Test scores indicate that students who learn a
foreign language have a much stronger grasp of
English language skills. Tests also indicate that
studying a foreign language sharpens the mind.
Classical languages may prove the most profitable
foreign languages for a student to learn.
Consider LATIN. Everywhere we turn, we read
English words which originally came from Latin
words.
Over 60% of English words have Latin roots. There
is so much Latin in English that learning Latin will
help you to better understand English.
GREEK is also useful. While legal vocabulary is all Latin, most
medical and scientific words come from Greek.
Knowing Greek will give the student a head-start on the
terminology of these professions.
A large part of the study of these professions is the
terminology.
Why learn Classical Languages? For centuries, classical
languages have been recognized as an essential part of a
good education. The primary benefits are the mental
discipline and the usefulness for all other studies
Look for Relationships between new
words and words that you already
know
SUICIDE  Fungicide  Herbicide  Genocide  Algacide
Laryngitis Appendicitis  Arthritis  Arthropod  Pseudopod 
Pseudonym  Cardiologist  Podiatrist
Erythrocyte Leukocyte  Leukemia  Anemia 
Cytology  Hematology  Hemophilia  Hemolysis
ANY IDEAS ???
HEPATITIS
HEPATIC VEIN
PSYCHOPATH ?
PATHOGENIC (Hint GENerate)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
PATHOLOGIST
Try These Words Out For Relationship
PTERODACTYL
PHYTOPLANKTON
PTERIDOPHYTE
APTERYGOTA
ASYMMETRICAL
HAIRCUT
Try This!!
Breakdown
A respiratory
disorder
caused by
microscopic
volcanic
silicone dust
Other BIG WORDS!!!
•
otorhinolaryngological - 22 letters
•
immunoelectrophoretically - 25 letters
•
radioimmunoelectrophoresis - 26 letters
•
psychoneuroendocrinological - 27 letters
•
hepaticocholangiogastrostomy - 28 letters
•
pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism - 30 letters
All right class…first things
first!
Pos
Anterio
caudal
Principle of Complementarity
• Function always reflects structure
• What a structure can do depends on its
specific form
Levels of Structural Organization
Smooth muscle cell
Molecules
2 Cellular level
Cells are made up of molecules
Atoms
Smooth
muscle
tissue
3 Tissue level
Tissues consist of
similar types of
cells
1 Chemical level
Atoms combine to
form molecules
Heart
Cardiovascular
system
Epithelial
tissue
Smooth
muscle
tissue
Connective
tissue
4 Organ level
Organs are made up of
different types of tissues
Blood
vessels
Blood
vessel
(organ)
6 Organismal level
The human organism is
made up of many organ
systems
5 Organ system level
Organ systems consist of different organs
that work together closely
Figure 1.1
Body Planes:
• Definition = imaginary lines drawn
through the body to separate the body
into sections
Directional Terms
Table 1.1
Directional Terms
Table 1.1
Body Planes
• Sagittal – divides the body into right and left
parts
• Midsagittal or medial – sagittal plane that lies
on the midline
• Frontal or coronal – divides the body into
anterior and posterior parts
• Transverse or horizontal (cross section) –
divides the body into superior and inferior
parts
• Oblique section – cuts made diagonally
Body Planes
Figure 1.8
Median
(Midsagittal)
Plane
Divides body into equal
right & left halves.
Frontal
(Coronal)
Plane
Divides body into front &
back portions.
Transverse
Plane
Divides body into upper &
lower portions.
Superior
(cephalic)
Towards the
feet
Towards the
head
Inferior
(caudal)
Transverse Plane:
Horizontal plane dividing the body into a
top and bottom half
1. Superior = body parts above other
parts
2. Inferior = body parts below other
parts
3. Cranial = body parts near the head
4. Caudal = body parts located near
the sacral region of the spinal column
(or near the tail bone)
Medial
Moving towards the midline
of the body
Lateral
Moving towards the
side of the body
Median Plane:
Divides the body into right and left sides
1. Medial = body parts located near the
middle or midline of the body
2. Lateral = body parts located away
from the midline or middle of the body
Anterior
(Ventral)
Front part of body
anterior
Posterior
(Dorsal)
posterior
Back part of
the body
Frontal Plane:
Divides the body into front and back
section.
1. Anterior = body parts on the front of
the body
2. Posterior = body parts on the back of
the body
• Proximal = body parts close to the
point of reference
• Distal = body parts away from the
point of reference
Body Cavities:
Spaces within the body which contain vital
organs
Body Cavities
Figure 1.9a
Body Cavities
Figure 1.9b
Body Cavities
• Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is
divided into two subdivisions
– Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the
brain
– Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral
column and encases the spinal cord
• Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera),
and is divided into two subdivisions: - Thoracic and
Abdominopelvic cavities
Body Cavities
• Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural
cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial
cavity
– Pleural cavities – each houses a lung
– Mediastinum – contains the pericardial
cavity, and surrounds the remaining
thoracic organs
– Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart
Body Cavities
• The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from
the superior thoracic cavity by the domeshaped diaphragm
• It is composed of two subdivisions
– Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach,
intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
– Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and
contains the bladder, reproductive organs,
and rectum
Other Body Cavities
• Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the
digestive organs
• Nasal –located within and posterior to the
nose
• Orbital – house the eyes
• Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that
transmit sound vibrations
• Synovial – joint cavities
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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY & BODY SYSTEMS