Management of
Organizational
Behavior:
Leading Human Resources
Review of Leadership
• Defined as an attempt to influence
• Leadership/influence – interchangeable
• Three ways to influence:
– Diagnosing – understand situation
– Adapting – adapt behavior to situation
– Communicating – so that others understand
• Fact: Written and oral communication
skills are the two most important
factors/skills in obtaining employment.
• There is a direct correlation between
employee communication and
profitability.
• Good communications are the lifeblood of
any enterprise.
Importance of Effective
Communication
Chapter Overview
• Communication Models
– Linear ~ Interactional ~ Transactional
• Organizational Communication
– Downward/upward/horizontal communication;
grapevine; networks
• Patterns of Communication
– Star and circle patterns
• “Best” Pattern of Communication
– Trials show star pattern faster
• International Business Communication
– Different cultures affect communication effectiveness
Three Basic Communication
Models
•
The Linear Model
–
–
Shows communicative events as one-sided activities
from the leader to the follower
Static model
•
The Interactional Communication Model
–
–
•
Follower decodes the message
Follower encodes symbols; gives feedback
The Transactional Communication Model
–
–
Face-to-face communication
Static model
The Linear Model
Encode
Symbols
Message
Leader
Channel
Follower
The Lineal model
• One sided – leader to follower
• Encoding thoughts to symbols
• Symbols:
– Images/logos/etc. represent something else
• Message:
– Symbols formed into messages
– Message can be one or set of symbols
• Channel:
– Messages placed in channel for distribution
The linear model
Language/body cues
Verbal Language Cues
• Messages have verbal or nonverbal cues
• Powerless language
– Hedges (I think, ums, ers, disclaimers)
• Powerful language
– Perceived as competent, dynamic, attractive
The Linear Model
Language/body cues
Nonverbal Language Cues
• Nonverbal Cues – Four Functions
–
–
–
–
Supplement verbal cues – accenting emphasis
Substitute verbal cues – smile/frowns
Contradict verbal cues – sweating/body movement
Regulate verbal cues – pitch at end of sentence to ?,
holding up a hand to stop interaction
- Others: body positions, appearance
• Paralanguage
– Pitch, rate, volume, use of pauses
– Demonstrates enthusiasm, anxiety, urgency
Concerns and examples
Linear Model
• Follower is not involved
– No face-to-face communication
• Based on hope
– Does follower understand the communication
– No opportunity for response from follower
• Represents one-way communication
– Billboards, television, flyers, signs
The Linear Model
Encode
Symbols
Message
Leader
Channel
Follower
The Interactional
communication Model
• This model allows the follower to have
face-to-face communication with the
leader
The Interactional
communication Model
Symbols
Message
Decode
Encode
Encode
Leader
Channel
Follower
Symbol
Decode
Feedback
Message
The Interactional
communication Model
• After receiving the message, follower
decodes it for meaning
• Follower translates the symbols
• Follower may create a message to return
to the leader
• Through decoding messages and
encoding symbols, follower may give
feedback to leader
The Interactional
communication Model
Feedback
• After receiving feedback from a follower,
the leader may reshape through feedback
then send message to new follower
• Even if there is no feedback, the lack of a
response is feedback to the leader
The Interactional
communication Model
• This model best explains face-to-face
human communication and demonstrates
that the responses of the other person
involved are continual
The transactional
communication model
• Provides best face-to-face communication
• Constantly encoding and decoding
messages when talking face-to-face
• Channel has two-headed arrow
• Contains three new elements
– External Noise
– Internal Noise
– Semantic Noise
Transactional
communication model
Encode/Decode
Decode/Encode
Noise
Noise
Noise
Symbols
Message
Noise
Noise
Channel
Leader
Noise
Noise
Noise
Noise
Follower
Noise
The transactional
communication model
• External Noise
– Occurs outside of brain
– Stomach growing, tree in front of sign
• Internal Noise
–
–
–
–
Occurs inside of brain
Listening rate/information rate ratios
External distractions may get you off track
Personal perceptions/preconceived opinions
• Semantic Noise
–
–
–
–
Perceptual process creates semantic noise
Known as word noise
We categorize what we hear, define symbol, put it context
More than one condition may be present
The transactional
communication model
Semantic Noise
Thought
Symbol or
Object
Referent
When we speak, we use symbolism through references or social factors-our
intent is to influence others. When we hear what is said, these symbols
cause us to react or perform by adopting the intended attitude by
the speaker.
Adopted: Triangle of Learning
Source: Ogden and Richards 1949
Leadership adjustments through
understanding of Semantic Noise
• Jay A. Conger reinforces need for careful word
selection use of paralanguage and nonverbal
behavior
• Conger’s guidelines for more expressive,
inspirational leadership include:
– Craft mission statement – values, beliefs, purpose
– Use key elements of group’s culture
– Use rhetorical techniques – paralanguage/nonverbal
behavior
– Show your emotions to reflect your persona
feelings/concern
• Leadership involves capturing the hearts and minds
of followers
Active listening
• Leader must be skilled in receiving
messages - listening
• We speak at 125 wpm; brain able to listen
at 400-600 wpm = listening gap
• Four types of Listeners:
– Nonlistener
– Evaluative listener
- Marginal listener
- Active listener
• Active Listener – full attention to message
Active listening
• A skill that can be learned
• Five guidelines by Carl Rogers:
–
–
–
–
–
Listen for message content
Listen for feelings of speaker
Respond to feelings of speaker
Note the speaker’s cues (verbal/nonverbal)
Reflect back to the speaker what you think you are
hearing
• Results:
– Leader develops better relationships between
management/staff; increase establishment of clear
goals; decrease costly problems
Pacing, then leading
• Leaders influence from personal power
and position power
• Rapport builds personal power
• Effective communication builds personal
power
• Getting in step with others make them feel
comfortable – pacing with them
Pacing, then leading
• Key concepts in establishing rapport:
– Rapport -- attuned to othersverbally/nonverbally
– Pacing –- reflect what others do – match part
of their ongoing experience
– Leading -– getting others to pace with you
– Having behavioral adaptability –- have
range in your own behavior to pace with
others – get “in sync” by aligning with their
words, voice characteristics and nonverbals
The pace-lead process
• Summary:
- If followers go with your lead – then lead
- If followers resist your lead, go back to pacing, look for new ways to lead
Follower’s
Behavior
Leader
Paces
Follower
Leader
Attempts to
Lead
Followers
Follower
Accepts
Lead
Follower
Resists
Leader
Leader
Continues
Leading
Organizational
Communication
• All members want to be in “the know”
• External communication
• Internal communication systems
–
–
–
–
–
Downward communication
Upward communication
Horizontal communication
Grapevine
Networks
Patterns of
communication
• Two patterns
– Star
• Group is free to communicate all around the circle
• Nothing favors one group member
• Decision making open to all members
– Circle
• “C” is in leadership role
• Members communicate with “C”, not each other
• Represents an autocratic structure
Patterns of
communication
A
A
B
E
B
C
D
E
Star
D
C
Circle
Is there a best pattern?
• Marble Experiment by Alex Bavelas:
• Star Group
– The star (autocratic) pattern more effective
– Star group faster and used fewer messages, developed more
efficient processes
– However, had negative effect on morale
– Group: high opinion of communication but
low opinion of themselves
• Circle Group
– Slow, inaccurate, but happy
– No system, no leader emerged
– Critical of process, but enjoyed tasks
• Emergency Changed Outcome
– In emergency, Circle Group worked together for solution
International business
communication
• Different cultures create barriers for
communication
• Attribution is critical for these times
• Perception
• Stereotyping
• Ethnocentrism
• Our communication skills used in our local
situations may be offensive to other cultures –
We must stay aware
summary
• Effective leaders require interpersonal
skills and written and oral communication
skills
• Listening and explaining skills are vital
• Communication skills are critical
• The Transactional Model of
Communication best for today’s
workplace (emphasis on teams)
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Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading …