UNIT I Packet, Lecture Outline Notes
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” (4,000,000 B.C. – 2,500 B.C.)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Do you like movies? Are you a film buff?
Here’s some history for you about the clip you’re about to view:
The film “2001: A Space Odyssey” first opened in U.S. theaters
in 1968. It was released at the height of the space race between the
Soviet Union and the U.S. in the 1960s. Film experts today
consider this film to be the best Sci-Fi movie ever made.
The film contains more spectacular imagery and special effects than verbal dialogue. For
instance, the first spoken word is almost a half hour into the film, and there's less than 40 minutes
of dialogue in the entire film. Much of the film is in dead silence (accurately depicting the
absence of sound in space), or with the sound of human breathing within a spacesuit.
All film buffs today agree that Director Stanley Kubrick's work is a profound and visionary
film and a tremendous visual experience. Intelligent viewers are left to experience the non-verbal
vastness of the film, and to reach into their own subconscious to speculate about its meaning.
Less appreciative, immature film audiences often consider the masterpiece bewildering and
annoying, but are still inspired by its story of how man is dwarfed by technology and space.
To learn more fascinating info. about this film, visit http://www.filmsite.org/twot.html
“What might our Human Origins have been like?”
– A Hollywood film’s perspective
When the film “2001: A Space Odyssey” first opened in U.S.
theaters in 1968, movie-goers were stunned by the amazing special
effects of space travel. The majority of film experts today
consider it to be the best Sci-Fi movie ever made… “paving
the way for how all Sci-Fi movies in the future would
portray the cold, silent, vastness that is Space.” (Roger Ebert)
But the opening of the film is not about man’s space travel at all. Instead, the film’s
director Stanley Kubrik wants us to realize just how far we’ve come – we, humans –
with our space travel. He therefore takes us all the way back to our human origins – to
the “Dawn of Man” - and gives us his vision of what early human origins may have
been like.
You are about to see the opening 10-minute sequence of this famous film where
Kubrik takes us, his audience, from the Dawn of Man and the invention of man’s
first Tool – to the amazing Technology we have today in the 21st century.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Please watch carefully…and Enjoy!
The film is enriched further by classical pieces of orchestral music.
The familiar piece of music you now hear
in this famous scene from the film is
Thus Spake Zarathustra by classical composer Richard Strauss.
• WATCH CAREFULLY:
In this pivotal scene, Kubrick gives us his vision of how two giant leaps in human
evolution might have happened…
man’s first consciousness & technology.
The moment the primate creature picks up the bone and has his “thought”
– a conscious event – he realizes
man can use and manipulate an object to meet his needs - Tools / Technology began.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
In a 10 minute opening scene…
One without any dialogue…
Stanley Kubrik takes us, his audience,
from the Dawn of Man –
and the invention of man’s first Tool –
to the amazing Technology we have today
in the 21st century.
Now that’s brilliant filmmaking!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
To learn more fascinating info. about this film, visit
http://www.filmsite.org/twot.html
UNIT I Packet, Lecture Outline Notes
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” (4,000,000 B.C. – 2,500 B.C.)
Mr. Loessin; Akins H. S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early human settlements.
Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human
skeletal remains,
they study the remains humans left behind –
their settlements, their objects.
Can you break the word down?
-ology = the study of
Archae- = old things
Careers
In
Social Studies
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Here’s a Reading Enrichment idea:
Archaeology magazine is available at local
bookstores and through your Akins library.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early human settlements.
Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human
skeletal remains,
they study the remains humans left behind –
their settlements, their objects.
Mary Leakey 1913-1996
was one of the world's most
famous hunters of early
human fossils, credited with
many discoveries that have
changed the way scientists
view human evolution. She
is considered the
preeminent contributor to
the field of human origins.
-ology = the study of
Archae = old things
The Leakey Family
Famous Archaeologists
Mary’s son,
Richard Leakey
Mary’s daughter Meave Leakey
recently impressed the world with
her 1999 discovery of a 3.5 millionyear-old skull.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early human settlements.
Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human
skeletal remains,
they study the remains humans left behind –
their settlements, their objects.
-ology = the study of
Archae = old things
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early human settlements.
Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human
skeletal remains,
they study the remains humans left behind –
their settlements, their objects.
-ology = the study of
Archae = old things
3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early settlements.
3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.
4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.
Careers
In
Social Studies
-ology =
Anthro- =
the study of
man
Anthropology has many branches of study.
- physical anthropology, also known as biological anthropology, studies primate behavior, human
evolution, and population genetics.
- cultural anthropology, also known as social anthropology, studies the social networks formed by our
ancestors, their social behaviors, kinship patterns, politics, beliefs, patterns in production and
consumption, and other ways they expressed their culture.
- linguistic anthropology studies variation in human languages across time and geographic regions,
the uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture.
- forensic anthropology analyzes skeletal remains in to determine how people might have lived or died.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early settlements.
3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.
4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.
5. culture – a people’s unique way of life.
Forms of Expression
Art / Music
CULTURE
Relationships
Family / social life
Forms of Communication
Language / Symbols
Rituals
Customs / Traditions / Beliefs
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I.
Human Origins In Africa
A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins
1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events
2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating
and studying the traces of early settlements.
3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects.
4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind.
5. culture – a people’s unique way of life.
6. paleontologist – scientists who study how life developed on earth based on
studies of fossils.
Careers
In
Social Studies
“Poop, anyone?”
-ology = the study of
Paleo- = old period
It’s not always fossilized bones!
Some of you may not be cut out for this vocation!
Besides bones, one of the things paleontologists examine
quite often is ….well, poop! That’s right, fossilized feces (coprolites)
can be quite revealing about our ancestor’s diet and eating habits, what chemical elements
they may have been exposed to, their health, diseases, and life spans.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
How do we know all Humans originated in Africa?
The scientific evidence!
All of the oldest hominid fossils – those dating back farther than 3 million years –
have been found in only one place on earth…
the fossil-rich region known as the Great Rift Valley of Africa.
Here is where man began.
Check out these websites guaranteed to “wow” you!
http://www.archaeologyinfo.com - Click on “Human Ancestry”
amazing graphics and interactive opportunities for ya!
http://www.becominghuman.org
- the official website of archaeologist Donald Johanson
and his Institute of Human Origins.
Both sites do a great job of explaining what we now know about humankind’s evolution.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors (hominids)
the “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
“Father of Evolution Theory”
1809 - 1882
Charles Darwin theorized
that humans and apes must
have shared a common
ancestor that had both
human and apelike physical
characteristics in his book
The Origin of Species (1859)
For over 100 years scientists have sought
to find the remains of such a “missing link” in
our human family tree. When “Lucy,” the
skeleton of an Australopithecine was
discovered in the 1970’s by archaeologist
Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the
long-anticipated “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
“Father of Evolution Theory”
b. Lived 4 million – 1 million years ago
1809 - 1882
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Charles Darwin theorized
that humans and apes must
have shared a common
ancestor that had both
human and apelike physical
characteristics in his book
The Origin of Species (1859)
For over 100 years scientists have sought
to find the remains of such a “missing link” in
our human family tree. When “Lucy,” the
skeleton of an Australopithecine was
discovered in the 1970’s by archaeologist
Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the
long-anticipated “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
“Father of Evolution Theory”
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of east Africa
1809 - 1882
Charles Darwin theorized
that humans and apes must
have shared a common
ancestor that had both
human and apelike physical
characteristics in his book
The Origin of Species (1859)
For over 100 years scientists have sought
to find the remains of such a “missing link” in
our human family tree. When “Lucy,” the
skeleton of an Australopithecine was
discovered in the 1970’s by archaeologist
Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the
long-anticipated “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of East Africa
d. Footprints of one were first found by
Mary Leakey in Tanzania
“Father of Evolution Theory”
1809 - 1882
Charles Darwin theorized
that humans and apes must
have shared a common
ancestor that had both
human and apelike physical
characteristics in his book
The Origin of Species (1859)
For over 100 years scientists have sought
to find the remains of such a “missing link” in
our human family tree. When “Lucy,” the
skeleton of an Australopithecine was
discovered in the 1970’s by archaeologist
Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the
long-anticipated “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that
walked upright.
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of East Africa
d. Footprints of one first found by
Mary Leakey in Tanzania
e. Female skeletal remains of one
found by Donald Johanson
in Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974
Let us now meet Donald Johanson,
the discoverer of “Lucy”
Please watch Video…
“Father of Evolution Theory”
1809 - 1882
Charles Darwin theorized
that humans and apes must
have shared a common
ancestor that had both
human and apelike physical
characteristics in his book
The Origin of Species (1859)
For over 100 years scientists have sought
to find the remains of such a “missing link” in
our human family tree. When “Lucy,” the
skeleton of an Australopithecine was
discovered in the 1970’s by archaeologist
Donald Johanson, it was proclaimed to be the
long-anticipated “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of East Africa
d. Footprints of one first found by
Mary Leakey in Tanzania
e. Female skeletal remains of one
found by Donald Johanson
in Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974
The Scientific Discovery of the Century!
Johanson discovered a primate that was in
every way ape-like except for one huge
difference – a locking knee joint! –
that enabled it to walk upright.
This part ape / part human creature was the “missing link.”
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of East Africa
d. Footprints of one first found by
Mary Leakey in Tanzania
Leakey’s discovery was also important.
She discovered footprints (with arches!)
at Laetoli in Tanzania.
Only a creature who was a biped (walked
upright) would have arches in his feet! These
footprints were as old as Lucy’s skeleton, 3.5
million years old. Leaky and Johanson agreed to
name their new find on the human family tree the Australopithecine.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa (continued)
2. Australopithecine –
a. one of the earliest human ancestors
Hint:
Short Answer
Question on
Test next
Monday!
The “missing link” – why?
i. A locking knee joint allowed it to walk
upright – a biped!
ii. An opposable thumb allowed it to grasp
items and make tools
b. Lived around 4 million – 1 million B.C.
c. Discovered in Great Rift of East Africa
d. Footprints of one first found by
Mary Leakey in Tanzania
e. Female skeletal remains of one
found by Donald Johanson
in Hadar, Ethiopia in 1974
Australopithecus
Homo Habilis
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Which of our ancestors
comes along next?
See your packet chart, p. 6
The genus Homo- follows the Australopithecus on the human family tree. (See graphic below.)
“Using his brain” now to make tools, etc. may help explain why
a great amount of brain-size expansion is now observed in the new Homo- line of ancestors.
Check out this animated graphic below:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/evolution/shockwave.html
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
B. Discovery of early hominids
(Lecture Notes continued)
3. Homo Habilis
a. Second oldest form of early humans
b. from 2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C.
c. First to make stone tools
Technology – ways of applying knowledge,
tools and objects, inventions to meet our needs.
Why this name?
“Homo-” = man
“Habilis” = ability
Because this is the
first of our human ancestors believed to have the
“ability” to make stone tools.
d. Have been found only in E. Africa
Early Homo Habilis tools –
scrapers, bone points, etc.
Which of our ancestors comes along next?
See your packet chart, p. 6
Australopithecus
Homo Habilis
Homo Erectus
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Note that our old friend Homo Habilis was co-existing with a few other descendants of Lucy’s
kind – the Australopithecus. About 1 million years ago the last of the Australopithecus species
were dying out and our new Homo- genus types were evolving … this new man was evolving /
changing particularly in height and upright posture. This human ancestor is Mr. Homo Erectus!
Check out this animated graphic below:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/evolution/shockwave.html
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
4. Homo Erectus
a. From 1.6 million to 300,000 B.C.
b. More intelligent and
adaptable than Homo Habilis
c. Remains have been found in
Africa, Europe, and Asia
d. First to migrate out of Africa
(settlements found in India, China, SE Asia,
and southern Europe)
e. First to use fire
(moved out of Africa into cooler regions
as Ice Age receded – fire provided
warmth, cook food, frighten animals)
f. First to have the beginnings of
spoken language
Why this name?
“Homo-” = man
“Erectus” = upright
The height increased
greatly in this species,
some remains were
calculated to be taller
than 5'5", which is
more than a foot taller
than remains of the
Homo habilis. The
fossils have been found
in large quantities,
proving the strength of
this species given its
new upright posture.
Such posture provided
better mobility, the
ability to carry loads
while moving, and
increased hunting skill.
( ?? theory lacks strong evidence)
Which of our ancestors comes along next?
See your packet chart, p. 6
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
While our old friend Homo Erectus was around for about a million years, he began to coexist
with an archaic form of Homo Sapiens (Homo heidelbergensis). Later would also arrive on the
scene a divergent branch of Homo Sapiens known as the Neandertals (Homo neanderthalensis).
And finally, less than 50,000 years ago, modern Homo Sapiens (Cro Magnon) arrvied.
Check out this animated graphic below:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/evolution/shockwave.html
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
5. Homo Sapien
a. Neanderthal man – early type
Why this name?
“Homo-” = man
“Sapien” = wise
This skull of the
early archaic form of Homo Sapien shows their brain
size increased and their skull encasing also became
more rounded than the skull of the Homo erectus.
They also had a much steeper forehead than previous
species, which hints that the brain itself had more
emphasis on the forebrain. This is a very interesting
observation since this sector of the brain is responsible
for planning and reasoning, movements of limbs,
speech, as well as social conduct, which modern day
humans are much more advanced in.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
5. Homo Sapien
Why this name?
a. Neanderthal man – early type
“Neander –” is a valley
in Germany where a first
i. From 200,000 – 30,000 B.C.
fossil discovery of this
not around very long!
species was accidentally
ii. Found in Neander valley in
found in the 1800s.
Germany and SW Asia
iii. first to have religious rituals /
Neanderthal were around
belief in an after-life
during the end of the Ice Age, and were very adapted to
buried their dead
living in this cold environment. They were short in
iv. Slanted brow, thick bones,
stature averaging about 5'5" and had short arms and
powerfully built
legs. This condensed body shape helped to conserve
heat. They also had an amazing projection in their
v. Lived in caves or shelters
nasal cavity to warm the cold frigid air before entering
their bodies.
Their brain was larger than modern humans, but that
doesn’t mean they were “smarter” – larger body frames
usually have more brain mass, this does not imply
intelligence. The bones of this species are large and
they were thick-skinned, muscular – again, evolving
this way to survive their particular environment.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
5. Homo Sapien
a. Neanderthal man – early type
i. From 200,000 – 30,000 B.C.
ii. Found in Neander valley in
Germany and SW Asia
iii. first to have belief in an after-life
iv. Slanted brow, thick, powerfully built
v. Lived in caves or shelters
b. Cro-Magnon man
i. 40,000 – 3,000 B.C. (Prehistory ends)
ii. identical to modern humans
Why this name?
Our closest ancestor,
Cro-Magnon man’s first
fossil findings were
found in 1868 in the
cro-magnon cave of Dordogne, France.
Cro-Magnon probably developed in SW Asia,
migrated to Europe, co-existed with Neanderthal
man for a time (eventually they drove the
Neandertals into exctinction) and flourished in
southern Europe during the last glacial age.
They were anatomically identical to modern
humans – they were tall (avg. 5’9”); skull had no
brow ridges - was thin, rounded, with a high
forehead; and had a projecting chin.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
B. Discovery of early hominids
5. Homo Sapien
a. Neanderthal man – early type
i. From 200,000 – 30,000 B.C.
ii. Found in Neander valley in
Germany and SW Asia
iii. first to have belief in an after-life
iv. Slanted brow, thick, powerfully built
v. Lived in caves or shelters
b. Cro-Magnon man
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
40,000 – 3,000 B.C. (Prehistory ends)
identical to modern humans
superior hunters
advanced skills in spoken language
& Art!
They hunted mainly with spears, (bow and arrows came much
later). Cro Magnon made tools from blades of Flint stone, used
for preparing animal skins. They made innovations to pierced
shells, tooth and bone pendants used for body ornamentation.
Their art included figurines of Venus, small statuettes of bone,
and they made outline cave wall drawings of woolly mammoths
and other animals. Used mammoth fur and bones to construct
dwellings and may have hunted the mammoth into extinction.
CHAPTER 1: Early Human Origins to The Neotlithic Revolution to the Birth of Civilization
Millions
of years
ago
3
2
1
BC 0 AD
Australopithecine
Afarensis
Australopithecine
Africanus
Homo
Homo
Habilis
Erectus
Homo
Sapiens
“Lucy”
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Crossing the
Bering Strait
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
The Fossil Evidence Speaks For Itself
Paleo =
- lithic =
Bering land bridge
into Americas!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
http://www.handprint.com/LS/ANC/disp.html
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
C. Stone Ages
1. Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age)
a. Lasted from about 2.5 million B.C. to 8,000 B.C.
b. Oldest stone tools date back to this period.
c. All 5 types of early man date back to this period
Australopithecine, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus,
both Homo Sapiens (Neanderthal & Cro Magnon)
… and they all were Hunter-Gatherers !
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World”
I. Human Origins in Africa
(Lecture Notes continued)
C. Stone Ages
1. Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Age)
a. Lasted from about 2.5 million B.C. to 8,000 B.C.
b. Oldest stone tools date back to this period.
c. All 5 types of early man date back to this period
… and they all were Hunter-Gatherers !
But then came a Revolution (a great change) in human behavior. Agriculture!
2. New Stone Age (Neolithic Age)
a. Lasted from about 8,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.
b. Cro-Magnon / Modern Man is from this period
c. Advanced tools, ability to make pottery, domestication of animals
and raised crops (AGRICULTURE) – farmed their own food!!
d. Neolithic Revolution – the great change in human behavior when humans shifted
from hunting-gathering to growing their own food (agriculture).
Revolution – means a dramatic transformation (change in behavior),
usually requiring great effort, but producing long-lasting changes.
i.e. Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, American Revolution
2. New Stone Age (Neolithic Age)
d. Neolithic Revolution – the great change in human behavior when humans changed
from hunting-gathering to growing their own food (agriculture).
Hint:
Essay Question
on Test
next Monday!
“led to”
Cause
Effect
Why is this Neolithic Revolution important?
• In order to grow crops, humans will have to “settle down” !
and wait for the seeds / crops to grow.
• “Settling down” meant the first human settlements (villages and later, cities!)
• Once settled, humans tamed animals (goats, cattle, pigs, sheep) > used as beasts
of burden, sources of meat protein, milk, hides and fibers for protective clothing.
• Better diet & food surpluses (grain storage) > increased birth rates, decreased infant
mortality rates, increased life expectancies > population explosion
> large civilizations.
“led to”
• Put simply, because humans finally settled down…
the Neolithic Revolution (Agriculture) led to Civilization!
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
QUIZ TIME !!!
Click here to test your knowledge about Early Man & His Migrations
9 questions
http://www.historyteacher.net/GlobalHistory-1/Quizzes/EarliestHumanMigrations.htm
CHAPTER 1: Early Human Origins to The Neotlithic Revolution to the Birth of Civilization
Millions
of years
ago
3
2
1
BC 0 AD
Australopithecine
Afarensis
Australopithecine
Africanus
Homo
Homo
Habilis
Erectus
Homo
Sapiens
“Lucy”
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Pre-A.P. World History
Mr. Loessin; Room 167
Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50
Archaeologists believe this is where one of the world’s first civilizations arose.
Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq) – is known as the cradle of Civilization.
TODAY’s OBJECTIVES:
• Explain how the first agricultural settlements grew into cities (civilizations).
• List the 5 characteristics of a civilization.
• Describe how the early Mesopotamian cities – like Ur and others – exemplify early civilization.
AGENDA: ** Please pick up handout on front table as you enter today!.
• Using your homework, complete the handout chart.
• Discussing your analysis of chart, “The Five Characteristics of Civilization”
• CHAPTER 1 QUIZ !!!
ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME:
• ALL: Read CH 2, Sections 1 pp. 26-32 in Textbook !
• Pre-A.P. Supplemental Article, “Lost to the Ages” is due!
REMINDER: TEXTBOOKS are REQUIRED in class EVERY DAY!
CH 1, Section 3: Civilization!
In Section 2, you read about how the development of agriculture led to
a major change (a revolution) in human behavior. No longer huntinggathering nomads, humans now began a settled way of life. These
human “settlements” became “villages” became “towns” became
“cities”….in other words, civilizations arose. Where do
archaeologists believe was the earliest human civilization? Ur
SW Asia
(the Middle East)
Fertile
Crescent
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
CH 1, Section 3: Civilization!
Where do archaeologists believe was the earliest human
civilization? Ur (the Sumerians)
Map of the region, 4,000 B.C.
SW Asia
(the Middle East)
Linking the Past
to
Current Events
What country is
located in this
area today?
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Present-Day Political Map of the region.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Archaeology at work:
When Iraq became controlled by Britain following WWI,
Leonard Woolley – known as the first “modern” archaeologist – led an
expedition funded by the British Museum to excavate at Ur for the first time.
In 1928 Woolley discovered a Royal Cemetery filled with remarkable finds.
Harps from Ur (2,600 – 2,300 B.C)
The Standard of Ur, (ca. 2,650-2,400 B.C.) is one of the most informative Sumerian objects of
art that were discovered at Ur.
[Handout] THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
A.
Advanced Cities
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Sumerian city life
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
Art piece, Metropolitan Museum of Art
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
A.
advanced Cities
B.
The Sumerian city-state of Lagesh produced a
remarkable number of statues of its kings as
well as Sumerian literary hymns and prayers
under the rule of Gudea (ca. 2150–2125 B.C.)
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
B.
the
Education
system
advanced Cities
complex Institutions
Government
& Laws
Institution – a long-lasting organization
in a society.
Economic
system
Sumerian boys being educated as scribes.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Religious
hierarchy,
symbols,
rituals
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
C.
Wooden sailboat, modeled
after common Sumerian
illustrations found near Ur.
Reproduction of early Sumerian war chariot
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
A.
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
This heavy gold helmet is exquisitely
engraved to reproduce the curls of his
hair and the bun at the back of his
head. Royal Cemetery of Ur, about
2500 B.C. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Spear throwers wearing helmets
More on early Sumerian warfare, http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/id46.html
advanced Cities
C.
Sumerian clay fragment clearly depicting bronze
helmets and even early phalanx formation.
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military C.
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats (huge tiered pyramid-shaped temple monuments)
Interactive ziggurat,
http://www.islamonline.net/english/In_Depth/Iraq_Aftermath/2003/07/article_02.shtml
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
Technology
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military C.
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats (huge tiered pyramid-shaped temple monuments)
Bronze-Age
Weapons
Wheel
Sailboat
Sumerian
Achievements
Plow
Sewers
Engineered
construction of
Ziggurats
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
C.
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
D.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
advanced Cities
Technology
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
• Farmers and merchants engaged in trade of their goods
• Those trained to be priests, soldiers, teachers,
government officials, and scribes.
Scribes recording transactions in the city market.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
C.
D.
Technology
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
• Farmers and merchants engaged in trade of their goods
• Those trained to be priests, soldiers, teachers,
government officials, and scribes.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
C.
Technology
D. specialized Workers
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
• Farmers and merchants engaged in trade of their goods
• Those trained to be priests, soldiers, teachers,
government officials, and scribes.
• Cuneiform tablets found in Sumeria record business transactions,
historical events from their past, their traditions and customs.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
C.
Technology
D. specialized Workers
E.
Record-keeping
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
A.
advanced Cities
B. organized Institutions
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
• Farmers and merchants engaged in trade of their goods
• Those trained to be priests, soldiers, teachers,
government officials, and scribes.
• Cuneiform tablets found in Sumeria record business transactions,
historical events from their past, their traditions and customs.
C.
Technology
D. specialized Workers
E.
Record-keeping
A civilization is a complex culture that has developed, over time,
these five characteristics.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
(Textbook, p. 18)
Did you know…
In its early history, each of the
city-states of Sumeria had its own
patron god.
Ur, for instance, was the earthly
home of the moon god, Nanna.
And did you know,
according to the Hebrew
scriptures (the book of Genesis in
the Christian Bible)…
Ur was the birthplace of
the biblical patriarch Abraham,
who laid the groundwork for the
first ever monotheistic religion –
Judaism.
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
AKINS HIGH SCHOOL
Pre-A.P. World History
Mr. Loessin; Room 167
Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50
Archaeologists believe this is where one of the world’s first civilizations arose.
Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq) – is known as the cradle of Civilization.
TODAY’s OBJECTIVES:
• Explain how the first agricultural settlements grew into cities (civilizations).
• List the 5 characteristics of a civilization.
• Describe how the early Mesopotamian cities – like Ur and others – exemplify early civilization.
AGENDA: Please pick up handout on front table as you enter today!.
• Using your homework, complete the handout chart.
• Discussing your analysis of chart, “The Five Characteristics of Civilization”
• CHAPTER 1 QUIZ !!!
ASSIGNMENT for NEXT TIME:
• ALL: Read CH 2, Sections 1 pp. 26-32 in Textbook !
• Pre-A.P. Supplemental Article, “Lost to the Ages” is due!
REMINDER: TEXTBOOKS are REQUIRED in class EVERY DAY!
THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION:
• Uruk – population of about 10,000, doubled in two centuries
• Lagesh – population of about 19,000
• Umma – population of about 16,000
• Formal governments with officials and laws
• Priests with both religious and political power
• A rigorous education system for training scribes.
• By 3,000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed the wheel, the plow,
sewers, and the sailboat.
• Bronze weapons and body armor that gave the Sumerians a military
advantage over their enemies.
• Engineered construction of ziggurats
• Sumeria had artisans (skilled workers who make goods by hand) –
i. e., metalworkers, weavers, potters, tanners
• Farmers and merchants engaged in trade of their goods
• Those trained to be priests, soldiers, teachers,
government officials, and scribes.
• Cuneiform tablets found in Sumeria record business transactions,
historical events from their past, their traditions and customs.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A civilization is _________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________.
(Textbook, p. 18)
PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
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