Latin American Law
Law of the “Indies”
(colonial heritage)
Last updated 03 Oct 11
Spanish pedigree
250BC – 710AD
Customary
law
Fuero
juzgo
Moorish
law
Visigoth
law
Roman
law
Alhambra
Spanish pedigree
710AD – 1492AD
Customary
law
Fuero
Real
Encomienda
Moorish
law
Corpus
Juris
Civilis
Fueros
Siete
Partidas
Canon
law
Why study colonial law?
“Despite the new constitutions
and codes that followed
independence, general attitudes
towards law continue to be
conditioned by the colonial
heritage … bureaucratic
confusion, administrative delay,
mistrust of government officials,
and disrespect for law.”
Keith S. Rosenn
(Univ of Miami)
What is colonial law
in Latin America?
New
Spain
Recopilacion
(1567, 1680, 1805)
Nueva
Granada
Peru
Rio de la
Plata
Council of the Indies (1614)
• Viceroys
• Captains general
• Audiencias (judges)
• “The Church”
• Corregidor
• Cabildos (?)
Minister of the Indies (1714)
The Viceroy
Francisco de Toledo
(1569-1581)
Why does LatAm call
for strong leaders?
“I obey but do
not execute”
Real y Supremo
Consejo de las Indias
The modern administrative state?
Spanish colonial law …
Sources of public law
“royal authority”
New
Recompilation
(1567)
Recompilation
(1680)
(9 books / recompiles
400,000 cedulas)
Book I
Book II
Newest
Recompilation
Religious affairs
(1805)
Consejo o Junta de Guerra de Indias, Indies
Council, Audiencias, Cancillerias, Juzgados,
Orden de prelacion de la legislacion.
Book III
Virreyes, Capitanes Generales
Leyes
Book IV
Discoveries, Mines, Cabildos
Alcaldes, Pleitos
de Book
ToroV Ord.Corregidores,
De
Book VI
Indios, encomiendas
Book VII Alcala
Delitos y Penas, “Felonies and punishment”
Book VIII
Taxes andFueros
contributions
reales
Book IX
Casa de Contratacion
Fuero
Juzgo
Sources of private law
“hodge-podge”
Siete
How
did Spain claim
partidas
indigenous lands?
Ordenamiento de Alcala
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Accursius glosses
Bortolus commentaries
Canon law
Custom
Opinion of doctors
Reason (natural law)
Roman law
Royal fuero
Siete partidas
Royal fuero
Siete partidas
Custom
if reason
if sin
Roman law
Canon law
Accursius
Bortolus
Alcalá de Henares
Opinions
What did lawyers study?
(what language?)
Corpus Juris Civilis
Imperialium
institutionum
Commentarius
(Vinnius)
Siete partidas
Derecho patrio
Why no self-government?
(peninsulares vs. creoles)
Law's failure in Latin America is the
standard background for projects of law
reform over the past half century.
They measure shortcomings based on
legal constructs often incommensurate
with local arrangements.
As a result, no amount of simple law
reform can undo such a constant and
irrepressible image of failure.
Prof. Jorge Esquirol
Florida Int’l – College of Law
Viewed this way, Latin America's failed
law … denies much of any value to
existing law anywhere in the region.
Consequently, this failed law formula for
reform is a harmful device.
Taryn Kadar
… the colonies in general owe little
or nothing to any care of ours, and
that they are not squeezed into
this happy form by the constraints
of watchful and suspicious
government, but that, through a
wise and salutary neglect, a
generous nature has been
suffered to take her own way to
perfection …
Edmund Burke
House of Commons (1775)
Sam Wellborn
Relevance of
Napoleon?
Portuguese colonial law …
No compilations
of public law!
Ordenacoes
• Alfonsinas (1446)
• Manuelinas (1521)
• Filipinas (1603)
San
Paolo
Treaty of
Tordesillas
(1494)
Brazilian Civil Code (1917)
End
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico ~ US Constitution?
"Sometimes it is said that man cannot be
trusted with the government of himself. Can
he, then, be trusted with the government of
others? … History will answer the
question."
Thomas Jefferson
1st Inaugural, 1801
The Iberian conquest fostered a common legal
experience in Latin America.
This heritage, however, was tainted by
• an ineffective and self-serving administration
characterized by over-regulation and undercompliance,
• which left a legacy of administrative stagnation,
bureaucratic confusion, institutional mistrust, and
disrespect for the law
• that continues to condition general responses and
attitudes towards the law throughout Latin
America.
Descargar

Foreign Law in US Courts