atmospheric pressure help breathing.
Hydrostatic pressure help blood
movements.
Homeostasis
• Is a condition of a stable internal
environment.
• Body parts function only when the
concentrations of water, nutrients, and
oxygen and the conditions of heat and
pressure remain within certain narrow
limits.
Homeostatic Mechanisms
•
Homeostatic mechanisms are self regulating
control systems. Negative feedback.
1. Receptors- which provide info. about specific
conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment.
2. Set point- which tells what a particular value
should be. Ex. body temperature 98.6*F.
Homeostasis in a healthy person changes
around the set point.
3. Effectors- which cause responses that alter
conditions in the internal environment.
• Perspiring is a cooling process.
• Shivering is a heating process. When the body
needs to conserve heat, blood vessels in the
skin surface constrict.
• When a person’s body heat rises, the brain’s
temperature control center increases the loss of
body heat.
• In maintaining homeostasis, the feedback to the
control center is triggered by changes away
from the set point.
1.5 Levels of Organization
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atoms
Molecules
Macromolecules
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organism
• Chemicals are made up of
smaller structures called atoms
and atoms can combine to form
molecules.
• Organelles are structures within
cells that perform specific
functions.
• In the human body, the most
complex level of organization is
the organ system.
• Tissues are layers or masses
that have common functions.
1.6 Organization of the Human
Body
• Axial portion- which includes the head,
neck, and trunk. (Dorsal and Ventral)
• Appendicular portion- which includes the
upper and lower limbs.
• Viscera or visceral organs- vital organs.
Dorsal Cavity
•
Dorsal cavity: cavity in the back of the
body. Axial portion.
• Divided into the following:
1. cranial cavity: - skull & contains the brain
2. spinal cavity: Vertebral canal contains
the spinal cord and backbone
Ventral Cavity
•
•
Ventral cavity: located in the front of the body.
Divided into the following thoracic and
abdominopelvic cavities. Divided by diaphragm
1. Thoracic cavity: - contains the heart & lungs
Mediastinum separates the cavity into 2
compartments. Left and right
• pleural cavities: - contain the lungs
• pleural membrane: lines the pleural cavity
• pericardial cavity: - contains the heart
• pericardium: lines the pericardial cavity
Ventral Cavity Continued
2. Abdominoplevic cavity: abdominal cavity +
pelvic cavity
• abdominal cavity: contains stomach, liver,
spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the
small and large intestines
• peritoneum: lines the abdominal cavity
• mesentery: holds the organs/viscera in place.
• pelvic cavity: contains bladder, reproductive
organs, end of large intestines
Organ Systems
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Digestive
Respiratory
Urinary
Reproductive
Body Covering
1. The integumentary system includes the
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and
sebaceous glands (hair follicles).
• Protects underlying tissues, regulates
body temperature, houses sensory
receptors, and synthesizes various
substances.
Support and movement
2. Skeletal system is composed of bones,
cartilages and ligaments.
• Provides a framework, protective shields,
and attachments for muscles. Produces
blood cells and stores inorganic salts.
3. Muscular system includes the muscles of
the body.
• Moves body parts, maintains posture, and
produces body heat.
Integration and coordination
4. Nervous system consists of the brain, spinal
cord, nerves, and sense organs.
• Receives impulses from sensory parts, interprets
these impulses, and acts on them by stimulating
muscles or glands.
5. Endocrine system consists of glands that
secrete hormones, which regulate metabolism.
• Includes pituitary, thyroid, adrenal gland and
pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and
thymus gland.
Transport
6. Cardiovascular system includes the heart
and blood vessels.
• Blood transports oxygen, nutrients,
hormones, and wastes.
7. Lymphatic system is composed of
lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph
nodes, thymus gland, and spleen.
• Defends body against disease-causing
agents.
Absorption and excretion
8. Digestive system receives foods, breakdown
food into usable molecules, and eliminates
waste.
• Includes mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands,
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder,
pancreas, small and large intestine.
9. Respiratory system exchanges gases between
the air and blood.
• Includes nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
bronchi, and lungs.
10. Urinary system filters waste from the
blood and helps maintain water, acid-base,
and electrolyte balance.
• Includes kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
and urethra.
Reproduction
11. Reproductive system produce new
organisms.
• Male reproductive transports sperm cells
• Female reproductive transports egg cells
1.7 Anatomical Terminology
•
Anatomical position: Terms of relative
position are used to describe the location
of a part relative to another part.
1. Superior: Needs to be in reference to
another part. What does it mean? Above
2. Inferior: Opposite of superior, what does
it mean? Below
Anatomical Terms continued…
3. Anterior: Means the same as ventral in
humans. Where does it refer to? Front
4. Posterior Means the same as dorsal in
humans. What is it referring to? Back
Ex. the spinal cord is posterior to the heart
5. Medial means towards the midline.
6. Lateral means towards the side.
Ex. the ears are lateral to the nose.
Anatomical Terms continued
again…
7. Proximal also is in reference to another
part. It means closer to the point of
origin.
8. Distal is the opposite of proximal. It
means farther from the point of origin.
9. Superficial is close to the surface.
10. Deep is far from the surface.
Body Sections
• Sagittal: A sagittal section divides the
body into right and left portions. Midsagittal if it passes the midline.
• Transverse (horizontal, cross-sectional) A
transverse section divides the body into
superior and inferior portions
• Frontal (coronal): A coronal section
divides the body into anterior and posterior
sections.
Work Cited
• Human Body picture
www.materials.qmul.ac.uk/casestud/impla
nts/
• The Human Body picture
www.msichicago.org/omax/human-body/
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter #1