Teaching and Learning Objectives
Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa
11/27/00
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Bloom’s Taxonomy
Perry Model
7 good practices for undergraduate teaching
Fink’s model
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Student Management of Material
Bloom’s Taxonomy
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What do we mean by Taxonomy?
1.
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Knowledge: remembering of previously learned
material.
 Recall of material, from specific facts to
complete theories,
 but all that is required is the bringing to mind
of the appropriate information.
Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning
outcomes in the cognitive domain.
Examples of learning objectives:
 know common terms, specific facts,
 know methods and procedures,
 know basic concepts, know principles.
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What do we mean by Taxonomy?
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Comprehension: ability to grasp meaning of material.
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May be shown by
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translating material from one form to another
interpreting material (explaining or summarizing)
estimating future trends (predicting consequences/effects).
One step beyond simple remembering of material, and
represent the lowest level of understanding.
Examples of learning objectives:
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understand facts and principles,
interpret verbal material, charts and graphs,
translate verbal material to mathematical formulae,
estimate the future consequences implied in data,
justify methods and procedures.
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What do we mean by Taxonomy?
3.
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Application: ability to use learned material in new
and concrete situations.
May include the application of such things as rules,
methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories.
Requires a higher level of understanding than those
under comprehension.
Examples of learning objectives:
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apply concepts and principles to new situations,
apply laws and theories to practical situations,
solve mathematical problems,
construct graphs and charts,
demonstrate the correct usage of a method or procedure.
Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa
What do we mean by Taxonomy?
4.
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Analysis: ability to break down material into its
component parts so that its organizational structure
may be understood.
May include identification of parts, analysis of
relationship between parts, and recognition of
organizational principles involved.
Higher level than 2 and 3—requires understanding of
both content and structural form of the material.
Examples of learning objectives:
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recognize unstated assumptions,
recognize logical fallacies in reasoning,
distinguish between facts and inferences,
evaluate the relevancy of data,
analyse the organizational structure of creative work
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What do we mean by Taxonomy?
5.
Synthesis: ability to put parts together—form new
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whole.
May involve production of a unique communication (theme or
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Examples of learning objectives:
speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of
abstract relations (scheme for classifying information).
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write a well organized theme, write a creative short story
give a well organized speech, propose plan for an experiment,
integrate learning from different areas into a plan for solving a
problem,
formulates new scheme for classifying objects (or events, or
ideas).
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What do we mean by Taxonomy?
6.
Evaluation: ability to judge value of material
(statement, research report) for a given purpose.
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Judgments based on definite criteria,
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may be internal criteria (organization) or
external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and
the student may determine the criteria or be given them.
Highest learning outcomes—contains elements of all
other categories, plus conscious value judgments based
on clearly defined criteria.
Examples of learning objectives:
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judge logical consistency of written material,
judge adequacy of data to support conclusions,
judge value of a work by use of internal criteria,
judge value of a work by use of external standards of
excellence.
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CHART 3
IMPORTANCE OF SPECIFIC STUDENT SUCCESS
TEACHING OBJECTIVES
-- Total Sample (N=227) -Develop Critical/Analytical Thinking
Skills
Ensure Students Master
Knowledge/Discipline
Teach Students How to
Transfer/Apply
98
86
85
85
Teach Students to Work Ethically
80
Inspire Interest in Lifelong Learning
Teach Intrinsic Skills
(Communication/Leadership)
Help Students Acquire Practical
Skill Sets
Encourage Teamwork Approach to
Problem Solving/Interaction
73
68
61
58
Prepare Students for a Career/Job
0
20
40
60
80
Percent (%) Saying Extremely/Very Important
Q.3
I would like to read you this list of teaching objectives, and for each objective, please tell me
how important you think it is relative to "Student Success".
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100
The Perry Model of
Intellectual and Ethical Development
1.
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Dualistic Thinking
Students generally believe knowledge is certain and
unambiguous: black/white, right/wrong
Questions have immutable, objective answers
Students generally believe authorities possess
valuable wisdom that contains eternal truths
Transitions in Cognitive Development
Certainty yields to uncertainty and ambiguity
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The Perry Model of Intellectual and Ethical
Development
2. Multiplicity: Students come to believe that
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where uncertainty exists, knowledge and
truth are essentially subjective and personal
Transitions in Cognitive Development
Students come to recognize that mere opinion is
insufficient because specific criteria help evaluate
the usefulness and validity of knowledge claims:
• methodology, empirical evidence
• explanatory power, predictive power
• logical consistency
• positive vs. normative conclusions
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The Perry Model of Intellectual and Ethical
Development
3. Contextual-Relativism: Students come to believe
that even where uncertainty exists,
people must make choices about premises,
frameworks, hypotheses, and theories to apply;
policy conclusions are not self-evident
 Transitions in Cognitive Development
Students may come to recognize that even in a world of
uncertainty, they must make choices (whether about ideas,
hypotheses, theories, or policies).
These choices require methods of critical thinking.
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The Perry Model of Intellectual and Ethical
Development
4. Context-Appropriate Decisions
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Students may come to acknowledge that choices require
analysis and values.
Knowledge, theories, and methods are imperfect and
uncertain,
thus personal choices require acknowledging personal
responsibility that follows from personal values.
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Perry Applications to Teaching
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Mathematics: Copes, L. (1982). "The Perry Developmental
Scheme: A metaphor for learning and teaching mathematics,"
For the Learning of Mathematics.
Engineering: Culver, R. and Hackos, J. (1981). "Perry's model for
intellectual development: Implications for engineering
education,"
Foreign Languages: Jacoby, E.F., Jr. (1985). "The
developmental hypothesis in foreign languages learning:
Implications for proficiency,"
Biology: Kimmel, D.L., Jr. (1985). "Use of the Perry Model in an
introductory biology course”
Health Education: Nowakowski, L. (1980). "Developing a nursing
conceptual
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7 good practices in undergraduate
education
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encourages contact between students and faculty,
develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
encourages active learning,
gives prompt feedback,
emphasizes time on task,
communicates high expectations, and
respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
1. Encourages Contact Between Students and Faculty
 Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of
classes is the most important factor in student
motivation and involvement.
 Faculty concern helps students get through rough
times and keep on working.
 Knowing a few faculty members well enhances
students' intellectual commitment and encourages
them to think about their own values and future
plans.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
2.
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Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among
Students
Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team
effort that a solo race.
Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and
social, not competitive and isolated.
Working with others often increases involvement in
learning.
Sharing one's own ideas and responding to others'
reactions sharpens thinking and deepens
understanding.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
3.
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Encourages Active Learning
Learning is not a spectator sport.
Students do not learn much just by sitting in classes
listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged
assignments, and spitting out answers.
They must talk about what they are learning, write
about it, relate it to past experiences and apply it to
their daily lives.
They must make what they learn part of their
experience.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
4. Gives Prompt Feedback
 Knowing what you know and don't know focuses
learning.
 Students need appropriate feedback on
performance to benefit from courses.
 When getting started, students need help in
assessing existing knowledge and competence.
 In classes, students need frequent opportunities
to perform and receive suggestions for
improvement.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
5. Emphasizes Time on Task
 Time plus energy equals learning.
 There is no substitute for time on task.
 Learning to use one's time well is critical for
students and professionals alike.
 Students need help in learning effective time
management.
 Allocating realistic amounts of time means
effective learning for students and effective
teaching for faculty.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
6. Communicates High Expectations
 Expect more and you will get more.
 High expectations are important for everyone -for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to
exert themselves, and for the bright and well
motivated.
 Expecting students to perform well becomes a
self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and
institutions hold high expectations for
themselves and make extra efforts.
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Seven Principles of Good Practice
7. Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning
 There are many roads to learning.
 People bring different talents and styles of
learning
 Talent and skill in one area doesn’t guarantee
talent and skill in all areas.
 Students need the opportunity to show their
talents and learn in ways that work for them.
 Then they can be pushed to learn in new ways
that do not come so easily.
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Planning a teaching session
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Stage 1: Pre-Session Preparation
1. Goals
2. Content
3. Student level
Stage 2: Lesson Planning and Implementation
1. Unit title
2. Instructional goals
3. Objectives
4. Rationale
5. Content
6. Instructional procedures
7. Evaluation procedures
8. Materials
Stage 3: Post-Lesson Activities
1. Lesson evaluation and revision
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Lesson Plan
INSTRUCTOR
DATE
COURSE TITLE
LESSON
NUMBER
UNIT
SPECIFIC TOPIC
INSTRUCTIONAL GOAL (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the entire unit)
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE (use an action verb in a description of a measurable outcome)
RATIONALE (brief justification -- why you feel the students need to learn this topic)
LESSON CONTENT (what is to be taught)
INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES
a.Focusing event (something to get the students' attention)
b.Teaching procedures (methods you will use)
c.Formative check (progress checks throughout the lesson)
d.Student Participation (how you will get the students to
participate)
e.Closure (how you will end the lesson)
EVALUATION PROCEDURES (how you will measure outcomes to determine if the material
has been learned)
MATERIALS AND AIDS (what you will need in order to teach this lesson)
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Course Objectives
Fink’s Five Principles of Good Course Design
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Challenges students to HIGHER LEVEL LEARNING.
 All courses require some "lower level" learning, i.e.,
comprehending and remembering basic information
and concepts.
 Many never get beyond this.
 Examples of "higher level learning" include
problem solving, decision making, critical thinking,
and creative thinking.
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Course Objectives
Fink’s Five Principles of Good Course Design
2. Uses ACTIVE FORMS OF LEARNING.
 Some learning will be "passive", i.e., reading and
listening.
 But "higher level learning," almost by definition,
requires active learning.
 One learns to solve problems by solving problems;
one learns to think critically by thinking
critically; etc.
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Course Objectives
Fink’s Five Principles of Good Course Design
3. Gives FREQUENT and IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK to
students on the quality of their learning.
 Higher level learning and active learning require
frequent and immediate feedback for students
to know whether they are "doing it" correctly.
 "Frequent" means weekly or daily; feedback
consisting of "two mid-terms and a final" is not
sufficient.
 "Immediate" means during the same class if
possible, or at the next class session.
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Course Objectives
Fink’s Five Principles of Good Course Design
4. Uses a STRUCTURED SEQUENCE OF DIFFERENT
LEARNING ACTIVITIES.
 Any course needs a variety of forms of learning
(e.g., lectures, discussions, small groups, writing,
etc.), both to support different kinds of learning
goals and different learning styles.
 But these various learning activities also need to
be structured in a sequence such that earlier
classes lay the foundation for complex and higher
level learning tasks in later classes.
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Course Objectives
Fink’s Five Principles of Good Course Design
1.
Has a FAIR SYSTEM FOR ASSESSING AND
GRADING STUDENTS.
 Even when students feel they are learning
something significant, they are unhappy if their
grade does not reflect this.
 The grading system should be objective, reliable,
based on learning, flexible, and communicated in
writing.
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Teaching and Learning Objectives