AP PSYCHOLOGY
Review for the AP Exam
MEMORY
Chapter 9
Memory
Memory
*persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of
information
Flashbulb Memory
*a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
*where were you when Kennedy died?
*where were you when 9-11 happened?
Storage
– the retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval
– process of getting information out of memory
Memory
TYPES OF MEMORY
Sensory Memory
– the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the
memory system
Short Term Memory
– activated memory that holds a few items briefly
– look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the
information is forgotten
Long Term Memory
– the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the
memory system
Working Memory
*focuses more on the processing of
briefly stored information
*another term for Short Term Memory
Encoding
– the processing of information into the
memory system
Sensory input
Attention to important
or novel information
Encoding
External
events
Sensory
memory
Short-term
memory
Encoding
Long-term
memory
Retrieving
Encoding
Automatic Processing
– unconscious encoding of incidental information
• space
• time
• frequency
– well-learned information
• word meanings
– we can learn automatic processing
• reading backwards
Effortful Processing
– requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal
– conscious repetition of information
• to maintain it in consciousness
• to encode it for storage
Encoding
Hermann Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables
– TUV ZOF GEK WAV
– the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on
Day 2
Spacing Effect
– distributed practice yields better long term retention than massed
practice
Percentage of
list retained
after relearning
100%
90
80
70
60
50
Retention
drops,
then levels off
40
30
20
10
0
1 3 5
9½
14½
25
35½
Time spent learning list
49½
Encoding
Time in
minutes
taken to
relearn
list on
day 2
20
15
10
5
0
8
16
24
32
42
53
Number of repetitions of list on day 1
64
Encoding-Serial Position Effect
Serial Position Effect--tendency to recall best the last items in a list
Percentage
of
words
recalled
Immediate recall-last items best
90
80
70
60
50
40
Later recall--only
first items recalled
well
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Position of word in list
10
11 12
What Do We Encode?
Semantic Encoding
– encoding of meaning
– including meaning of words
Acoustic Encoding
– encoding of sound
– especially sound of words
Visual Encoding
– encoding of picture images
Encoding
Encoding
Imagery
– mental pictures
– a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when
combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics
– memory aids
– especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
organizational devices
Chunking
– organizing items into familiar, manageable units
• like horizontal organization- 1776149218121941
– often occurs automatically
– use of acronyms
• HOMES- Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
• ARITHMETIC- A Rat In Tom’s House Might Eat Tom’s Ice Cream
Encoding
Hierarchies
complex information broken down into broad concepts and further
subdivided into categories and subcategories
Encoding
(automatic
or effortful)
Meaning
(semantic
Encoding)
Imagery
(visual
Encoding)
Chunks
Organization
Hierarchies
Storage- Retaining Information
Sensory Memory
– the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the
memory system
Iconic Memory
– a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
– a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a
few tenths of a second
– Registration of exact representation of a scene
Echoic Memory
– momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Storage-Short Term Memory
Short Term
Memory
Percentage
who recalled 90
consonants 80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
– limited in
duration and
capacity
– “magical”
number 7+/-2
3
6
9
12
15
18
Time in seconds between presentation
of contestants and recall request
(no rehearsal allowed)
Storage--Long Term Memory
How does storage work?
Karl Lashley (1950) began research on study of intelligence
and the role of the frontal lobes.
Rats learn maze
Remove parts of brain
Retest rats to see if they remember the
maze.
1890-1958
Storage--Long Term Memory
Synaptic changes
– Long-term Potentiation
• increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid
stimulation
Strong emotions make for stronger memories
– some stress hormones boost learning and
retention
Storage- Long Term Memory
Amnesia- the loss of memory
Explicit Memory
– memory of facts and experiences that
one can consciously know and declare
– Also called declarative memory
– hippocampus- neural center in limbic
system that helps process explicit
memories for storage
Implicit Memory
– retention without conscious
recollection
– motor and cognitive skills
– dispositions- conditioning
Forgetting--Amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
*inability to form memories for new information because of brain trauma.
*new experiences slip away from a person before they have a chance to store
them in long-term memory. (Clive Wearing or H.M.)
*H.M. (Initials for man with brain operation where hippocampus and
amygdala removed…..crucial to laying down new episodic
memories)
Retrograde Amnesia
*the failure to remember events that occurred prior to physical trauma.
*causes include: blow to head, electric shock to the brain
StorageLong Term Memory
MRI scan of hippocampus (in red)
Hippocampus
Retrieval Cues
Recall
*the ability to retrieve info learned earlier and not in conscious
awareness-like fill in the blank test
Recognition
*the ability to identify previously learned items-like on a multiple
choice test
Relearning
*amount of time saved when relearning previously learned
information
Priming
*activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Retrieval Cues
– Context Effects
• memory works better in the context of original learning
Percentage of
words recalled
40
30
20
10
0 Water/
land
Land/
water
Different contexts for
hearing and recall
Water/
water
Land/
land
Same contexts
for hearing and
recall
Retrieval Cues
Mood Congruent Memory
– tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s
current mood
– memory, emotions or moods serve as retrieval cues
State Dependent Memory
• what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk or
depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same
state
Deja Vu- (French) already seen
cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an
earlier similar experience
"I've experienced this before"
According to Daniel Schacter, most of our memory problems arise from
the SEVEN SINS of MEMORY.
Three Sins of Forgetting
1) Transcience
2) Absent-mindedness
3) Blocking
Three Sins of Distortion
4) Misattribution
5) Suggestibility
6) Bias
One Sin of Intrusion
7) Persistence
Sin of forgetting
1) TRANSCIENCE
*Memories weaken with time
*Hermann Ebbinghaus (1908) learned lists of
nonsense syllables and tried to recall them over time.
Percentage of
list retained
when
relearning
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
12345 10
15
20
25
Time in days since learning list
30
Ebbinghausforgetting curve
over 30 days -initially rapid, then
levels off with time
Sin of forgetting
1) TRANSCIENCE
CONCLUSION:
For relatively meaningless material,
there is a rapid initial loss of memory,
followed by a declining rate of loss.
HOWEVER, some memories don’t follow the classic forgetting curve.
“Just like riding a bicycle”, is a phase which indicates that motor skill
memories are often retained for many years.
Sin of forgetting
2) ABSENT-MINDEDNESS: Lapses of Attention
Forgetting as encoding failure
*Information never enters the memory
system
*Attention is selective
– we cannot attend to everything in
our environment
*William James said that we would be as
bad off if we remembered everything
as we would be if we remembered
nothing
Retrieval failure caused by
shifting your attention
elsewhere. (ie) not paying
attention when you laid your
keys down
Sin of forgetting
3) BLOCKING: Interference Causes Forgetting
*Proactive Interference
*Retroactive Interference
*Serial Position Effect …first and last parts of a poem are
easier to remember or you are more likely to remember the
names of those people you meet first and last than those in
between.
Percentage
of
words
recalled
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Position of word in
list
9
10 11 12
Sin of forgetting
3) BLOCKING: Interference causes forgetting
Learning some items may disrupt retrieval
of other information
Proactive (forward acting) Interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of
new information
Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
disruptive effect of new learning on recall of
old information
Sin of forgetting
3) BLOCKING: Interference causes forgetting
Retroactive Interference
Percentage
of syllables
recalled
90%
Without interfering
events, recall is
better
80
After sleep
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
After remaining awake
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Hours elapsed after learning syllables
8
Forgetting--Interference
Motivated Forgetting
*people unknowingly revise history
Repression
*defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing
thoughts, feelings, and memories
Positive Transfer
*sometimes old information facilitates our learning of
new information
*knowledge of Latin may help us to learn French
Sin of Distortion
4) MISATTRIBUTION: Memories in Wrong Context
*sometimes memories are retrievable but are associated with the wrong time,
place, or person.
CASE: Psychologist David Thompson was accused of rape,
based on victim’s detailed description of her assailant.
Fortunately, Thompson had an indisputable alibi. At the time of
the crime, he was being interviewed live on television--about
memory distortions. The victim had been watching the interview
just before she was raped and had misattributed the assault to
Thompson.
Sin of Distortion
5) SUGGESTIBILITY: External Cues Distort or Create
Witnesses to crimes may be interviewed by police, who might make suggestions
about the facts of the case--deliberately or intentionally--which may impact the
testimony of the witness.
Loftus & Palmer (1974) set out
test
their hypothesis that the language used in
eyewitness testimony can alter memory.
So they aimed to show that leading
questions could distort accounts of events,
therefore making them unreliable.
Estimating the speed of a
car is generally something
that people are poor at
doing, suggesting that they
may have been MORE
OPEN TO SUGGESTION.
Participants were shown slides of a car
accident involving a number of cars and
were then asked to describe what had
happened as if they were
eyewitnesses.They were then asked
specific questions, including the
question "About how fast were the cars
going when they (hit/smashed/
collided/bumped/contacted - the five
conditions) each other?"
This distortion of memory is known as the
MISINFORMATION EFFECT.
Sin of Distortion
5) SUGGESTIBILITY: External Cues Distort or Create
Loftus then did research on FABRICATED MEMORY. She
contacted parents of college students and gained TRUE
information of childhood events, which the students were
asked to recall. Loftus then added FALSE, but plausible,
events.
After many recall attempts over a
series of days, many students
claimed to recall the contrived
events.
This research would lead other researchers to discuss the RECOVERED
MEMORY CONTROVERY, wherein some psychologists may use
suggestion techniques to create false recovered memories.
Sin of Distortion
5) SUGGESTIBILITY: External Cues Distort or Create
People fill in memory gaps with plausible guesses and assumptions
Imagining events can create false memories
Children's eyewitness recall
– Child sexual abuse does occur
– Some innocent people suffer false accusations
– Some guilty cast doubt on true testimony
Memories of Abuse
– Repressed or Constructed?
• Child sexual abuse does occur
• Some adults do actually forget such episodes
False Memory Syndrome
– condition in which a person’s identity and relationships center
around a false but strongly believed memory of traumatic
experience
– sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists
Sin of Distortion
6) BIAS: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Opinions Distort Memories
Influence of personal beliefs, attitudes
and experiences on memory:
*Expectancy
Bias -unconscious tendency to
remember events as being
congruent with our
expectations.
*Self-Consistency Bias -avoid inconsistency.
Emotions can distort our
memories.
Sin of Intrusion
7) PERSISTENCE: When We Can’t Forget
Sometimes memory
works all too well when
*intense negative
emotions are involved
*intrusive recollections of
unpleasant events lie at
the heart of several
psychological disorders.
**interference--when memory blocks
access or retrieval.
TOT (TIP OF THE TONGUE) occurs
during a recall attempt, when there is
a poor match between retrieval cues
and the encoding of the word in longterm memory.
Memory Construction
We filter information and fill in missing pieces
Misinformation Effect
– incorporating misleading information into one's
memory of an event
Source Amnesia
– attributing to the wrong source an event that we
experienced, heard about, read about, or
imagined (misattribution)
The technical term for “photographic memory” is EIDETIC
IMAGERY.
Eidetic Imagery portrays the most interesting and meaningful parts of the
scene most accurately, as compared with a photograph which renders
everything in complete detail.
*possessed by about 5% of children.
*very rare past adolescence.
To produce an eidetic image, a person must
*study a scene for some time
*actively concentrate on this scene
*images fade quickly when the attention is diverted to something else.
Improve Your Memory
*Study repeatedly to boost recall
*Spend more time rehearsing or actively
thinking about the material (SQ3R)
(study, question, read, recite, review)
*Make material personally meaningful
*Use mnemonic devices
– associate with peg words- something already
stored
– make up story
– chunk-acronyms
Improve Your Memory
*Activate retrieval cues- mentally recreate situation and
mood
*Recall events while they are fresh- write down before
interference
*Minimize interference
*Test your own knowledge
– rehearse
– determine what you do not yet know
MNEMONICS:
*Method of Loci (low-sye): Imagine a familiar sequence of places
(bed, desk, chair)……to remember a grocery list, imagine tuna on the
bed, shampoo spilled on the desk, and eggs open on the chair.
*Natural Language Mediators: make up a story using your list….(i..e.)
The cat discovers I’m out of tuna so she interrupts me while I’m using
shampoo and meows to egg me on.” OR
The teacher who used rhymes to remember (“i before e except after c”)
(“thirty days hath September….)
*Remembering Names: You might visualize Bob’s face in a big “O” or
Ann, you might visualize “Queen Ann sitting on a throne.”
*PEG System: Memorize a list of items and each time you have to
organize a list, use a picture to illustrate the list in your mind.
THINKING and
LANGUAGE
Chapter 10
Thinking
Cognition
– mental activity associated with processing, understanding,
and communicating information
Cognitive Psychology
– the study of these mental activities
• concept formation
• problem solving
• decision making
• judgement formation
– study of both logical and illogical thinking
Thinking
Concept
– mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
• address
– country, city, street, house
– zip codes
Prototype
– the best example of a category
• matching new items to the prototype provides a quick
and easy method for including items in a category (as
when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical
bird, such as a robin.)
Problem Solving
Good problem solvers are skilled at (a) identifying the problem, and (b) selecting a
strategy.
Algorithm
– methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a
particular problem
– contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone use
of heuristics
Heuristic
TWO strategy methods:
rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make
judgements and solve problems efficiently
usually speedier than algorithms
more error-prone than algorithms
sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics
Heuristics
Representativeness Heuristic
– rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in
terms of how well they seem to represent, or match,
particular prototypes
– may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability
in memory
if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their
vividness), we presume such events are common
Example: airplane crash
Some Useful Heuristic Strategies:
1)
Working backwards (works well with mazes and certain math
problems where the initial conditions are vague)
2)
Searching for analogies (works well if the problem is similar to
one you have faced previously)
3)
Breaking problem in to smaller pieces (allows the completion
of smaller, manageable units)
Thinking
Insight
– sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a
problem
– contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias
– tendency to search for information that confirms one’s
preconceptions
Fixation
– inability to see a problem from a new perspective
– impediment to problem solving
Thinking- Insight
Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee by
solving complex problems.
Kohler suspended fruit out of reach of the chimp. Sulton, the brightest chimp first
attacked the fruit with sticks in trial and error fashion. He then sat down, scratched
his head, and begin to pile boxes. He then climbed on top of them with a stick to
knock down his prize.
Obstacles to Problem Solving
Mental Set
– tendency to approach a problem in a particular way
– especially a way that has been successful in the past but
may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
Functional Fixedness
 tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
 impediment to problem solving
Self Imposed Limitations Low self-esteem
Lack of Knowledge
Fatigue
Lack of Interest
Drugs
Thinking
Overconfidence
– tendency to be more confident than correct
– tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s
beliefs and judgements
Framing
the way an issue is posed
how an issue is framed can significantly affect
decisions and judgements
Example: What is the best way to market
ground beef- As 25% fat or 75% lean?
Thinking
Belief Bias
– the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
– sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid
conclusions seem invalid
Belief Perseverance
– clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were
formed has been discredited
Artificial Intelligence
 designing and programming computer systems
to do intelligent things
to simulate human thought processes
• intuitive reasoning
• learning
• understanding language
Language
Language
– our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we
combine them to communicate meaning
Phoneme
– in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme
– in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
– may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
Grammar
– a system of rules in a language that enables us to
communicate with and understand others
Language
Semantics
– the set of rules by which we derive meaning from
morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
– also, the study of meaning
Syntax
– the rules for combining words into grammatically
sensible sentences in a given language
HOW DO CHILDREN
ACQUIRE
LANGUAGE?
LANGUAGE
INNATENESS THEORY OF LANGUAGE
*children acquire language not merely by imitating but also by inborn program
of steps to acquire vocabulary and grammar in their environment.
Noam CHOMSKY, psycholinguist
*children born with mental structure, allows
vocabulary & grammar of their environment
*LAD: Language Acquisition device
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
*language is genetic
*Broca’s area (ch.2)
Professor emeritus,
linguistics, MIT
Language
We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages
Percentage able
to discriminate
Hindi t’s
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Hindispeaking
adults
6-8
months
8-10
months
10-12
months
Infants from English-speaking homes
Englishspeaking
adults
Language
Babbling Stage
*beginning at 3 to 4 months
*the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously
utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-Word Stage (“mama”)
also called “naming stage”
*from about age 1 to 2
*the stage in speech development during which a child speaks
mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage (“mommy milk”)
*beginning about age 2
*the stage in speech development during which a child speaks
mostly two-word statements
*start to acquire grammar
Telegraphic Speech (“ball hit mary cry”)
*early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram – “go
car” – using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
*acquire rules of grammar
Starting at age 2, children also:
*acquire use of MORPHEMES, showing tense (walks, walked,
walking)
*overgeneralization or overregularization: (ie. hitted, breaked)
*use words with abstract meanings (dream, forget, pretend, believe)
*use words that refer to emotions (happy, sad, angry)
After cognitive advances in later childhood,
they understand highly abstract words (truth,
justice, idea)
• New language learning gets harder with
age
Language
Linguistic Relativity (or Linguistic
Determinism)
–Whorf”s hypothesis that language
determines the way we think
INTELLIGENCE and
TESTING
Chapter 11
What is Intelligence?
……is a very general mental capability that, among
other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve
problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex
ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience.
• Intelligence
– *capacity for goal-directed and adaptive behavior
– *involves certain abilities
• profit from experience
• solve problems
• reason effectively
 *ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and
use knowledge to adapt to new situations
What is Intelligence?
• Reification
– *viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were
a concrete thing.
– *reasoning error
– To reify is to invent a concept, give it a name, and then
convince ourselves that such a thing objectively exists
in the world.
– One SHOULD say “she has a score on the intelligence
test of 120” NOT….”she has an IQ of 120.”
INTELLIGENCE
THEORIES
PEOPLE TO KNOW IN THIS CHAPTER:
1) Binet: IQ test
2) Terman: Stanford-Binet IQ test (adapted)
3) Spearman: “g” and “s” (developed Factor Analysis)
4) Thurston: “Primary Mental Abilities”
5) Guilford: Operations, Contents, Products
6) Gardner: 9 Multiple Intelligences
7) Jansen: social intelligence
8) Cattell: fluid v. crystalized intelligence
9) Goleman: emotional intelligence
10)Wechsler: Adult Intelligence Scale
Origins of Intelligence Testing
Intelligence Test
 a method of assessing an individual’s mental
aptitudes and comparing them to those of others,
using numerical scores
ALFRED BINET (1857-1911)
French Psychologist
・Received his law degree in 1878
・Subsequently studied natural sciences
at the Sorbonne
・Self-taught in psychology
Binet
Origins of Intelligence
• Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scale
– *the widely used
American revision of
Binet’s original
intelligence test
• *revised by Terman at
Stanford University
Lewis Madison
Terman (1877-1956)
Cognitive Psychologist
・Central Normal College
(B.S., B.P., B. A., 1894,
1898)
・Indiana University at
Bloomington (B.A., M.A.,
1903)
・Clark University (PH.D. in
Psychology, 1905)
Purpose: to identify students needing special
attention in school outside of a regular classroom
(developed in France by Binet)
Origins of Intelligence Testing
 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
 defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to
chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
 IQ = ma/ca x 100
 on contemporary tests, the average performance for
a given age is assigned a score of 100
• Mental Age
--a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
--chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level
of performance
--child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a
mental age of 8
--used in years and months
Are There Multiple Intelligences?
• Factor Analysis (FACTOR THEORIES)
– statistical procedure that identifies clusters of
related items (called factors) on a test
– used to identify different dimensions of
performance that underlie one’s total score
General Intelligence (g)
factor that SPEARMAN and others believed underlies specific
mental abilities
measured by every task on an intelligence test
*performance of any intellectual act requires some combination
of "g” (general intelligence), which is available to the same
individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and of "s"
(specific factors) which are specific to that act and which varies
in strength from one act to another.
In 1938, Louis L. Thurstone, an early researcher, rejected the ”g
theory". He analyzed the scores of many research participants on 56
separate tests, Thurston identified SEVEN primary mental abilities:
• verbal comprehension,
• numerical ability,
•spatial relations,
•perceptual speed,
•word fluency,
•memory, and
•Reasoning
CONCLUSION: all intellectual activities involve one or more of these
primary mental abilities.
He and his wife, Thelma G. Thurstone, developed their Primary
Mental Abilities Tests to measure these seven abilities.
In J.P.
Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory,
*intelligence is viewed as comprising operations, contents, and products.
** OPERATIONS (5) (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent
production, evaluation)
** PRODUCTS (6) (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and
implications
** CONTENTS (5) (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral).
Since each of these dimensions is independent, there are theoretically 150
different components of intelligence.
Howard Earl Gardner (1943- ) MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
His work has been marked by a desire not to just describe the world
but to help to create the conditions to change it. He initially formulated
a list of seven intelligences and later added two more:
Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written
language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use
language to accomplish certain goals. . . . Writers, poets, lawyers
and speakers are seen as having high linguistic intelligence.
Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to
analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and
investigate issues scientifically. . . . . . detect patterns, reason
deductively and think logically. . . . scientific and mathematical
thinking.
Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition,
and appreciation of musical patterns. . . . the capacity to recognize and
compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. . .
Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the
patterns of wide space and more confined areas.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's
whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. . . . the ability to use mental
abilities to coordinate bodily movements.
Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand
the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. . . . allows people to work
effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders
and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to
appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. . . . . ability to use such
information to regulate our lives.
Naturalist intelligence enables human beings to recognize, categorize
and draw upon certain features of the environment. It 'combines a description of
the core ability with a characterization of the role that many cultures value'
***Existential intelligence, a concern with 'ultimate issues', is, thus, the
next possibility that Howard Gardner considers - and he argues that it 'scores
reasonably well on the criteria. The final, and obvious, candidate for inclusion in
Howard Gardner's list is moral
intelligence.
• COGNITIVE THEORIES
– Intelligence depends on situation in which it
occurs--how information is processed
STERNBERG:
“Triarchial Theory”
*didn’t think Gardner’s view went far enough
1) Practical (Contextual) -- learning within the environment
in which you live (practical intelligence)
2) Analytical (Componential) -- problem solving; thinking
abstractly (information processing intelligence)
3) Creative (Experiential) -- the ability to create new ideas
(insight intelligence)
Arthur JENSEN: Social Class difference
*1998, found convincing evidence for potent environmental effects on
black IQs in a rural Georgia county where black SES was exceedingly
low even relative to other blacks in the US.
*Older black siblings systematically scored worse on an IQ test than their
younger sibs, indicating some environmental insult that accumulated over
time.
*juvenile delinquents and adult criminals have lower IQ's, on
average, than those of their own full siblings with whom they were
reared
*correlation between IQ and socially undesirable behavior is not just
mediated by differences in social class and cultural background
Social Intelligence
the know-how involved in comprehending social
situations and managing oneself successfully
Social Stratification in U.S.
1% of population
Upper-upper (Inherited wealth, Old money, blood
relations)
Lower-upper (CEOs, investors, entrepreneurs,
achievement)
Upper-middle (managers, professionals, owners of
Some people in the lower-upper
class may have more money
than the upper-upper class, but
they will not be accepted into the
exclusive social clubs.
medium size businesses) 14% of population
Middle-middle (semiprofessionals, craftspeople,
foremen, non-retail salespeople, clerical, farms, small-town
doctors & lawyers, teachers, police, clergy) 30% of population
Lower-middle or Working-class (low-skill manual,
clerical, retail sales, roofers, truck drivers, unstable
employment, below average income)
30% of population
Upper-lower or Working-poor (lowest-paid
manual, retail, service workers, below poverty line) 13% of population
Lower-lower or Underclass (unemployed, parttime menial jobs, public assistance, single mothers,
generational welfare)
12% of population
Raymond CATTELL (1905-1998)
*general intelligence ..conglomeration of
+/- 100 abilities working together in various
ways in different people to bring out
different intelligences.
*fluid intelligence (information that fades
with age) ability to think and act quickly,
solve novel problems, and encode shortterm memories
*crystalized intelligence (procedural
information that never goes away) stems
from learning and acculturation, reflected in
tests of knowledge, general information,
use of language (vocabulary) and a wide
variety of acquired skills
*student of Spearman
*University College,
London, B.S,
chemistry (1921-1924)
*Kingユs College,
Ph.D., psychology
(1924-1929)
*University College,
London, MA,education
(1932); honorary
doctor of science
(1939)
What about Emotional Intelligence?
EI is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability
to:
*monitor one's own and others' emotions,
*discriminate among them, and to
*use the information to guide one's thinking and actions.
(Mayer & Salovey, 1993: 433)
Dr. Goleman’s 1995 book, Emotional
Intelligence, argues that human competencies
like self-awareness, self-discipline,
persistence and empathy are of greater
consequence than IQ in much of life, that we
ignore the decline in these competencies at our
peril, and that children can and should be taught
these abilities.
Need
both EQ and IQ
to be successful.
GOLEMAN:
Emotional Intelligence has 5 domains:
Self-awareness:Observing yourself and recognizing a
feeling as it happens.
Managing emotions:Handling feelings so that they are
appropriate; realizing what is behind a feeling; finding
ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger, and sadness.
Motivating oneself:Channeling emotions in the service of
a goal; emotional self control; delaying gratification and
stifling impulses.
Empathy:Sensitivity to others' feelings and concerns and
taking their perspective; appreciating the differences in
how people feel about things.
Handling relationships:Managing emotions in others;
social competence and social skills.
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen (1968) asked
psychology students to run rats through a maze. Some of the students
were told their rats were “bright”; others were told their rats were “dull.”
Incredibly, the rats that were believed to be “bright” performed better
than the “dull” rats. Expectations influenced performance.
Rosenthal and Jacobsen wondered if teachers’ expectations could
influence student performance. They designed an experiment
where they told grade school teachers that 20% of their students
had been given a special test. Some of the students were
identified as “spurters,” who would blossom academically during
the coming year.
Actually, the test revealed nothing and the students had been
randomly assigned by the design team.
Results: Those children whom the teachers expected to do well,
did so. The teachers saw the spurters as more curious and having
more potential. They saw the children as happier, more interesting,
better adjusted.
When the spurters were given an IQ test a year later, the
experimental group made substantial gains in IQ points.
The idea that students perform better when they are
expected to is called the Pygmaleon Effect, the
Rosenthal Effect, or the Teacher-Expectancy
Effect.
It is a type of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, as students
with negative expectations internalize the label and
those with positive labels succeed.
ASSESSING
INTELLIGENCE
Brain Function and Intelligence
Is intelligence neurologically measureable?
1) Processing speed: Earl Hunt (1983) found that verbal
intelligence scores are predictable from the speed with
which people retrieve information from memory.
2) Perceptual speed: Those who perceive quickly tend to
score somewhat higher on intelligence tests, particularly
test based on perceptual rather than verbal problem
solving.
3) Neurological speed: Evoked brain responses tend to be
slightly faster when people with high rather than low
intelligence scores perform a simple task.
The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale
(MEIS) developed by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso
(2000), assess the test-takers ability to:
1) Perceive emotions by recognizing emotions
conveyed by various faces, musical excerpts,
graphic designs, and stories.
2) Understand emotions by recognizing how emotions
change over time and apprehending how emotions
blend.
3) Regulate emotions by rating alternative strategies
that one could use when facing various real-life
dilemmas.
Page 427
Assessing Intelligence
• Aptitude Test
– a test designed to predict a person’s future performance
– aptitude is the capacity to learn
• Achievement Test
– a test designed to assess what a person has learned
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
– most widely used intelligence test
– subtests
• verbal
• performance (nonverbal)
WISC--Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
WPPEI--Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence
Assessing Intelligence- Sample Items
from the WAIS
VERBAL
PERFORMANCE
General Information
Similarities
Arithmetic Reasoning
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Digit Span
Picture Completion
Picture Arrangement
Block Design
Object Assembly
Digit-Symbol Substitution
From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977
Assessing Intelligence
Standardization
– defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a
pretested “standardization group”
Normal Curve
– the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of
many physical and psychological attributes
– most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near
the extremes
Flynn Effect
American philosophy professor James Flynn discovered a
remarkable trend:
Average IQ scores in every industrialized country on the planet had
been increasing steadily for decades.
Despite concerns about the dumbing-down of society - the failing
schools, the garbage on TV, the decline of reading - the overall
population was getting smarter. Our brains are getting better at
problem-solving.
The Normal Curve
Number
of
scores
Sixty-eight percent
of people score
within 15 points
above or below 100
Ninety-five percent
of all people fall
within 30 points
of 100
55
70
85
100
115
130
Wechsler intelligence score
145
• Reliability
– the extent to which a test yields consistent results
– assessed by consistency of scores on:
• two halves of the test
• alternate forms of the test
• retesting the same individual
• Validity
– the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to
Content Validity
– the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest or knowledge
about subject
Face Validity or Predictive Validity or Criterion-Related Validity
– A test measures what it is supposed to measure.
– assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion
behavior
• driving test that samples driving tasks or a unit exam in biology
Criterion Validity
– behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to
predict.
– measures against a specific learning goal.
– the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
Assessing Intelligence
Split-Half Reliabilty
– exam split into 2 halves and scores compared.
• if your teacher checks to see if students are odd and even
numbered correct
Test-Retest Reliability
– individuals taking a test more than once tend to get
similar scores.
• Taking ACT or SAT more than once and getting similar scores
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Degrees of Mental Retardation
Level
Typical Intelligence Scores
Mild
50-70
85%
May learn academic skills up to
sixth-grade level. Adults may, with
assistance, achieve self-supporting
social and vocational skills.
Moderate
35-49
10
May progress to second-grade level.
academically. Adults may contribute
to their own support by labor in
sheltered workshops.
Severe
20-34
3-4
May learn to talk and perform simple
work tasks under close supervision
but are generally unable to profit from
vocational training.
Profound
Below 20
Percentage of the Retarded
1-2
Adaptation to Demands of Life
Require constant aid and supervision.
Genetic Influences
Similarity of
intelligence
scores
(correlation)
• The most
genetically
similar
people have
the most
similar scores
Identical Identical
twins
twins
reared reared
together apart
Fraternal Siblings Unrelated
reared individuals
twins
reared togetherreared
together
together
Genetic Influences
 Heritability
 the proportion of variation among
individuals that we can attribute to genes
 variability depends on range of
populations and environments studied
Genetic Influences
0.35
Child-parent
correlation in
verbal ability
scores
0.30
0.25
Children and their
birth parents
0.20
0.15
Adopted children
and their birth
parents
0.10
Adopted children
and their adoptive
parents
0.05
0.00
3 years
16 years
Autism
*moderately rare condition
*typically appears during the first three years of life
*neurological disorder (CNS injuries)
*affects the functioning of the developing brain, resulting
in sometimes profound communicative, social
interaction and cognitive deficits.
*hard to relate to outside world
*four times more prevalent in boys than girls
*estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 150 individuals
and is on the rise
• Savant Syndrome
– condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an
amazing specific skill
• computation
• drawing
autistic savant
*Although there is a strong
association with autism, it is
certainly not the case that all
savants are autistic.
*estimated that about 50% of the
cases of savant syndrome are
autistic
*other 50% have developmental
disabilities and CNS injuries.
Studies of intelligence and creativity suggest that a certain
level of aptitude is necessary but not sufficient for
creativity. Studies of creative people suggest 5 other
components of creativity:
1) Expertise is a well-developed base of knowledge.
2) Imaginative thinking skills provide the ability to see things in new
ways, to recognize patterns, to make connections.
3) A venturesome personality tolerates ambiguity and risk,
perseveres in overcoming obstacles and seeks new experiences.
4) Intrinsic motivation--people are
most creative when they feel
motivated primarily by the interest,
enjoyment, satisfaction, and
challenge of the work itself.
5) A creative environment sparks,
supports, and refines creative
ideas.
Group Differences
 Stereotype Threat
 A self-confirming concern that one
will be evaluated based on a
negative stereotype
Why do intelligent people fail?
1) Lack of motivation
2) Lack of impulse control
3) Lack of perseverance and preservation.
4) Using the wrong abilities.
5) Inability to translate thought into action
6) Lack of product orientation
7) Inability to complete tasks
8) Failure to initiate
9) Fear of failure
10) Procrastination
Why do intelligent people fail?
11) Misattribution of blame
12) Excessive self-pity
13) Excessive dependency
14) Wallowing in personal difficulties
15) Distractability
16) Spreading oneself too thin
17) Inability to delay gratification
18) Inability to see the forest for the trees
19) Lack of balance between critical thinking and creative
thinking
20) Too little or too much self-confidence
Questions still needing to be answered:
1) Genetic factors contribute substantially to individual
differences but the pathway by which genes produce
their effects is still unknown. Moreover, the impact of
genetic differences increases with age, but we don’t
know why.
2) Environmental factors also make a significant
contribution to the development of intelligence.
Schooling is important but we don’t know what aspects
of schooling are critical
3) The effect of nutrition is unclear. Obviously, severe
nutrition has negative effects but the notion that
particular “micronutrients” may increase intelligence has
not been convincingly demonstrated.
Questions still needing to be answered:
4) Measures of information-processing speed correlate with intelligence
scores but there is no easy theoretical interpretation of these
findings.
5) Mean scores on intelligence tests are rising steadily, going up a full
standard deviation in the last half century. No one is certain why
this is happening or what it means.
6) The difference between intelligence scores of blacks and whites
does not result from any obvious biases in test construction. Nor
does it reflect differences in socioeconomic status. There is no
support for genetic interpretation.
7) Standardized tests do not sample all forms of intelligence.
(creativity, wisdom, practical sense, social sensibility)
What is Intelligence?
• Reification
– *viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were
a concrete thing.
– *reasoning error
– To reify is to invent a concept, give it a name, and then
convince ourselves that such a thing objectively exists
in the world.
– One SHOULD say “she has a score on the intelligence
test of 120” NOT….”she has an IQ of 120.”
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AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5-