Homeostasis
Homeostasis = maintaining stable internal conditions
“Dynamic state of equilibrium”
means that internal conditions
change and vary, but are maintained
within a narrow range of limits.
For Example: The body
must maintain an
adequate amount of
blood.
Homeo = same
Stasis = standing still
Homeostasis
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Communication is essential to
homeostasis.
Brrrr! I’m
shivering!
Chief systems involved:
Nervous system
Endocrine system
The factor or event being
regulated is called the “variable.”
lloydi.com
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Homeostasis
Three main components of a Homeostatic Mechanism:
Stimulus
Receptor
www.wmo.ch
Homeostatic
Control
Mechanism
Effector
Effector
Control
Center
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Homeostasis
Feedback = causes a
response to increase or
decrease.
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
Pushes the response farther.
More rare in the body.
Reduces the response.
More common in the body.
Examples:
Blood clotting
Birthing contractions
Examples:
Body temperature
Breathing rate
Blood pressure
Homeostasis
Homeostatic Imbalance
As we age, our body systems become less efficient, and our
internal conditions less stable.
In your textbook…
This symbol indicates a
homeostatic imbalance section.
healthcarefinancials.files.wordpress.com
The Language of Anatomy
Anatomical Position = the standard position used when
referring to anatomical parts of the body.
1. Body is standing erect.
2. Arms are hanging down at
sides.
3. Palms are held forward with
thumbs out.
The Language of Anatomy
Superior
Superior =
Towards the head end.
Ex. The neck is superior to the
shoulders.
The Language of Anatomy
Inferior :
Towards the feet end.
Ex. The knees are inferior to the
thighs.
Inferior
The Language of Anatomy
Anterior (Ventral) :
anterior
Towards the front.
Ex. The breastbone is anterior to
the spine.
static-p3.fotolia.com
The Language of Anatomy
Posterior (Dorsal) :
posterior
Towards the back.
Ex. The heart is posterior to the
breastbone.
static-p3.fotolia.com
The Language of Anatomy
Medial :
Toward the midline.
medial
Ex. The breastbone is medial to
the arm.
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Lateral :
Away from the midline.
lateral
lateral
Ex. The arms are lateral to the
chest.
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Intermediate :
Between a more medial and a
more lateral structure.
Ex. The armpit is intermediate
between the breast bone and
the shoulder.
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Close to the origin of the body
(or the point of attachment of a
limb).
proximal
Proximal :
Ex. The elbow is proximal to the
wrist (meaning the elbow is
closer to the arm’s point of
attachment than the wrist).
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Distal :
distal
distal
Farther from the origin of the
body (or the point of
attachment of a limb).
Ex. The ankle is distal to the
knee (meaning the ankle is
farther from the point of
attachment than the knee).
distal
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Superficial :
Toward or at the body surface.
Ex. The skin is superficial to the
skeleton.
superficial
A “superficial” wound is usually
one that is not deep.
squarehe.com
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Deep:
More internal or away from the
body surface.
Ex. The lungs are deep to the rib
cage.
deep
wocn.confex.com
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Anterior Body Landmarks
Let’s ID the facial
landmarks first!
Now let’s ID the main
body landmarks!
Now let’s ID the outer
body landmarks!
Now let’s ID the lower
body landmarks!
Nasal
Oral
Cervical
Acromial
Thoracic
Brachial
Antecubital
Abdominal
Umbilical
Carpal
Digital
Pubic
Patellar
Crural (leg)
Tarsal
Orbital
Buccal
Sternal
Axillary
Pelvic
Coxal
Inquinal
Femoral
Fibular
tpub.com
The Language of Anatomy
Posterior Body Landmarks
Cephalic
Occipital
Deltoid
Scapular
Vertebral
Lumbar
Sacral
Gluteal
Femoral
Popliteal
Sural
mhhe.com
The Language of Anatomy
Body Planes and Sections
Frontal =
lengthwise or
longitudinal…
Divides into
anterior and
posterior.
Saggital =
lengthwise or
longitudinal…
Divides into left
and right.
Section = refers to
a “cut” through
the body.
Transverse =
Horizontal…
Divides into
superior and
inferior.
Plane = refers to a
section made
through the body
wall or an organ.
www.cpd-istotalcpdltd.co.uk
Examples of Body Planes and Sections:
www3.americanradiology.com
www.nlm.nih.gov
www.nlm.nih.gov
Examples of Body Planes and Sections:
www.cypruschiropractic.org
sinusinfocenter.com
www.sgsu.co.uk
Examples of Body Planes and Sections:
www.sciencelearn.org.nz
www.briankaneonline.com
DE Body Atlas: CAT Scans
The Language of Anatomy
Body Cavities
Thoracic Cavity
Diaphragm
Abdominal
Cavity
Pelvic Cavity
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter1/labeling_exercises.html#
Abdominopelvic
Cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
Dorsal Body
Cavity
Spinal Cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
Cranial Cavity
anatomycorner.com
The Language of Anatomy
Homeostatic Imbalance
What cavity is most at risk?
The abdominopelvic…
cafeketban.net
…because it is only
protected with muscle
(no bones).
www.ci.vallejo.ca.us
Divisions of the Abdominopelvic cavity:
Assignment:
TXT pg 20 Questions #1-5
ADAM Key Terms/Roots pg 2-5
SP (Study Partner)
(Study Partner is located at
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2002_general/Esp/default.htm
Levels of Organization
Introduction
Structure & Function
Life Characteristics
Human Organization
Homeostasis
Anatomical Planes
Directional Terms
Body Organization
Additional Activities
Quiz
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