Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5
The Relational Data
Model and Relational
Database Constraints
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Relational Model Concepts
Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations
Characteristics of Relations
Relational Model Notation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-3
Relational Model Constraints
and Relational Database
Schemas
 Domain Constraints
 Key Constraints and Constraints on Null Values
 Relational Databases and Relational Database
Schemas
 Entity Integrity, Referential Integrity, and Foreign
Keys
 Other Types of Constraints
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-4
Update Operations and
Dealing with Constraint
Violations
The Insert Operation
The Delete Operation
The Update Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-5
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-6
Chapter 6
The Relational Algebra
and Relational Calculus
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Unary Relational Operations:
SELECT and PROJECT
The SELECT Operation
The PROJECT Operation
Sequences of Operations and the RENAME
Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-8
Relational Algebra Operations
from Set Theory
The UNION, INTERSECTION, and
MINUS Operations
The CARTESIAN PRODUCT (or CROSS
PRODUCT) Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-9
Binary Relational Operations:
JOIN and DIVISION
The JOIN Operation
The EQUIJOIN and NATURAL JOIN
Variations of JOIN
A Complete Set of Relational Algebra
Operations
The DIVISION Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-10
Additional Relational
Operations
Aggregate Functions and Grouping
Recursive Closure Operations
OUTER JOIN Operations
The OUTER JOIN Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-11
Examples of Queries in
Relational Algebra
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-12
The Tuple Relational Calculus
 Tuple Variables and Range Relations
 Expressions and Formulas in Tuple Relational
Calculus
 The Existential and Universal Quantifiers
 Example Queries Using the Existential Quantifier
 Transforming the Universal and Existential
Quantifiers
 Using the Universal Quantifier
 Safe Expressions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-13
The Domain Relational
Calculus
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-14
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-15
Chapter 7
Relational Database
Design by ER- and EERto-Relational Mapping
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Relational Database Design
Using ER-to-Relational
Mapping
ER-to-Relational Mapping Algorithm
Discussion and Summary of Mapping for
Model Constructs
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-17
Mapping EER Model
Constructs to Relations
Mapping of Specialization of
Generalization
Mapping of Shared Subclasses (Multiple
Inheritance)
Mapping of Categories (Union Types)
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-18
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-19
Chapter 8
SQL-99: Schema
Definition, Basic
Constraints, and Queries
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
SQL Data Definition and Data
Types
Schema and Catalog Concepts in SQL
The CREATE TABLE Command in SQL
Attribute Data Types and Domains in SQL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-21
Specifying Basic Constraints
in SQL
Specifying Attribute Constraints and
Attribute Defaults
Specifying Key and Referential Integrity
Constraints
Giving Names to Constraints
Specifying Constraints on Tuples Using
CHECK
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-22
Schema Change Statements
in SQL
The DROP Command
The ALTER Command
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-23
Basic Queries in SQL
 The SELECT-FROM-WHERE Structure of Basic
SQL Queries
 Ambiguous Attribute Names, Aliasing, and Tuple
Variables
 Unspecified WHERE Clause and Use of the
Asterisk
 Tables as Sets in SQL
 Substring Pattern Matching and Arithmetic
Operators
 Ordering of Query Results
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-24
More Complex SQL Queries
 Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued
Logic
 Nested Queries, Tuples, and Set/Multiset
Comparisions
 Correlated Nested Queries
 The EXISTS and UNIQUE Functions in SQL
 Explicit Sets and Renaming of Attributes in SQL
 Joined Tables in SQL
 Aggregate Functions in SQL
 Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses
 Discussion and Summary of SQL Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-25
Insert, Delete, and Update
Statements in SQL
The INSERT Command
The DELETE Command
The UPDATE Command
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-26
Additional Features of SQL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-27
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-28
Chapter 9
More SQL: Assertions,
Views, and Programming
Techniques
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Specifying General
Constraints as Assertions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-30
Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL
Concept of a View in SQL
Specification of Views in SQL
View Implementation and View Update
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-31
Database Programming:
Issues and Techniques
Approaches to Database Programming
Impedence Mismatch
Typical Sequence of Interaction in Database
Programming
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-32
Embedded SQL, Dynamic
SQL, and SQLJ
 Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL
 Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL
Using Cursors
 Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic
SQL
 SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in JAVA
 Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using
Iterators
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-33
Database Programming with
Function Calls: SQL/CLI and
JDBC
Database Programming with SQL/CLI
Using C as the Host Language
JDBC: SQL Function Calls for JAVA
Programming
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-34
Database Stored Procedures
and SQL/PSM
Database Stored Procedures and Functions
SQL/PSM: Extending SQL for Specifying
Persistent Stored Modules
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-35
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-36
Chapter 10
Functional Dependencies
and Normalization for
Relational Databases
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Informal Design Guidelines for
Relation Schema
Semantics of the Relation Attributes
Redundant Information in Tuples and
Update Anomalies
Null Values in Tuples
Generation of Spurious Tuples
Summary and Discussion of Design
Guidelines
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-38
Functional Dependencies
Definition of Functional Dependency
Inference Rules for Functional
Dependencies
Equivalence of Sets of Functional
Dependencies
Minimal Sets of Functional Dependencies
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-39
Normal Forms Based on
Primary Keys
Normalization of Relations
Practical Use of Normal Forms
Definition of Keys and Attributes
Participating in Keys
First Normal Form
Second Normal Form
Third Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-40
General Definitions of Second
and Third Normal Forms
General Definition of Second Normal Form
General Definition of Third Normal Form
Interpreting the General Definition of Third
Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-41
Boyce-Codd Normal
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-42
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-43
Chapter 11
Relational Database
Design Algorithms and
Further Dependencies
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Properties of Relational
Decompositions
 Relation Decomposition and Insufficiency of
Normal Forms
 Dependency Preservation Property of a
Decomposition
 Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Property of a
Decomposition
 Testing Binary Decomposition for the Nonadditive
Join Property
 Successive Lossless (Nonadditive) Join
Decompositions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-45
Algorithms for Relational
Database Schema Design
 Dependency-Preserving Decomposition into 3NF
Schemas
 Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition into
BCNF Schemas
 Dependency-Preserving and Nonadditive
(Lossless) Join Decomposition into 3NF Schemas
 Problems with Null Values and Dangling Tuples
 Discussion of Normalization Algorithms
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-46
Multivalued Dependencies
and Fourth Normal Form
Formal Definition of Multivalued
Dependency
Inference Rules for Functional and
Multivalued Dependencies
Fourth Normal Form
Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition
into 4NF Relations
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-47
Join Dependencies and Fifth
Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-48
Inclusion Dependencies
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-49
Other Dependencies and
Normal Forms
Template Dependencies
Domain-Key Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-50
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-51
Chapter 12
Practical Database
Design Methodology and
Use of UML Diagrams
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Role of Information
Systems in Organizations
The Organizational Context for Using
Database Systems
The Information System Life Cycle
The Database Application System Life
Cycle
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-53
The Database Design and
Implementation Process
 Phase 1: Requirements Collection and Analysis
 Phase 2: Conceptual Database Design
 Phase 3: Choice of DBMS
 Phase 4: Data Model Mapping (Logical Database
Design)
 Phase 5: Physical Database Design
 Phase 6: Database System Implementation and
Tuning
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-54
Use of UML Diagrams as an
Aid to Database Design
Specification
UML As a Design Specification Standard
UML for Database Application Design
Different Diagrams in UML
A Modeling and Design Example:
University Database
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-55
Relational Rose, A UML
Based Design Tool
Relational Rose for Database Design
Relational Rose Data Modeler
Data Modeling Using Rational Rose Data
Modeler
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-56
Automated Database Design
Tools
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-57
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-58
Chapter 13
Disk Storage, Basic File
Structures, and Hashing
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Introduction
Memory Hierarchies and Storage Devices
Storage of Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-60
Secondary Storage Devices
Hardware Description of Disk Devices
Magnetic Tape Storage Devices
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-61
Buffering Blocks
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-62
Placing File Records on Disk
Records and Record Types
Files, Fixed-Length Records, and VariableLength Records
Record Blocking and Spanned Versus
Unspanned Records
Allocating File Blocks on Disk
File Headers
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-63
Operations on Files
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-64
Files of Unordered Records
(Heap Files)
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-65
Files of Ordered Records
(Sorted Files)
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-66
Hashing Techniques
Internal Hashing
External Hashing for Disk Files
Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic
File Expansion
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-67
Other Primary File
Organizations
Files of Mixed Records
B-Trees and Other Data Structures as
Primary Organization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-68
Parallelizing Disk Access
Using RAID Technology
Improving Reliability with RAID
Improving Performance with RAID
RAID Organizations and Levels
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-69
Storage Area Networks
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-70
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-71
Chapter 14
Indexing Structures for
Files
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Types of Single-Level Ordered
Indexes
Primary Indexes
Clustering Indexes
Secondary Indexes
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-73
Multilevel Indexes
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-74
Dynamic Multilevel Indexes
Using B-Trees and B+-Trees
Search Trees and B-Trees
B+-Trees
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-75
Indexes on Multiple Keys
Ordered Index on Multiple Attributes
Partitioned Hashing
Grid Files
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-76
Other Types of Indexes
Using Hashing and Other Data Structures as
Indexes
Logical versus Physical Indexes
Discussion
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-77
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-78
Chapter 15
Algorithms for Query
Processing and
Optimization
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Translating SQL Queries into
Relational Algebra
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-80
Algorithms for External Sorting
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-81
Algorithms for SELECT and
JOIN Operations
Implementing the SELECT Operation
Implementing the JOIN Operation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-82
Algorithms for PROJECT and
SET Operations
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-83
Implementing Aggregate
Operations and Outer Joins
Implementing Aggregate Operations
Implementing Outer Join
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-84
Combining Operations Using
Pipelining
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-85
Using Heuristics in Query
Optimization
Notation for Query Trees and Query Graphs
Heuristic Optimization of Query Trees
Converting Query Trees into Query
Execution Plans
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-86
Using Selectivity and Cost
Estimates in Query
Optimization
 Cost Components for Query Execution
 Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions
 Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT
 Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN
 Multiple Relation Queries and Join Ordering
 Examples to Illustrate Cost-Based Query
Optimization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-87
Overview of Query
Optimization in Oracle
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-88
Semantic Query Optimization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-89
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-90
Chapter 16
Practical Database
Design and Tuning
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Physical Database Design in
Relational Databases
Factors That Influence Physical Database
Design
Physical Database Design Decisions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-92
An Overview of Database
Tuning in Relational Systems
Tuning Indexes
Tuning the Database Design
Tuning Queries
Additional Query Tuning Guidelines
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-93
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-94
Chapter 17
Introduction to
Transaction Processing
Concepts and Theory
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Introduction to Transaction
Processing
Single-User Versus Multiuser Systems
Transactions, Read and Write Operations,
and DBMS Buffers
Why Concurrency Control Is Needed
Why Recovery Is Needed
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-96
Transaction and System
Concepts
Transaction States and Additional
Operations
The System Log
Commet Point of a Transaction
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-97
Desirable Properties of
Transactions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-98
Characterizing Schedules
Based on Recoverability
Schedules (Histories) of Transactions
Characterizing Schedules Base on
Recoverability
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-99
Characterizing Schedules
Based on Serializability
Serial, Nonserial, and Conflict-Serializable
Schedules
Testing for Conflict Serializability of a
Schedule
Uses of Serializability
View Equivalence and View Serializability
Other Types of Equivalence of Schedules
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-100
Transaction Support in SQL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-101
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-102
Chapter 18
Concurrency Control
Techniques
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Two-Phase Locking
Techniques for Concurrency
Control
Types of Locks and System Lock Tables
Guaranteeing Serializability by Two-Phase
Locking
Dealing with Deadlock and Starvation
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-104
Concurrency Control Based
on Timestamp Ordering
Timestamps
The Timestamp Ordering Algorithm
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-105
Multiversion Concurrency
Control Techniques
Multiversion Techniques Based on
Timestamp Ordering
Multiversion Two-Phase Locking Using
Certify Locks
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-106
Validation (Optimistic)
Concurrency Control
Techniques
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-107
Granularity of Data Items and
Multiple Granularity Locking
Granularity Level Considerations for
Locking
Multiple Granularity Level Locking
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-108
Using Locks for Concurrency
Control in Indexes
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-109
Other Concurrency Control
Issues
Insertion, Deletion, and Phantom Records
Interactive Transactions
Latches
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-110
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-111
Chapter 19
Database Recovery
Techniques
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Recovery Concepts
Recovery Outline and Categorization of
Recovery Algorithms
Caching (Buffering) of Disk Blocks
Write-Ahead Logging, Steal/No-Steal, and
Force/No-Force
Checkpoints in the System Log and Fuzzy
Checkpointing
Transaction Rollback
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-113
Recovery Techniques Based
on Deferred Update
Recovery Using Deferred Update in a
Single-User Environment
Deferred Update with Concurrent Execution
in a Multiuser Environment
Transaction Actions That Do Not Affect the
Database
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-114
Recovery Techniques Based
on Immediate Update
UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on
Immediate Update in a Single-User
Environment
UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on
Immediate Update with Concurrent
Execution
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-115
Shadow Paging
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-116
The ARIES Recovery
Algorithm
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-117
Recovery in Multidatabase
Systems
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-118
Database Backup and
Recovery from Catastrophic
Failures
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-119
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-120
Chapter 20
Concepts for Object
Databases
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Overview of Object-Oriented
Concepts
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-122
Object Identity, Object
Structure, and Type
Constructors
Object Identity
Object Structure
Type Constructors
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-123
Encapsulation of Operations,
Methods, and Persistence
Specifying Object Behavior via Class
Operations
Specifying Object Persistence via Naming
and Reachability
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-124
Type and Class Hierarchies
and Inheritance
Type Hierarchies and Inheritance
Constraints on Extents Corresponding to a
Type Hierarchy
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-125
Complex Objects
Unstructured Complex Objects and Type
Extensibility
Structured Complex Objects
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-126
Other Objected-Oriented
Concepts
Polymorphism (Operator Overloading)
Multiple Inheritance and Selective
Inheritance
Versions and Configurations
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-127
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-128
Chapter 21
Object Database
Standards, Languages,
and Design
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Overview of the Object Model
of ODMG
Objects and Literals
Built-in Interfaces for Collection Objects
Atomic (User-Defined) Objects
Interfaces, Classes, and Inheritance
Extents, Keys, and Factory Objects
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-130
The Object Definition
Language ODL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-131
The Object Query Language
OQL
Simple OQL Queries, Database Entry
Points, and Iterator Variables
Query Results and Path Expressions
Other Features of OQL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-132
Overview of the C++
Language Binding
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-133
Object Database Conceptual
Design
Differences Between Conceptual Design of
ODB and RDB
Mapping and EER Schema to an ODB
Schema
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-134
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-135
Chapter 22
Object-Relational and
Extended-Relational
Systems
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Overview of SQL and Its
Object-Relational Features
The SQL Standard and Its Components
Object-Relational Support in SQL-99
Some New Operations and Features in SQL
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-137
Evolution and Current Trends
of Database Technology
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-138
The Informix Universal Server
Extensible Data Types
Support for User-Defined Routines
Support for Inheritance
Support for Indexing Extensions
Support for External Data Sources
Support for Data Blades Application
Programming Interface
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-139
Object-Relational Features of
Oracle 8
Some Examples of Object-Relational
Features of Oracle
Managing Large Objects and Other Storage
Features
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-140
Implementation and Related
Issues for Extended Type
Systems
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-141
The Nested Relational Model
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-142
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-143
Chapter 23
Database Security and
Authorization
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Introduction to Database
Security Issues
Types of Security
Database Security and the DBA
Access Protection, User Accounts, and
Database Audits
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-145
Discretionary Access Control
Based on Granting and
Revoking Privileges
 Types of Discretionary Privileges
 Specifying Privileges Using Views
 Revoking Privileges
 Propogation of Privileges Using the GRANT
OPTION
 An Example
 Specifying Limits on Propagation of Privileges
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-146
Mandatory Access Control
and Role-Based Access
Control for Multilevel Security
Comparing Discretionary Access Control
and Mandatory Access Control
Role-Based Access Control
Access Control Policies for E-Commerce
and the Web
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-147
Introduction to Statistical
Database Security
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-148
Introduction to Flow Control
Covert Channels
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-149
Encryption and Public Key
Infrastructures
The Data and Advanced Encryption
Standards
Public Key Encryption
Digital Signatures
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-150
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-151
Chapter 24
Enhanced Data Models
for Advanced
Applications
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Active Database Concepts
and Triggers
Generalized Model for Active Databases
and Oracle Triggers
Design and Implementation Issues for
Active Databases
Examples of Statement-Level Active Rules
in STARBURST
Potential Applications for Active Databases
Triggers in SQL-99
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-153
Temporal Database Concepts
 Time Representation, Calendars, and Time
Dimensions
 Incorporating Time in Relational Databases Using
Tuple Versioning
 Incorporating Time in Object-Oriented Databases
Using Attribute Versioning
 Temporal Querying Constructs and the TSQL2
Language
 Time Series Data
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-154
Multimedia Databases
Introduction to Spatial Database Concepts
Introduction to Multimedia Database
Concepts
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-155
Introduction to Deductive
Databases
 Overview of Deductive Databases
 Prolog/Datalog Notation
 Datalog Notation
 Clausal Form and Horn Clauses
 Interpretation of Rules
 Datalog Programs and Their Safety
 Use the Relational Operations
 Evaluation of Nonrecursive Datalog Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-156
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-157
Chapter 25
Distributed Databases
and Client–Server
Architectures
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Distributed Database
Concepts
Parallel Versus Distributed Technology
Advantages of Distributed Databases
Additional Functions of Distributed
Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-159
Data Fragmentation,
Replication, and Allocation
Techniques for Distributed
Database Design
Data Fragmentation
Data Replication and Allocation
Example of Fragmentation, Allocation, and
Replication
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-160
Types of Distributed Database
Systems
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-161
Query Processing in
Distributed Databases
Data Transfer Costs of Distributed Query
Processing
Distributed Query Processing Using
Semijoin
Query and Update Decomposition
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-162
Overview of Concurrency
Control and Recovery in
Distributed Databases
Distributed Concurrency Control Based on
a Distinguished Copy of a Data Item
Distributed Concurrency Control Based on
Voting
Distributed Recovery
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-163
An Overview of 3-Tier ClientServer Architecture
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-164
Distributed Databases in
Oracle
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-165
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-166
Chapter 26
XML and Internet
Databases
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data
Model
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-168
XLM Documents, DTD, and
XML Schema
Well-Formed and Valid XML Documents
and XML DTD
XML Schema
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-169
XML Documents and
Databases
Approaches to Storing XML Documents
Extracting XML Documents from
Relational Databases
Breaking Cycles to Convert Graphs into
Trees
Other Steps for Extracting XML Documents
from Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-170
XML Query
XPath: Specifying Path Expressions in
XML
XQuery: Specifying Queries in XML
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-171
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-172
Chapter 27
Data Mining Concepts
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Overview of Data Mining
Technology
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-174
Association Rules
 Market-Basket Model, Support, and Confidence
 Apriori Algorithm
 Sampling Algorithm
 Frequent-Pattern Tree Algorithm
 Partition Algorithm
 Other Types of Association Rules
 Additional Considerations for Association Rules
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-175
Classification
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-176
Clustering
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-177
Approaches to Other Data
Mining Problems
Discovery of Sequential Patterns
Discovery of Patterns in Time Series
Regression
Neural Networks
Genetic Algorithm
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-178
Applications of Data Mining
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-179
Commercial Data Mining Tools
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-180
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-181
Chapter 28
Overview of Data
Warehousing and OLAP
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Introduction, Definitions, and
Terminology
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-183
Characteristics of Data
Warehouses
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-184
Data Modeling for Data
Warehouses
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-185
Building a Data Warehouse
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-186
Typical Functionality of a Data
Warehouse
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-187
Data Warehouse Versus
Views
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-188
Problems and Open Issues in
Data Warehouses
Difficulties of Implementing Data
Warehouses
Open Issues in Data Warehousing
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-189
Summary
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-190
Chapter 29
Emerging Database
Technologies and
Applications
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mobil Databases
Mobil Computing Architectures
Characteristics of Mobile Environments
Data Management Issues
Application: Intermittently Synchronized
Databases
Selected Bibliography for Mobil Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-192
Multimedia Databases
The Nature of Multimedia Data and
Applications
Data Management Issues
Open Research Problems
Multimedia Database Applications
Selected Bibliography on Multimedia
Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-193
Geographic Information
Systems
GIS Applications
Data Management Requirements lof GIS
Specific GIS Data Operations
An Example of a GIS Software: ARC-INFO
Problems and Future Issues in GIS
Selected Bibliography for GIS
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-194
Genome Data Management
Biological Sciences and Genetics
Characteristics of Biological Data
The Human Genome Project and Existing
Biological Databases
Selected Bibliography for Genome
Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slide 16-195
Appendix A
Alternative Diagrammatic
Notations for ER Models
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Appendix C
Parameters of Disks
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
Appendix D
Overview of the QBE
Language
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.
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