p. 118
Elements of Poetry
1. Lines: rows of words poems are written in.
POEM (p. 124)
I loved my friend.
He went away from me.
There’s nothing more to say.
The poem ends,
Soft as it began –
I loved my friend.
– Langston Hughes
Stanzas: lines that are grouped together
SUNDAYS (p. 129)
For lunch
Dad wore a white shirt
with cuffs stiff
as the ace of spades,
knit pants,
and loafers.
After lunch
we walked to the park
as he rubbed the baseball
with hands as tough and smooth
as the underside of a tortoise.
At the backstop,
as slowly as bread rising,
he rolled up his sleeves
before hitting fly balls
that seemed to skip off the sun
before landing
still warm
in my mitt.
- Paul B. Janeczko
3. Rhyme: matching end sounds
The Pasture (p. 125)
I’m going out to clean the pasture spring;
I’ll only stop to rake the leaves away
(And wait to watch the water clear, I may)
I sha’n’t be gone long. – You come too.
I’m going out to fetch the little calf
That’s standing by the mother. It’s so young
It totters when she licks it with her tongue.
I sha’n’t be gone long. – You come too.
4. Meter: a pattern of rhythm in a poem.
5. Rhythm: patterns of stressed and
unstressed syllables (beats) – the SOUND
of the lines of poetry when they are read
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
6. repetition: repeated words or lines
Family Photo (p. 133)
One last picture
before we head off
in different directions.
And in the middle
Grandma and Grandpa
who started all this.
One last group shot of
all of us, smirking,
with rabbit ears.
We’re ripples in a pond
spreading out
from a stone they threw.
Three generations,
kids on shoulders,
a baby cousin on my lap.
- Ralph Fletcher
7. alliteration: the repetitions of initial sounds
in the words of a line of poetry.
Lady luck
Sound of Silence
Bouncing baby boy
Practice alliteration
• Last names ending in
• Last names ending in
– Write a short
description of a small
child eating a melting
ice cream cone, using
– Write a short
description of a bull
rider getting ready to
come out of the chute,
using alliteration.
8. imagery: language that creates word
Tiny paw prints in the wet sand
Child Rest – p. 132
“Her red and yellow flower blossoms /
beadwork complete”
Practice imagery
• You have thirty seconds to view the
picture on the following slide. Then, use
imagery to re-create the scene in your own
free-verse poem.
9. Sensory language: words that describe
how things look, smell, feel, taste, and
Good Hot Dogs – p. 121
“splash on / … Yellow mustard and
“Little burnt tips/ Of French fries”
10. Figurative language: imaginative comparisons
between unlike things
11. metaphor: compares two unlike things
EX: icicles were dripping fangs
12. simile: compares two unlike things using like
or as.
EX: a voice as calm as moonlight
13. personification: gives human qualities to
something not alive or human
EX: breezes danced playfully
14. Onomatopoeia: a word in which the sound of
the words gives the meaning of the word
EX: buzz, hiss
15. irony: the use of a word or phrase to convey the opposite
of its literal meaning. The difference between what is
expected to happen and what really happens. Generally
used for humorous or emphatic effect.
From:For Annie, By Edgar Allan Poe
Thank Heaven! the crisis,
The danger is past,
And the lingering illness
Is over at last,
And the fever called "Living"
Is conquered at last.
Practice onomatopoeia
• A poem titled “When Carly Eats Spaghetti”
is on the following slide. As you read it,
write down words that are examples of
“When Carly Eats Spaghetti”
When Carly eats spaghetti,
She chomps and gobbles and slurps,
The spaghetti disappears with a whoosh
Sauce slapping and smacking
Round her chops.
She scrapes the toast round the plate
Crunching, grinding every mouthful.
She burps, gurgles and leaves the table!
16. symbolism: anything that signifies of stands for
something else. Usually that something is concrete (an
17. hyperbole: a big lie or exaggeration. It puts a picture
into the “reader’s” mind.
EX: I'd give my whole fortune for a bowl of bean soup.
18. idiom: a figure of speech that does not make sense if
taken literally.
EX: a dime a dozen, a picture paints a thousand words, a
piece of cake, all bark and no bite, you’re barking up the
wrong tree, a drop in the bucket, go the extra mile, great
minds think alike
Idiom Dictionary
What is an idiom?
• An idiom is an expression whose meaning
cannot be understood based on the
definition of its constitutional elements
He spilled the beans
He told the
Get off my back!
Leave me alone!
We were in stitches!
We were laughing very
He kicked the bucket!
He died
Go fly a kite!
Go away!
She was dressed to kill
She was dressed in her finest
I’m at the end of my rope!
I am so-o-o frustrated!
You have to bite the bullet
You need to put up with this
difficult situation
Teachers always stick to their
Teachers never change their
Money talks
Have you
about that
new TV?
Money influences a lot of
So I hope you enjoyed my
idiom presentation because I…
bent over
to do it for
19. allusion: an implied or indirect reference in literature to
a familiar person, place, or event. This can be real or
imaginary and may refer to anything, including paintings,
opera, folk lore, mythical figures, or religious manuscripts.
The reference can be direct or may be inferred, and can
broaden the reader’s understanding.
EX: a “I was surprised his nose was not growing like
Pinocchio’s.” This refers to the story of Pinocchio,
where his nose grew whenever he told a lie. It is
from The Adventures of Pinocchio, written by Carlo
Complete PB p. 93

Poetry - Central Dauphin School District