Elements of Poetry From: Elements of Literature How to read a poem Read the poem aloud at least once. Read from the “inside out.” Be aware of punctuation, especially periods and commas. If a line of poetry doesn’t end with punctuation, don’t stop. Read the poem for its meaning, using a natural voice. Let the music come through on its own. Pay attention to each word. Pay attention to the title. Read it out loud! Read the poem aloud at least once. Don’t stop just because you’re at the end of the line. Only stop for punctuation marks. Each poem has its own pulse, which you can hear more clearly by reading it aloud. Inside out Read from the “inside out.” If you read a poem and try to worry about finding the metaphor or identify rhyme schemes, you’ve missed the point of the poem. You’ve read it from the “outside in.” Don’t do that! First, enjoy the poem. Then, ask yourself why you liked it. (metaphors, rhyme, etc. can be found after the first reading.) Punctuation matters Be aware of punctuation, especially periods and commas. A period signals the end of a sentencewhich is not always at the end of a line. You should make a full stop when you come to a period. If a line of poetry doesn’t end with punctuation, don’t stop. Continue reading until you read a punctuation mark. Poetry is music If the poem is written in meter (pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables-most poems use meter), don’t read it in a singsong way. Read the poem for its meaning, using a natural voice. Let the music of the poem come through on its own. Words are important Pay attention to each word. Poets generally use only a few words, so each word is important. Look up unfamiliar words. Pay attention to the title. Sometimes-but not always-the meaning of the poem is hinted at in the title. Try it! Read this excerpt from a poem out loud, remember to read it first. Stop at the punctuation-not the end of the line. Listen for the natural singsong tone-don’t force it. “Still I Rise” by Maya Angelou You may write me down in history With your bitter, twisted lies, You may trod me in the very dirt But still, like dust, I'll rise. Just like moons and like suns, With the certainty of tides, Just like hopes springing high, Still I'll rise. You may shoot me with your words, You may cut me with your eyes, You may kill me with your hatefulness, But still, like air, I'll rise. The Sound of Poetry The musical sound of poetry comes from several elements used wisely in the poem. Not all are used in every poem. The poet chooses the elements that best deliver the poem and sound the poet wants to create. Here are a few of the elements commonly used in poetry: Rhythm Meter Rhyme Alliteration Assonance Onomatopoeia Metaphors and Similes Free verse Rhythm The repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables Provides the poem’s beat MU-sic MOUNT-ain Be-CAUSE Try your name: Where is the stressed sound? That is the stressed syllable. Okey In my name, the “O” syllable is stressed. The “key” is unstressed. “For My Grandmother” by Countee Cullen This lovely flower fell to seed; Work gently, sun and rain; She held it as her dying creed That she would grow again. This lovely flower fell to seed; stressed unstressed Meter When a clear pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables is repeated, that is called meter. Cullen’s poem “For My Grandmother” uses meter because the stressed and unstressed syllable pattern is repeated throughout the entire poem. Listen to the consistent pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the poem one more time. “For My Grandmother” by Countee Cullen This lovely flower fell to seed; Work gently, sun and rain; She held it as her dying creed That she would grow again. This lovely flower fell to seed; stressed unstressed Rhyme The chiming effect a poem creates-the singsong sound, the music- is done with rhyme. Rhyme is when sounds match in words. There are several types of rhyme. Types of Rhyme End rhyme Couplet Internal rhyme Exact rhyme Approximate rhyme (near rhyme, imperfect rhyme, slant rhyme) End rhyme End rhyme is when the end words of lines rhyme with each other. Excerpt from “Peanut-Butter Sandwich” From Where The Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein I'll sing you a poem of a silly young king Who played with the world at the end of a string, But he only loved one single thing— And that was just a peanut-butter sandwich. His scepter and his royal gowns, His regal throne and golden crowns Were brown and sticky from the mounds And drippings from each peanut-butter sandwich. His subjects all were silly fools For he had passed a royal rule That all that they could learn in school Was how to make a peanut-butter sandwich. … More end rhymes: The panther is like a leopard, Except is hasn’t been peppered. -Ogden Nash From “The Panther” “The Cat in the Hat” by Dr. Seuss "We looked! Then we saw him step in on the mat! We looked! And we saw him! The Cat in the Hat!" “I know it is wet And the sun is not sunny. But we can have Lots of good fun that is funny!” “Look at me! Look at me! Look at me NOW! It is fun to have fun But you have to know how.” “'Have no fear, little fish,' Said the Cat in the Hat. 'These Things are good Things.' And he gave them a pat." "Then our mother came in And she said to us two, 'Did you have any fun? Tell me. What did you do?“ And Sally and I did not know what to say. Should we tell her The things that went on there that day?“ "Well...what would YOU do If your mother asked you?" Couplet A couplet is when two consecutive lines rhyme with each other at the end. Shakespearean sonnets perfect the use of couplets! Each sonnets closes with a couplet. Shakespearean sonnets: SONNET 54 O, how much more doth beauty beauteous seem By that sweet ornament which truth doth give. The rose looks fair, but fairer we it deem For that sweet odour which doth in it live. The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye As the perfumed tincture of the roses, Hang on such thorns and play as wantonly When summer's breath their masked buds discloses: But, for their virtue only is their show, They live unwoo'd and unrespected fade, Die to themselves. Sweet roses do not so; Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made: And so of you, beauteous and lovely youth, When that shall fade, my verse distills your truth. Shakespeare Sonnet #130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. Internal rhyme “The Cremation of Sam McGee” by Robert W. Service Rhymes occurring within lines. Now Sam McGee was from Tennessee, where the Cotton blooms and blows. Why he left his home in the South to Roam ‘round the Pole, God only knows. He was always cold, but the land of gold seemed to hold him like a spell; Though he’d often say in his homely way that he’d ‘sooner live in hell.” On a Christmas Day we were mushing our way over the Dawson trail. Talk of your cold! Through the parka’s fold it stabbed like a driven nail. If our eyes we’d close, the lashes froze till sometimes we couldn’t see; It wasn’t much fun, but the only one to whimper was Sam McGee. … “So I want you to swear that, foul or fair, you’ll cremate my last remains” I do not know how long in the snow I wrestled with grisly fear; But the stars came out and they danced about ere again I ventured near; I was sick with dread, but I bravely said: “I’ll just take a peep inside. I guess he’s cooked, and it’s time I look”: . . .then the door I opened wide. And there sat Sam, looking cool and calm, in the heart of the furnace roar; And he wore a smile you could see a mile, and he said: “Please close that door. It’s fine in here, but I greatly fear you’ll let in the cold and stormSince I Left Plumtree, down in Tennessee, it’s the first time I’ve been warm.” Exact rhyme The vowel and end sound in a word are exactly the same as in its rhyming word (although they don’t have to be spelled exactly the same… just sound the same.) Toad-Road Jog-hog Tapping-rapping State-fate Confess-less Home-roam Ode to a Toad by Anne-Marie Wulfsberg, Concord-Carlisle High School, Concord, Massachusetts I was out one day for my usual jog (I go kinda easy, rarely full-hog) When I happened to see right there on the road The squishy remains of a little green toad. I thought to myself, where is his home? Down yonder green valley, how far did he roam? From out on the pond I heard sorrowful croaks, Could that be the wailing of some his folks? I felt for the toad and his pitiful state, But the day was now fading, and such was his fate. In the grand scheme of things, now I confess, What’s one little froggie more or less? Approximate rhyme (near rhyme, imperfect rhyme, slant rhyme) Modern poets often prefer approximate rhyme. These words have similar vowel or end sounds but are not exactly the same. Fellow-hollow Inside-Light Mouse- out Introduction to Poetry by Billy Collins I ask them to take a poem and hold it up to the light like a color slide or press an ear against its hive. I say drop a mouse into a poem and watch it probe his way out, Or walk inside the poem’s room and feel the walls for a light switch. I want them to water-ski Across the surface of a poem waving at the author’s name on the shore. But all they want to do is tie the poem to a chair with a rope and torture a confession of out it. They begin beating it with a hose to find out what it really means. Alliteration The repetition of the same CONSONANT sound in words that are close together. The see-saw sunk softly into the sand. The silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain… The purple people-eater Alliteration, cont’d Little Tommy Tucker sings for his supper, What shall we give him? Brown bread and butter. How shall he cut it without a knife? How shall he marry without a wife? Excerpts from “Paul Revere’s Ride” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow …Just as the moon rose over the bay, Where swinging wide at her moorings lay The Somerset, British man-of-war; A phantom ship, with each mast and spar Across the moon like a prison bar, And a huge black hulk that was magnified by its own reflection in the tide. Assonance Repetition of VOWEL sounds in words that are close together. Annie chose an apple. The creature bleated when the floor creaked. “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/pr mMID/15377 “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. And you, my father, there on the sad height, Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. “How Does It Feel?” Avril Lavigne I'm not afraid of anything I just need to know that i can breathe I don't need much of anything But suddenly, suddenly I'm young, and I am free But I get tired, and I get weak I get lost, and I can't sleep But suddenly, suddenly I am small and the world is big All around me is fast moving Surrounded by so many things But suddenly, suddenly Would you comfort me Would you cry with me; How does it feel, to be different from me? Are we the same? How does it feel, to be different from me? Are we the same? How does it feel? Ahh, ahh,… I am small and the world is big But I'm not afraid of anything; How does it feel Different from me, different... (ahh, ahh, ahh-ah) Onomatopoeia Words that sound like what the word refers to… Drip, drip, drip Crackle Sizzle Pop Rustle Snap Etc. Onomatopoeias are words that sound like sounds. Free Verse For free verse, don’t abandon ALL rulesjust most of them! Doesn’t have to rhyme. Doesn’t have to use meter. Sounds more like normal speech. BUT! Free verse poets still try really hard to make their poems sound rhythmic. One way they do this is through repeating sentence patterns. “Give Me the Splendid Silent Sun” Walt Whitman Give me the splendid silent sun with all his beams full-dazzling, Give me juicy autumnal fruit ripe and red from the orchard, Give me a field where the unmowed grass grows, Give me an arbor, give me the trellised grape… You can't order a poem like you order a taco. Walk up to the counter, say, "I'll take two" and expect it to be handed back to you on a shiny plate. Still, I like your spirit. Anyone who says, "Here's my address, write me a poem," deserves something in reply. So I'll tell you a secret instead: poems hide. In the bottoms of our shoes, they are sleeping. They are the shadows drifting across our ceilings the moment before we wake up. What we have to do is live in a way that lets us find them. Once I knew a man who gave his wife two skunks for a valentine. He couldn't understand why she was crying. "I thought they had such beautiful eyes." And he was serious. He was a serious man who lived in a serious way. Nothing was ugly just because the world said so. He really liked those skunks. So, he re-invented them as valentines and they became beautiful. At least, to him. And the poems that had been hiding in the eyes of skunks for centuries crawled out and curled up at his feet. Maybe if we re-invent whatever our lives give us we find poems. Check your garage, the odd sock in your drawer, the person you almost like, but not quite. And let me know. “Valentine for Ernest Mann” by Naomi Shihab Nye “I, Too, Sing America” by Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed— I, too, am America. Metaphors and Similes Compare two unlike things to each other. Similes use “like” or “as” to signify comparison Metaphors just say it is the other thing. Simile: Uses “like” or “as” to make comparison. The river is like a snake winding through the grass. Metaphors: It is what it is. Uses “is”, “was”, “am” to compare. The river is a snake winding through the grass. Listen to “Daisy” by Brand New. Write down one of the metaphors you hear. Extended metaphor Metaphor developed and used over multiple lines or an entire poem. For example: when you compare yourself to a ship on the sea and refer back to that comparison and image over and over again in your poem, that is an extended metaphor. “Play Crack the Sky” Brand New We sent out the SOS call. It was a quarter past four in the morning when the storm broke our second anchor line. Four months at sea, four months of calm seas, to be pounded in the shallows off the tip of Montauk Point. They call them rogues, they travel fast and alone. One-hundred-foot faces of God's good ocean gone wrong. What they call love is a risk cause you will always get hit out of nowhere by some wave and end up on your own. The hole in the hull defied the crews attempts to bail us out. And flooded the engines and radio and half buried bow. Your tongue is a rudder. It steers the whole ship. Sends your words past your lips or keeps them safe behind your teeth. But the wrong words will strand you. Come off course while you sleep. Sweep your boat out to sea or dashed to bits on the reef. The vessel groans the ocean pressures its frame. To the port I see the lighthouse through the sleet and rain. And I wish for one more day to give my love and repay debts. But the morning finds our bodies washed up thirty miles west. They say that the captain stays fast with the ship through still and storm. But this ain't the Dakota, and the water is cold. We won't have to fight for long. This is the end. This story's old but it goes on and on until we disappear. Calm me and let me taste the salt you breathed while you were underneath. I am the one who haunts your dreams of mountains sunk below the sea. I spoke the words but never gave a thought to what they all could mean. I know that this is what you want. A funeral keeps both of us apart. You know that you are not alone. Need you like water in my lungs. This is the end. Extended metaphor Write down what you think the extended metaphor in the song meant. Explain what two things were compared to each other and how they are similar-based on what the song said about them. Use at least 5 sentences. There are dozens of types of poetry. We are learning seven. Elegies Ballads Lyric Narrative Limerick Odes Free verse Lyric poem: Usually very short and express feelings or thoughts rather than tell stories. O God of dust and rainbows help us see That without dust the rainbow would not be. ~Langston Hughes Odes: long lyric poem usually praising some subject, and written in dignified language. “Ode to a Frog” “Ode to Thanks” Pablo Neruda Thanks to the word that says thanks! Thanks to thanks, word that melts iron and snow! The world is a threatening place until thanks makes the rounds from one pair of lips to another, soft as a bright feather and sweet as a petal of sugar, filling the mouth with its sound or else a mumbled whisper. Life becomes human again: it’s no longer an open window. A bit of brightness strikes into the forest, and we can sing again beneath the leaves. Thanks, you’re the medicine we take to save us from the bite of scorn. Your light brightens the altar of harshness. Or maybe a tapestry known to far distant peoples. “Ode to Thanks” Travelers fan out into the wilds, and in the jungle of strangers, merci rings out while the hustling train changes countries, sweeping away borders, then spasibo clinging to pointy volcanoes, to fire and freezing cold, or danke, yes! and gracias, and the world turns into a table: a single word has wiped it clean, plates and glasses gleam, silverware tinkles, and the tablecloth is as broad as a plain. Thank you, thanks, for going out and returning, for rising up and settling down. We know, thanks, that you don’t fill every spaceyou’re only a wordbut where your little petal appears the daggers of pride take cover, and there’s a penny’s worth of smiles Narrative: tells a story through a series of related events “Paul Revere’s Ride” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Sonnets: Fourteen-line poem that follows strict rules of rhyme, meter, and structure Shakespeare Ballads: a song told in simple meter and with simple rhyme “The Cremation of Sam McGee” “The Man From Snowy River” The Man From Snowy River There was movement at the station, for the word had passed around That the colt from old Regret had got away, And had joined the wild bush horses -- he was worth a thousand pound, So all the cracks had gathered to the fray. All the tried and noted riders from the stations near and far Had mustered at the homestead overnight, For the bushmen love hard riding where the wild bush horses are, And the stock-horse snuffs the battle with delight. There was Harrison, who made his pile when Pardon won the cup, The old man with his hair as white as snow; But few could ride beside him when his blood was fairly up -He would go wherever horse and man could go. And Clancy of the Overflow came down to lend a hand, No better horseman ever held the reins; For never horse could throw him while the saddle-girths would stand, He learnt to ride while droving on the plains. And one was there, a stripling on a small and weedy beast, He was something like a racehorse undersized, With a touch of Timor pony -- three parts thoroughbred at least -And such as are by mountain horsemen prized. He was hard and tough and wiry -- just the sort that won't say die -There was courage in his quick impatient tread; And he bore the badge of gameness in his bright and fiery eye, And the proud and lofty carriage of his head. The Man From Snowy River But still so slight and weedy, one would doubt his power to stay, And the old man said, "That horse will never do For a long and tiring gallop -- lad, you'd better stop away, Those hills are far too rough for such as you.“ So he waited sad and wistful -- only Clancy stood his friend -"I think we ought to let him come," he said; "I warrant he'll be with us when he's wanted at the end, For both his horse and he are mountain bred." "He hails from Snowy River, up by Kosciusko's side, Where the hills are twice as steep and twice as rough, Where a horse's hoofs strike firelight from the flint stones every stride, The man that holds his own is good enough. And the Snowy River riders on the mountains make their home, Where the river runs those giant hills between; I have seen full many horsemen since I first commenced to roam, But nowhere yet such horsemen have I seen." So he went -- they found the horses by the big mimosa clump -They raced away towards the mountain's brow, And the old man gave his orders, "Boys, go at them from the jump, No use to try for fancy riding now. And, Clancy, you must wheel them, try and wheel them to the right. Ride boldly, lad, and never fear the spills, For never yet was rider that could keep the mob in sight, If once they gain the shelter of those hills." The Man From Snowy River So Clancy rode to wheel them -- he was racing on the wing Where the best and boldest riders take their place, And he raced his stock-horse past them, and he made the ranges ring With the stockwhip, as he met them face to face. Then they halted for a moment, while he swung the dreaded lash, But they saw their well-loved mountain full in view, And they charged beneath the stockwhip with a sharp and sudden dash, And off into the mountain scrub they flew. Then fast the horsemen followed, where the gorges deep and black Resounded to the thunder of their tread, And the stockwhips woke the echoes, and they fiercely answered back From cliffs and crags that beetled overhead. And upward, ever upward, the wild horses held their way, Where mountain ash and kurrajong grew wide; And the old man muttered fiercely, "We may bid the mob good day, No man can hold them down the other side." The Man From Snowy River When they reached the mountain's summit, even Clancy took a pull, It well might make the boldest hold their breath, The wild hop scrub grew thickly, and the hidden ground was full Of wombat holes, and any slip was death. But the man from Snowy River let the pony have his head, And he swung his stockwhip round and gave a cheer, And he raced him down the mountain like a torrent down its bed, While the others stood and watched in very fear. He sent the flint stones flying, but the pony kept his feet, He cleared the fallen timber in his stride, And the man from Snowy River never shifted in his seat -It was grand to see that mountain horseman ride. Through the stringy barks and saplings, on the rough and broken ground, Down the hillside at a racing pace he went; And he never drew the bridle till he landed safe and sound, At the bottom of that terrible descent. He was right among the horses as they climbed the further hill, And the watchers on the mountain standing mute, Saw him ply the stockwhip fiercely, he was right among them still, As he raced across the clearing in pursuit. Then they lost him for a moment, where two mountain gullies met In the ranges, but a final glimpse reveals On a dim and distant hillside the wild horses racing yet, With the man from Snowy River at their heels. The Man From Snowy River And he ran them single-handed till their sides were white with foam. He followed like a bloodhound on their track, Till they halted cowed and beaten, then he turned their heads for home, And alone and unassisted brought them back. But his hardy mountain pony he could scarcely raise a trot, He was blood from hip to shoulder from the spur; But his pluck was still undaunted, and his courage fiery hot, For never yet was mountain horse a cur. And down by Kosciusko, where the pine-clad ridges raise Their torn and rugged battlements on high, Where the air is clear as crystal, and the white stars fairly blaze At midnight in the cold and frosty sky, And where around the Overflow the reedbeds sweep and sway To the breezes, and the rolling plains are wide, The man from Snowy River is a household word to-day, And the stockmen tell the story of his ride. Epics: Long narrative poem about the many deeds of a great hero. “Beowolf” Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” “Casey at the Bat” (mock epic-imitates an epic style in a comical way in order to make fun of its topic) Beowolf “Hail, Hrothgar! Higlac is my cousin and my king; the days Of my youth have been filled with glory. Now Grendel’s Name has echoed in our land: Sailors Have brought us stories of Herot, the best Of all mead-halls, deserted and useless when the moon Hangs in skies the sun had lit, Light and life fleeing together. My people have said, the wisest, most knowing And best of them, that my duty was to go to the Danes’ Great King. They have seen my strength for themselves, Have watched me rise from the darkness of war, Dripping with my enemies’ blood. I drove Five great giants into chains, chased All of that race from the earth. I swam In the blackness of night, hunting monsters Out of the ocean, and killing them one By one; death was my errand and the fate They had earned. Now Grendel and I are called Together, and I’ve come. Grant me, then, Beowolf, continued… Lord and protector of this novel place, A single request! I have come so far, Oh shelterer of warriors and your people’s loved friend, That this one favor you should not refuse meThat I, alone and with the help of my men, May purge all evil from this hall. I have heard, Too, that the monster’s scorn of men Is so great that he needs no weapons and fears none. Nor will I. My lord Higlac Might think less of me if I let my sword Go where my feet were afraid to, if I hid Behind some broad linden shield: My hands Alone shall fight for me, struggle for life Against the monster. God must decide Who will be given to death’s cold grip. “Casey at the Bat” Ernest Lawrence Thayer The Outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day: The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play. And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same, A sickly silence fell upon the patrons of the game. A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest Clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast; They thought, if only Casey could get but a whack at that We'd put up even money, now, with Casey at the bat. But Flynn preceded Casey, as did also Jimmy Blake, And the former was a lulu and the latter was a cake; So upon that stricken multitude grim melancholy sat, For there seemed but little chance of Casey's getting to the bat. But Flynn let drive a single, to the wonderment of all, And Blake, the much despis-ed, tore the cover off the ball; And when the dust had lifted, and the men saw what had occurred, There was Jimmy safe at second and Flynn a-hugging third. “Casey at the Bat” And now the leather-covered sphere came hurtling through the air, And Casey stood a-watching it in haughty grandeur there. Close by the sturdy batsman the ball unheeded sped"That ain't my style," said Casey. "Strike one," the umpire said. Then from 5,000 throats and more there rose a lusty yell; It rumbled through the valley, it rattled in the dell; It knocked upon the mountain and recoiled upon the flat, For Casey, mighty Casey, was advancing to the bat. There was ease in Casey's manner as he stepped into his place; There was pride in Casey's bearing and a smile on Casey's face. And when, responding to the cheers, he lightly doffed his hat, No stranger in the crowd could doubt 'twas Casey at the bat. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt. Then while the writhing pitcher ground the ball into his hip, Defiance gleamed in Casey's eye, a sneer curled Casey's lip. “Casey at the Bat” From the benches, black with people, there went up a muffled roar, Like the beating of the storm-waves on a stern and distant shore. "Kill him! Kill the umpire!" shouted someone on the stand; And its likely they'd a-killed him had not Casey raised his hand. With a smile of Christian charity great Casey's visage shone; He stilled the rising tumult; he bade the game go on; He signaled to the pitcher, and once more the spheroid flew; But Casey still ignored it, and the umpire said, "Strike two.“ "Fraud!" cried the maddened thousands, and echo answered fraud; But one scornful look from Casey and the audience was awed. They saw his face grow stern and cold, they saw his muscles strain, And they knew that Casey wouldn't let that ball go by again. The sneer is gone from Casey's lip, his teeth are clenched in hate; He pounds with cruel violence his bat upon the plate. And now the pitcher holds the ball, and now he lets it go, And now the air is shattered by the force of Casey's blow. Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright; The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light, And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout; But there is no joy in Mudville - mighty Casey has struck out. Elegies: a poem of mourning usually about someone who has died. “O Captain! My Captain!” elegy on the death of Abraham Lincoln “O Captain! My Captain!” Walt Whitman O Captain my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up--for you the flag is flung for you the bugle trills, For you bouquets and ribboned wreaths for you the shores a-crowding, For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; Here Captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head! It is some dream that on the deck, You've fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchored safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won; Exult O shores, and ring O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead Free verse: doesn’t use structured meter or rhyme “I Hear America Singing” by Walt Whitman “A Valentine for Ernest Mann” “I, too, am America” Langston Hughes “I Hear America Singing” Walt Whitman I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear, Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong, The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam, The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work, The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck, The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands, The wood-cutter's song, the ploughboy's on his way in the morning, or at noon intermission or at sundown, The delicious singing of the mother, or of the young wife at work, or of the girl sewing or washing, Each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else, The day what belongs to the day—at night the party of young fellows, robust, friendly, Singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs. Limericks: A very short humorous or non-sensical poem Have 5 lines Has a definitive rhythm Uses an aabba rhyme scheme Tells a brief story I sat next to the Duchess at tea; It was just as I feared it would be; Her rumblings abdominal Were truly phenomenal, And everyone thought it was me!