Poetic Forms
Poetry is written in closed or
open form.
Closed form poetry is
characterized by patterns:
verse, rhyme, meter and/or
syllable. The content fits into
the form.
Open form poetry is
characterized by the lack of
pattern. The content creates the
Open Form Poetry
Content determines the form of
the poem.
Punctuation, line breaks, and
white spaces become very
important in open form poetry.
“Free verse”
Concrete poems
Shaped poems
Free Verse
Cavalry Crossing a Ford
A line in long array where they wind betwixt green islands,
They take a serpentine course, their arms flash in the sun -- hark to the musical
Behold the silvery river, in it the splashing horses loitering stop to drink,
Behold the the brown-faced men, each group, each person a picture, the negligent
rest on the saddles.
Some emerge on the opposite bank, others are just entering the ford --while,
Scarlet and blue and snowy white,
The guidon flags flutter gayly in the wind.
Walt Whitman, 1865
Concrete Poems
Billy Eckles
 Words create picture
 More a visual than a
literary form
 Related to Pop Art
Roger McGough
Shaped Poems
Create a picture or visual pattern
Content is more important than
Content follows general
grammatical rules
Shape complements content of
Lord, Who createdst man in wealth and store,
Though foolishly he lost the same,
Decaying more and more,
Till he became
Most poore:
Easter Wings
by George Herbert
With Thee
O let me rise,
As larks, harmoniously,
And sing this day Thy victories:
Then shall the fall further the flight in me.
My tender age in sorrow did beginne;
And still with sicknesses and shame
Thou didst so punish sinne,
That I became
Most thinne.
With Thee
Let me combine,
And feel this day Thy victorie;
For, if I imp my wing on Thine,
Affliction shall advance the flight in me.
Above the
water hang the
O so
A pale signal will appear
Soon before its shadow fades
Here in this pool of opened eye
In us
No Upon us As at the very edges
of where we take shape in the dark air
this object bares its image awakening
ripples of recognition that will
brush darkness up into light
even after this bird this hour both drift by atop the perfect sad instant now
already passing out of sight
toward yet-untroubled reflection
this image bears its object darkening
into memorial shades Scattered bits of
No of water Or something across
Breaking up No Being regathered
Yet by then a swan will have
Yes out of mind into what
of a
sudden dark as
if a swan
Swan and Shadow
John Hollander
Closed Form Poems
Recognizable patterns
Patterns can be determined by:
o Stanza length
o Metrical pattern (ex: iambic
o Rhyme scheme
o Syllable count
 Japanese
 Syllabic poetry:
 17 syllables
o 1st line – 5 syllables
o 2nd line -- 7 syllables
o 3rd line -- 5 syllables
 Seasonal reference
 Implied identification
of perceiver (poet) with
perceived (subject)
Silent and still: then
Even sinking into rocks,
The cicada’s screech
Sleepless at Crown Point
All night this headland
Lunges into the rumpling
Capework of the wind
Richard Wilbur
Patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables
The basic unit of meter is a foot.
Most common feet in English poetry:
Metrical Lines
One foot
Two feet
Three feet
Four feet
Five feet
Six feet
Seven feet
Eight feet
2 line stanzas: couplets
3 line stanzas:
o tercets
o triplets: aaa bbb ccc ddd
o terza rima: aba bcb cdc ded
4 line stanzas: quatrains
5 line stanzas: quintets
6 line stanzas: sestets
7 line stanzas: septets
8 line stanzas: octaves
The Red Wheelbarrow
so much depends
a red wheel
glazed with rain
beside the white
William Carlos Williams
 5 line nonsense poem
 First line ends in
proper name of place
or person
 Rhyme: aabba
 Meter:
o 1st, 2nd and 5th
lines have 3
stressed beats
o 3rd and 4th lines
have 2 stressed
There WAS a young BELLE of old NATCHez
Whose GARments were ALways in PATCHez
When COMment aROSE
On the STATE of her CLOTHES
Ogden Nash
There WAS a young WOman named PLUNnery
Who reJOICED in the PRACtice of GUNnery
Till one DAY unobSERvant
She BLEW up a SERvant
And was FORCED to reTIRE to a NUNnery.
Edward Gorey
 English
 Narrative
 4 line stanzas
 Meter: Common Meter
o iambic tetrameter (4-stress lines)
alternating with
o iambic trimeter (3 stress lines)
 Rhyme
o abab or
o abcb
 Refrains: exact or incremental
Types of Ballads
o Anonymous
o Folk
o Propaganda
o Social Protest
o Romantic poets
Ballad Conventions
 Conversational language -- dialect
 Dialogue
 Traditional motifs:
o Problematic love affairs
o Supernatural seducers
o Death
o Raids and battles
o Murders
o Hauntings
o Shipwrecks
o Political protest
o Comical situations
Traditional Ballad
“Sir Patrick Spence”
THE king sits in Dumferling toune,
Drinking the blude-reid wine:
‘O whar will I get guid sailor,
To sail this schip of mine?’
Up and spak an eldern knicht,
Sat at the kings richt kne:
‘Sir Patrick Spence is the best sailor
That sails upon the se.
’ The king has written a braid letter,
And signd it wi his hand,
And sent it to Sir Patrick Spence,
Was walking on the sand.
The first line that Sir Patrick red,
A loud lauch lauched he;
The next line that Sir Patrick red,
The teir blinded his ee.
‘O wha is this has don this deid,
This ill deid don to me,
To send me out this time o’ the yeir,
To sail upon the se!
‘Mak hast, mak haste, my mirry men all,
Our guid schip sails the morne:’
‘O say na sae, my master deir,
For I feir a deadlie storme.
‘Late late yestreen I saw the new moone,
Wi the auld moone in hir arme,
And I feir, I feir, my deir master,
That we will cum to harme.’
O lang, lang may their ladies sit,
Wi thair fans into their hand,
O our Scots nables wer richt laith
Or eir they se Sir Patrick Spence
To weet their cork-heild schoone;
Cum sailing to the land
Bot lang owre a’ the play wer playd,
Their hats they swam aboone.
O lang, lang may the ladies stand,
Wi thair gold kems in their hair,
Waiting for thair ain deir lords,
For they’ll se thame na mair.
Haf owre, haf owre to Aberdour,
It’s fiftie fadom deip,
And thair lies guid Sir Patrick Spence,
Wi the Scots lords at his feit.
Dudley Randall “Ballad of Birmingham” (1969)
(On the bombing of a church in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963)
"Mother dear, may I go downtown
Instead of out to play,
And march the streets of Birmingham
In a Freedom March today?"
She has combed and brushed her night-dark hair,
And bathed rose petal sweet,
And drawn white gloves on her small brown hands,
And white shoes on her feet.
"No, baby, no, you may not go,
For the dogs are fierce and wild,
And clubs and hoses, guns and jails
Aren't good for a little child."
The mother smiled to know that her child
Was in the sacred place,
But that smile was the last smile
To come upon her face.
"But, mother, I won't be alone.
Other children will go with me,
And march the streets of Birmingham
To make our country free."
For when she heard the explosion,
Her eyes grew wet and wild.
She raced through the streets of Birmingham
Calling for her child.
“No, baby, no you may not go,
For I fear those guns will fire.
But you may go to church instead
And sing in the children's choir."
She clawed through bits of glass and brick,
Then lifted out a shoe.
"O, here's the shoe my baby wore,
But, baby, where are you?"
Literary Ballad
Sir Walter Scott, “Proud Maisie”
PROUD Maisie is in the wood,
Walking so early;
Sweet Robin sits on the bush,
Singing so rarely.
'Tell me, thou bonny bird,
When shall I marry me?‘
— 'When six braw gentlemen
Kirkward shall carry ye.'
'Who makes the bridal bed,
Birdie, say truly?'
—'The grey-headed sexton
That delves the grave duly.
'The glow-worm o'er grave and
Shall light thee steady;
The owl from the steeple sing
Welcome Proud Lady.’
Italian origin
14 lines
Iambic pentameter
Italian or Petrarchan
 Stanzas:
Octave -- presents
Sestet -resolution or
meditation upon
 Rhyme:
Octave -abbaabba
Sestet -- cdecde
or cdccdc or
cddcdd or variation
English or Shakespearean
3 Quatrains -present similar images
Heroic Couplet -pardoxical resolution
Quatrains -abab
Couplet --gg
Sonnet 90 by Francesco Petrarch
She used to let her golden hair fly free
For the wind to toy and tangle and molest;
Her eyes were brighter than the radiant west.
(Seldom they shine so now.) I used to see
Pity look out of those deep eyes on me.
("It was false pity," you would now protest.)
I had love's tinder heaped within my breast:
What wonder that the flame burned furiously?
She did not walk in any mortal way,
But with angelic progress; when she spoke,
Unearthly voices sang in unison.
She seemed divine among the dreary folk
Of earth. You say she is not so today?
Well, though the bow's unbent, the wound bleeds on.
Translated by Maurice Bishop
XVIII by William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
French origin
Originated with round dance
Stanzas and Rhyme
o 5 tercets: aba aba aba aba aba
o 1 quatrain: abaa
Line Repetition
o 1, 6, 12, 18
o 3, 9, 15, 19
I shut my eyes and all the world drops dead;
I lift my lids and all is born again.
(I think I made you up inside my head.)
Mad Girl's
Love Song
Sylvia Plath
The stars go waltzing out in blue and red,
And arbitrary darkness gallops in:
I shut my eyes and all the world drops dead.
I dreamed that you bewitched me into bed
And sung me moon-struck, kissed me quite insane.
(I think I made you up inside my head.)
God topples from the sky, hell's fires fade:
Exit seraphim and Satan's men:
I shut my eyes and all the world drops dead.
I fancied you'd return the way you said.
But I grow old and I forget your name.
(I think I made you up inside my head.)
I should have loved a thunderbird instead;
At least when spring comes they roar back again.
I shut my eyes and all the world drops dead.
(I think I made you up inside my head.)
 French origin
 Stanzas:
o 6 sestets
o 1 tercet: an envoi
 Repetition and linking of talons:
o a/b/c/d/e/f
o f/a/e/b/d/c
o c/f/d/a/b/e
o e/c/b/f/a/d
o d/e/a/c/f/b
o b/d/f/e/c/a
o ba/dc/fe
 Atmosphere ranges from cozy to claustrophobic
"Sestina d'Inverno" by Anthony Hecht
Here in this bleak city of Rochester,
Where there are twenty-seven words for "snow,"
Not all of them polite, the wayward mind
Basks in some Yucatan of its own making,
Some coppery, sleek lagoon, or cinnamon island
Alive with lemon tints and burnished natives,
And O that we were there. But here the natives
Of this grey, sunless city of Rochester
Have sown whole mines of salt about their land
(Bare ruined Carthage that it is) while snow
Comes down as if The Flood were in the making.
Yet on that ocean Marvell called the mind
An ark sets forth which is itself the mind,
Bound for some pungent green, some shore whose
Blend coriander, cayenne, mint in making
Roasts that would gladden the Earl of Rochester
With sinfulness, and melt a polar snow.
It might be well to remember that an island
Was blessed heaven once, more than an island
The grand, utopian dream of a noble mind.
In that kind climate the mere thought of snow
Was but a wedding cake; the youthful natives,
Unable to conceive of Rochester,
Made love, and were acrobatic in the making.
Dream as we may, there is far more to making
Do than some wistful reverie of an island,
Especially now when hope lies with the Rochester
Gas and Electric Co., which doesn't mind
Such profitable weather, while the natives
Sink, like Pompeians, under a world of snow.
The one thing indisputable here is snow,
The single verity of heaven's making,
Deeply indifferent to the dreams of the natives,
And the torn hoarding-posters of some island.
Under our igloo skies the frozen mind
Holds to one truth: it is grey, and called Rochester.
No island fantasy survives Rochester,
Where to the natives destiny is snow
That is neither to our mind nor of our making.
Sitting at her table, she serves
the sopa de arroz to me
instinctively, and I watch her,
the absolute mama, and eat words
I might have had to say more
out of embarrassment. To speak,
now-foreign words I used to speak,
too, dribble down her mouth as she serves
me albondigas. No more
than a third are easy to me.
By the stove she does something with words
and looks at me only with her
back. I am full. I tell her
I taste the mint, and watch her speak
smiles at the stove. All my words
make her smile. Nani never serves
herself, she only watches me
with her skin, her hair. I ask for more.
Nani by Alberto Rios
I watch the mama warming more
tortillas for me. I watch her
fingers in the flame for me.
Near her mouth, I see a wrinkle speak
of a man whose body serves
the ants like she serves me, then more words
from more wrinkles about children, words
about this and that, flowing more
easily from these other mouths. Each serves
as a tremendous string around her,
holding her together. They speak
nani was this and that to me
and I wonder just how much of me
will die with her, what were the words
I could have been, was. Her insides speak
through a hundred wrinkles, now, more
than she can bear, steel around her,
shouting, then, What is this thing she serves?
She asks me if I want more.
I own no words to stop her.
Even before I speak, she serves.

Poetic Forms