10th American History Unit VI- US Cultural History The Roaring 20’s Part 1 - 1920’s Post War Reaction Post World War I and the Red Scare Allied Intervention into Russia • • The British, French and Americans four-fold goal: – (1) prevent Japan from creating an empire in the East, – (2) prevent massive Allied stores originally sent to the tsarist armies from falling into German and subsequently Bolshevik hands, – (3) assist the White Armies in overthrowing the Bolshevik regime and bring Russia under Lenin back into the war against Germany, – (4) rescue the Czechoslovak Legion trapped in central Asia so that they could rejoin the war against Germany. From 1918 on, Soviet propagandists skillfully exploited the raw fact of Allied presence on Russian soil. The scale of Allied operations was trivial, as their combat losses show. The British in particular provided military equipment to the Whites, but soon abandoned their Russian friends to their fate. Labor Problems in the 20’s • Monopolies continued in spite of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Social problems flourished in the U.S. During the 1910s labor unions continued to grow as the middle classes became more and more unhappy. Unsafe working conditions were underscored by the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in which 145 female workers were killed. • Prices were soaring, wages and benefits were not. Some 4 million workers went on strike costing about $2 billion in lost sales. • Public, government and courts did not support strikes. • Strikes often turned violent and union membership fell. Urban Riots • 1919-These race riots were the product of white society’s desire to maintain its superiority over Blacks, vent its frustrations in times of distress, and attack those least able to defend themselves. • This was the year of the "Red Summer," with 26 race riots between the months of April and October. More than one hundred Blacks were killed in these riots, and thousands were wounded and left homeless. • These included disturbances in the following areas: – May 10 Charleston, South Carolina; July 13 Gregg and Longview counties, Texas; July 1923 Washington, D. C. ; July 27 Chicago; October 1-3 Elaine, Arkansas. • Lynchings. Seventy-six black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1919. • 1. In each of the race riots, with few exceptions, it was white people that sparked the incident by attacking Black people. • 2. In the majority of the riots, some extraordinary social condition prevailed at the time of the riot: prewar social changes, wartime mobility, post-war adjustment, or economic depression. • 3. The majority of the riots occurred during the hot summer months. • 4. Rumor played an extremely important role in causing many riots. Rumors of some criminal activity by Blacks against whites perpetuated the actions of white mobs. • 5. The police force, more than any other institution, was invariably involved as a precipitating cause or perpetuating factor in the riots. In almost every one of the riots, the police sided with the attackers, either by actually participating in, or by failing to quell the attack. • 6. In almost every instance, the fighting occurred within the Black community. Bomb Scares • In addition to workers' strikes, bomb threats also fueled the Red Scare- probably scattered act of misguided terrorists. • In April of 1919, a United States Senator from Georgia, Thomas Hartwick, received a package which exploded when his maid opened it. Thanks to an observant New York City mail clerk, similar packages were discovered before they reached their targets. • In all, authorities found sixteen homemade bombs wrapped up and addressed to such prominent members of commerce and government as J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Although there was no evidence, many claimed this was part of a radical, Bolshevik conspiracy to take over the nation. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer was one of the targets of an attempted bombing, which made him a convert to the Red Scare. • The worst bombing was on Sept. 16, 1920 in Wall street where 38 people were killed and hundreds wounded. • Palmer made use of the wartime Sedition Act (1918) to arrest and prosecute socalled "radicals." (Bolsheviks, Anarchists, terrorists, and foreigners .) On 7th November, 1919, the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution, over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested and 247 other people, were deported to Russia. These raids took place in several cities and became known as the Palmer Raids. A. Mitchell Palmer and the Red Scare • In 1919 Wilson appointed Palmer as his attorney general. • Worried by the revolution that had taken place in Russia, Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American government. His view was reinforced by the discovery of thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians and the Italian anarchist who blew himself up outside Palmer's Washington home. • Palmer recruited John Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations. • When the May revolution failed to materialize, attitudes towards Palmer began to change and he was criticised for disregarding people's basic civil liberties. Some of his opponents claimed that Palmer had devised this Red Scare to help him become the Democratic presidential candidate in 1920. Fear of Foreigners and Nativism • The Immigration Restriction League – – – • Founded in 1894 by a group of Boston lawyers, professors, and philanthropists who were alarmed by the large number of immigrants entering America each year. Lobbied for a literacy test for immigrants- 1917 over Wilson’s veto. This would discriminate against Eastern and Southern European immigrants, whom the league felt inferior. The First Quota Law-May 19, 1921, – limited the annual number of immigrants to 3% of the number of foreign-born persons of most nationalities living in the USA in 1910. • National Origins Act 1924- only 150,000 immigrants a year. – set immigration quotas based on national origins that openly discriminated against southern and eastern Europeans. For example, the law permitted 65,721 immigrants from Great Britain annually, but only 5,802 from Italy and 2,712 from the Soviet Union. Asians were almost completely excluded. KKK and the Immigration Restriction • The second Ku Klux Klan (KKK) sought to reverse the changes in gender and sexual norms. • The KKK worked to elevate white Protestant men and women while blaming the demise of America's moral standards on Catholics, Jews, and people of color. "pure Americanism." • As a result of pressure from western states and nativist organizations, the federal government enacted laws that specifically targeted Asian immigrants, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 and the "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan in 1907. Literacy Tests. Immigration Act of 1924 (Quotas) • KKK hatred of Blacks, Jews, Catholics, Flappers and Immigrants. It established one of the largest social movements of the 20th century, enrolling nearly five million of ordinary, "respectable," middle-class Americans Sacco and Vanzetti • It was a bold and outrageous pair of murders. Three o'clock in the afternoon - in broad daylight - two armed men shot and killed a paymaster and his guard. Seven shots in all were fired. The killers picked up the two boxes containing almost $16,000, leaped into a car containing several other men, a car that had pulled up with precise timing, and sped away. The whole audacious enterprise had taken less than a minute. • Retrospect, the evidence against them seems slim, and certainly the question of reasonable doubt is raised. • Arguments supporting their innocence are indirect, but important. What happened to the $16,000? Who were the other three criminals? How can one explain the variety of bullets taken from the victims that do not match Sacco's gun? Why did the accused show no change in their behavior? Why were the members of the Morelli gang not questioned? • Anarchists and Immigrants. Prohibition • Prohibition in the United States was a measure designed to reduce drinking by eliminating the businesses that manufactured, distributed, and sold alcoholic beverages. • The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution took away license to do business from the brewers, distillers, vintners, and the wholesale and retail sellers of alcoholic beverages. • The leaders of the prohibition movement were alarmed at the drinking behavior of Americans, and they were concerned that there was a culture of drink among some sectors of the population that, with continuing immigration from Europe, was spreading. Anti Saloon League, Scientific Temperance Federation, World League Against Alcoholism, and Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Prohibition - Problems Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant. St. Valentines Day Massacre No measurable gains were made in productivity or reduced absenteeism. Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to opium, marijuana, patent medicines, cocaine, and other dangerous substances that they would have been unlikely to encounter in the absence of Prohibition. Eliot Ness Prohibition • • • • • • Speakeasies were actually illegal "nightclubs." They were created during the 20's when prohibition was lurking about and alcohol was ruled illegal. They were usually opened late at night and served a playing field for the rebels that wanted to dance the night away and drink alcohol. They would usually have code words for people to get into and would be run by the local cop on the street. The Cotton Club in Harlem, New York was the most famous of these speakeasies. They were a place where the prosperous could party, local cops could make a little extra cash. In the speakeasies, discrimination was a problem. Womens Suffrage- 19th Amendment – Why We Don't Want Men to Vote Because man's place is in the army. Because no really manly man wants to settle any question otherwise than by fighting about it. Because if men should adopt peaceable methods women will no longer look up to them. Because men will lose their charm if they step out of their natural sphere and interest themselves in other matters than feats of arms, uniforms, and drums. Because men are too emotional to vote. Their conduct at baseball games and political conventions shows this, while their innate tendency to appeal to force renders them unfit for government. Womens Suffrage- 19th Amendment • 1920 Henry Burn casts the deciding vote that makes Tennessee the thirty-sixth, and final state, to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment. August 26: The Nineteenth Amendment is adopted and the women of the United States are finally enfranchised. • 19th Amendment • “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” Part 2 - 1920’s The Roaring 20’s Thanks to Henry Ford and mass production, one could buy a car for $290. This was a period of prohibition and intolerance, speakeasies, flappers, gangsters, and crime. This brought about much of the flavor of the Jazz Age or Roaring Twenties as we know them. The 19th Amendment had passed the previous year allowing women the right to vote in national elections. Technology grew - the country shrunk - as popularity of automobiles, radios, and movies exploded. In the fall of 1929, the New York Stock Exchange was more active than it had ever been. By October 24, 1929, Black Thursday, the stock market crashed and panic broke out. The Roaring 20’s "Old" Culture "New" Culture Emphasized Production Character Scarcity Religion Idealized the Past Local Culture Substance Emphasized Consumption Personality Abundunce Science Looked to the Future Mass Culture Image Life in the Jazz Age - Automobile As the end of the decade neared, Ford and Chevrolet locked horns in a fierce pricing battle that continued through the Thirties. Other automakers, such as Cadillac, Packard, and Chrysler, began to have an impact on the market. Virtually every household in America owned an automobile, and it quickly became an integrated part of American life. Parents would drive to work in their automobiles. Families could visit friends and family who lived farther away. And young people found a whole new way to have fun. Entertainment and recreation as well as work. A wide variety of new industries were spawned- petroleum, manufacturing, road construction, etc. Automobile Production Motor Vehicle Production (Thousands) Year United States CanadaFrance United Kingdom Germany 1907 45 3 25 12 4 0 0 0 1913 485 15 45 34 14 2 0 0 1924 3504 135 145 133 18 35 2 0 1928 4359 242 210 212 90 55 13 1 1935 3971 173 165 404 240 44 10 97 The Radio • Most radio historians assert that radio broadcasting began in 1920 with the historic broadcast of KDKA • Radio became a product of the mass market • Between 1923 and 1930, 60 percent of American families purchased radios. Families gathered around their radios for night-time entertainment • Radio stations broadcast things like popular music, classical music, sporting events, lectures, fictional stories, newscasts, weather reports, market updates, and political commentary. • The Federal Radio Commission was set up in 1926; the Radio Act of 1927 organized the Federal Radio Commission. • Crystal radios, like the one at left, were among the first radios to be used and manufactured. The Phonograph • The phonograph or Victrola was developed as a result of Thomas Edison's work on two other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone. • Uses of the Phonograph- according to Edison – – – – – – – – – – – Letter writing dictation Phonographic books, The teaching of elocution. Reproduction of music. The "Family Record"--a registry of sayings, reminiscences, etc., by members of a family in their own voices, and of the last words of dying persons. Music-boxes and toys. Clocks The preservation of languages Educational purposes. Connection with the telephone 1920’s Movies Janet Gaynor Fairbanks and Pickford • Rudolph Valentino Buster Keaton- The Great Stone Face Charlie Chaplin Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years. Most US film production at the start of the decade occurred in or near Hollywood on the West Coast, although some films were still being made in New Jersey and in Astoria on Long Island (Paramount). By the mid20s, movies were big business (with a capital investment totaling over $2 billion) with some theatres offering double features. By the end of the decade, there were 20 Hollywood studios, and the demand for films was greater than ever. Most people are unaware that the greatest output of feature films in the US occurred in the 1920s and 1930s (averaging about 800 film releases in a year) - nowadays, it is remarkable when production exceeds 500 films in a year. Throughout most of the decade, silent films were the predominant product of the film industry, having evolved from vaudevillian roots. But the films were becoming bigger, costlier, and more polished. They were being manufactured, assembly-line style, in Hollywood's 'entertainment factories,' in which production was broken down and organized into its various components (writing, costuming, makeup, directing, etc.). The major emphasis was on swashbucklers, historical extravaganzas, and melodramas, although all kinds of films were being produced throughout the decade. Films varied from sexy melodramas and biblical epics by Cecil B. DeMille, to westerns (such as Cruze's The Covered Wagon (1923)), horror films, gangster/crime films, war films, the first feature documentary (Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North (1922)), romances, mysteries, and comedies (from the silent comic masters Chaplin, Keaton, and Lloyd). Refrigerators • Two of the first home refrigerators both appeared in Fort Wayne, Indiana, where, in 1911, General Electric company unveiled a unit invented by a French monk. In 1915 the first "Guardian" refrigerator - a predecessor of the Frigidaire - was assembled in a wash house in a Fort Wayne backyard. • Kelvinator and Servel models were among some two dozen home refrigerators introduced to the U.S. market in 1916. In 1920 the number had increased to more than 200. Compressors were generally driven by belts attached to motors located in the basement or in an adjoining room. • In 1918 Kelvinator introduced the first refrigerator with any type of automatic control. One manufacturer's 1922 model had a wooden cabinet, a water-cooled compressor, two ice cube trays and nine cubic feet of storage space. It cost $714. In 1923 Frigidaire introduced the first selfcontained unit. Steel and porcelain cabinets began appearing in the mid-20s. Washing machines • In 1922 The Maytag Company introduced a system of forcing water through the clothes by means of an agitator rather than dragging the clothes through the water. This system is most commonly used now. • Even as early as 1875 there had been more than 2,000 patents issued for various washing devices. Not every idea worked, of course. One company built a machine designed to wash only one item at a time. • What may have been the first "laundromat" was opened in 1851 by a gold miner and a carpenter in California. Their 12-shirt machine was powered by 10 donkeys. • Earliest washers were hand powered by means of a wheel, pump handle or similar device. One, was driven by twisted ropes which powered the washer by "unwinding" somewhat like the use of a rubber band to power model airplanes. One washer contained rollers which were pushed back and forth by hand to squeeze out dirt. Several featured "stomping" devices and one - called a "Locamotive" was moved rapidly back and forth on a track washing the clothes by slamming them against the walls of the tub. Vacuum Cleaners • In 1907 an American named James Murray Spangler, who was working as a cleaner, Designed the first small electric cleaner. he sold the patent to a harness maker named Hoover. By the 1920's Bothe started to produce his own range of electric cleaners under the Goblin name. He had 2500 door to door sales representative's in England selling mainly under hire purchase. Both the Hoover and the Goblin range were very successful and are still operating today selling machines that have not changed much in basic design since their first prototype. • In 1908 Hoover introduced the Model O vacuum, the first to use both a cloth filter bag and cleaning attachments. The machine weighed only 40 lbs. • Hoover developed positive agitation in 1926, and this greatly increased the dirt removal efficiency of the vacuum. The Model 700 featured a rigid beater bar which was used in combination with the brush on the agitator to dislodge dirt from the carpet. Bonnie and Clyde • Clyde Champion Barrow and his companion, Bonnie Parker, were shot to death by officers in an ambush near Sailes, Bienville Parish, Louisiana, on May 23, 1934, after one of the most colorful and spectacular manhunts the Nation had seen up to that time. • Barrow was suspected of numerous killings and was wanted for murder, robbery, and state charges of kidnapping. • At the time they were killed in 1934, they were believed to have committed 13 murders and several robberies and burglaries. Barrow, for example, was suspected of murdering two police officers at Joplin, Missouri, and kidnaping a man and a woman in rural Louisiana. • Numerous sightings followed, linking this pair with bank robberies and automobile thefts. Clyde allegedly murdered a man at Hillsboro, Texas; committed robberies at Lufkin and Dallas, Texas; murdered one sheriff and wounded another at Stringtown, Oklahoma; kidnaped a deputy at Carlsbad, New Mexico; stole an automobile at Victoria, Texas; attempted to murder a deputy at Wharton, Texas; committed murder and robbery at Abilene and Sherman, Texas; committed murder at Dallas, Texas; abducted a sheriff and the chief of police at Wellington, Texas; and committed murder at Joplin and Columbia, Missouri. Some day they will go down together, And they will bury them side by side, To a few it means grief, To the law it's relief, But it's death to Bonnie and Clyde. Scopes Trial • THE CAST: • Clarence Darrow,famed and brilliant lawyer specializing in defending underdogs, who volunteered for this case to help combat fundamentalist ignorance • John T. Scopes, a 24-year old science teacher and football coach v.s. • William Jennings Bryan, famed orator, fundamentalist and presidential candidate. • The world's attention was riveted on Dayton, Tennessee, during July, 1925. At issue was the constitutionality of the "Butler Law," which prohibited the teaching of evolution in the classroom. Oklahoma, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina and Kentucky already had such laws. • The ACLU hoped to use the Scopes case to test (and defeat)Fundamentalist meddling in politics. Judge John Raulston began the trial by reading the first 27 verses of Genesis. • Clarence Darrow said: "Science gets to the end of its knowledge and, in effect, says, 'I do not know what I do not know,' and keeps on searching. Religion gets to the end of its knowledge, and in effect, says, 'I know what I do not know,' and stops searching. Darrow Bryan Charles Lindbergh • Lindbergh Does It! To Paris in 33 1/2 Hours; Flies 1,000 Miles Through Snow and Sleet; Cheering French Carry Him Off Field New York Times, May 21, 1927 • Lindbergh, Charles Augustus (1902-1974), an American aviator, made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20-21, 1927. Other pilots had crossed the Atlantic before him. But Lindbergh was the first person to do it alone nonstop. • Lindbergh's feat gained him immediate, international fame. The press named him "Lucky Lindy" and the "Lone Eagle." Americans and Europeans idolized the shy, slim young man and showered him with honors. • Before Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, Lindbergh campaigned against voluntary American involvement in World War II. Many Americans criticized him for his noninvolvement beliefs. After the war, he avoided publicity until the late 1960's, when he spoke out for the conservation of natural resources. Lindbergh served as an adviser in the aviation industry from the days of wood and wire airplanes to Flappers • The flapper was "modern." • Lively and full of energy, she was single but eligible. • With short hair and a short skirt, with turned-down hose and powdered knees the flapper must have seemed to her mother (the gentle Gibson girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel. • No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen • These young women further blurred the boundaries between respectable and depraved by their public activities; swearing, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, dancing, and dating were among her pastimes. Slang • ankle: to walk, i.e.. "Let's ankle!” • apple sauce: flattery, nonsense, i.e.. "Aw, applesauce!” • beeswax: business, i.e. "None of your beeswax." Student. • Tin Pan Alley: the music industry in New York, located between 48th and 52nd Streets • palooka: (1) a below-average or average boxer (2) a social outsider, from the comic strip character Joe Palooka, who came from humble ethnic roots • killjoy: a solemn person • Bee's Knees - An extraordinary person, thing, idea; the ultimate. • Cat's Meow - Something splendid or stylish; similar to bee's knees; The best or greatest, wonderful. Cat's Pajamas - Same as cat's meow. • Heebie-Jeebies - The jitters. • Sheba - A woman with sex appeal (from the move Queen of Sheba) or (e.g. Clara Bow). Sheik - A man with sex appeal (from the Valentino movies). • Spiffy - An elegant appearance. • Swell - Wonderful. Also: a rich man. Take for a Ride - To drive off with someone in order to bump them off. Torpedo - A hired gun. The Jazz Age • Nothing quite like it had ever happened before in America. And by the mid-1920s, jazz was being played in dance halls and roadhouses and speakeasies all over the country. The blues, which had once been the product of itinerant black musicians, the poorest of the southern poor, had become an industry, and dancing consumed a country that seemed convinced prosperity would never end. • Dances like the Lindy Hop, Charleston, Shimmy, Blackbottom, the Break-a-way, Texas Tommy, Cake Walk, Turkey Trot, Grizzley Bear, and Apache Dance. 1920’s Fads • His name was Alvin Kelly but he was best known as "Shipwreck" Kelly. Employed as a professional stuntman in Hollywood, Kelly decided to attempt to sit on a flagpole in response to a dare from a Hollywood friend. He sat upon the pole for 13 hours and 13 minutes and began a national spectacle. • Kelly's stunt occurred in 1924 and within weeks hundreds of people were trying to call themselves the "King of the Pole." One man sat for 12 days, another for 17 and another for 21 days. Public fascination was phenomenal as huge crowds would gather to watch the participant. With such a large audience, the publicity-hungry Kelly decided that he must once again be King. In Atlantic City, New Jersey, Kelly sat atop a flagpole for a record 49 days in front of an audience of 20,000 admirers. 1920’s Fads • In the early 1930s, during the height of The Depression, young people across America gathered to participate in Dance Marathons. These endurance contests offered the unemployed hopes of temporary fame, small fortune, and the opportunity to dance their cares away. Prizes ranged anywhere between $1000 to $5000, but many contestants participated solely for the promise of food and shelter. Serious competitors danced for days, even weeks at a time. The record stands at 5,148 hours and 28.5 minutes. The contestants were usually allowed a mere 15 minutes of rest for every hour of dancing. Success came to those who had the ability to keep their partner moving at all times; style was irrelevant. • Hot toys included the erector set, tinker toys, and lincoln logs. The Ouija Board became popular. Sales of this game soared. Up until 1922, no swimmer, male or female, had been able to swim the 100 meters in under a minute's time. American Johnny Weissmuller (1904 - 1984), an exception to the record books, broke the record with 58.6 seconds swimming freestyle on July 9. This, however, was not Weissmuller's only feat. He went on to win three gold medals at the 1924 Olympics in Paris, France, and two gold medals at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam. In his career, he claimed 52 U.S. titles and 28 world distance records. 1st “Tarzan” in the movies. 1920’s Sports Gertrude Ederle (1906 - ), who was born on October 23, 1906, was a superb swimmer. Not only did she win three Olympic medallions and break several records, but to top it all off, she went on to become the first woman to swim across the English Channel. When she swam the 21 miles on August 6, 1926, Ederle was only nineteen. Her time: 14 hours and 31 minutes good enough to beat the previously set men's record. George Herman Ruth (1895 - 1948), often known to his fans as Babe Ruth, hit a total of 60 home runs in 1927. This recordbreaker would remain a record itself until 1961, when Roger Eugene Maris (1934 - 85) hit 61 home runs. Babe Ruth, who earned more than $2 million in his career, was known by several other names as well. These included: the Bambino, the Behemoth of Bust, the Blunderbuss, the Colossus of Clout, the Mammoth of Maul, the Mauling Mastodon, the Mauling Monarch, the Prince of Powders, the Rajah of Rap, the Sultan of Swat, and the Wazir of Wham. Among all of his other accomplishments, this southpaw pitcher was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936. • 1920’s Sports • Legendary Notre Dame Football coach Knute Rockne in 1924 featured one of the greatest backfields in college football history. They were Harry Stuhldreher, Jim Crowley, Don Miller and Elmer Layden. They got their nickname the four horseman by sports writer Grantland Rice who compared them to those of biblical fame. " Outlined against a blue-gray October sky the four horseman rode again” • Red Grange became a household name when he scored 5 touchdowns against Michigan. However his biggest accomplishment was probably establishing the pro game. Up to that point the NFL was in the same category as monster truck shows are today. Well that changed when Red Grange decided to go pro after his final college game. “Galloping Ghost” • Jack Dempsey was not just the greatest heavyweight of the decade but usually makes anyone short list for the best of alltime. He was a fierce fighter and usually awarded boxing fans with exciting fights. This made him very popular figure of the day, along with Babe Ruth he was probably the most well known sportsmen of his time. He also took par in one of the most famous fights in boxing history " The Long Count fight Man O’ War The four Horsemen Red Grange Like Babe Ruth is to baseball so is Man O' War is to horse racing. The horse they called Big Red burst onto the scene as a two year old and would win 20 of 21 races. As a three-yearold he did not lose when he did race he often gave 30 pounds to his rivals. Although he did not win the Triple Crown it was only because he did not race in the Kentucky Derby. in a rematch with Gene Tunney.