F lo rid a In te rn a tio n a l U n iv e rs ity P r o je c t SOL (S tu d en ts fro m O th er L an d s ) Social Networks of Newly Immigrant Children and Adolescents: Network Disruption and Change over Time Levitt, M. J., Levitt, J. L., Hodgetts, J., Lane, J. D., Perez, E. I. & Pierre, F. This research was funded by the Spencer Foundation. Address correspondence to: [email protected] Immigration & the Social Convoy • Social networks (convoys) change over major life transitions. • Immigration is a profound transition requiring extensive adaptation. • Little is known about the early stages of adaptation in children and adolescents. The Present Study • Followed newly immigrant children over their first two years in the U. S. • Focused on social network disruption, social support, and personal adjustment. Research Questions • Extent and nature of network disruption? • Consequences of network disruption? • Variation by country of origin? Sample • N = 512 (51% male) public school students in Miami-Dade County, FL. • Countries of origin: Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, & the West Indies. • Grade levels: 3-4, 6-7, & 9 (age 7-18). • In U. S. for < 1 year at the beginning of the project. Procedure • Personal interview at school in participant’s native language. • Second interview 1 year later. Network & Support Measures • Social convoy map • Social support functions Convoy Map 9. Lourdes R ovira 10. R ubén R um baut 11. Alex S tepic k 6. S onja B raun-G aetje ns 7. Jam es Jac ks on 1. Mom 2. D ad 8. W illiam K urtines 3. G as tón B us tos R 's Nam e . 4. Jennifer Hodgetts 5. Avida n Milevs ky 12. C arola S uárez O roz c o Support Functions 1. Are there people you talk to about things that are really important to you? 2. …who make you feel better when something bothers you or you are not sure about something? 3. …who would take care of you if you were sick? 4. …who like to be with you and do fun things with you? 5. …who help you with homework or other work you do for school? 6. …who make you feel special or good about yourself? Additional Measures • Proportion of network members remaining in country of origin • Frequency of contact with each network member • Self-concept • Psychological distress Network Disruption: Convoy Members in Country of Origin • 43% of the child’s convoy members were in the country of origin at Time 1. 14 12 10 8 • 35% of convoy members were in the country of origin at Time 2: A significant change. N in Convoy 6 N in Country 4 2 0 Time 1 Time 2 Specific Relations in Country of Origin • Over half of extended family & most friends were in the country of origin at Time 1. 6 5 N Time 1 4 Ctry T 1 3 Friends Ext Fm 1 Close Fm • Both the proportion of friends in the country of origin & the total number of friends dropped at Time 2. 2 0 N Time 2 Ctry T 2 Convoy Members in Country of Origin by Group W. Indies Haiti N in Country Cuba • Haitians had smaller convoys & proportionally fewer in country of origin. Total N Colombia • Argentineans had proportionally more in country of origin. 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Argentina • Argentinean & West Indian children had larger convoys overall. Support by Relation • Support was provided mostly by close family, followed by extended family & friends. 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 Friends 0 Ext Fm 0.5 Close Fm • Participants reported more support from close family & friends, less from extended family at Time 2. Time 1 Time 2 Support by Relation by Group 3 2.5 2 Cl Fm Ex Fm Friend 1.5 1 W.Indies Haiti Cuba 0 Colombia 0.5 Argentina • Haitians reported less support overall & even less from friends. • Argentineans were highest in friend support. • Time 2 effects were comparable. Network Disruption, Contact & Support • % of network members in the country of origin correlated with less contact with network members, but not less support. • Participants with greater close family network disruption perceived more support from close family members. % in C o u n try T im e 1 C lo se F am ily E x ten d ed F am ily F rien d s T im e 2 C lo se F am ily E x ten d ed F am ily F rien d s C o n tact S u p p o rt -.8 5 * * -.8 0 * * -.7 6 * * .1 5 * * -.0 1 .0 4 -.8 5 * * -.7 9 * * -.7 7 * * .1 8 * * -.0 1 -.0 4 * p < .0 5 . * * P < .0 1 . (N u m b ers are co rrelatio n co efficien ts .) Adjustment Analyses • Network disruption was related weakly to distress at Time 2. • Support was related to more positive self-concept across time and to less distress at Time 1. • Effects were mostly comparable across country-of-origin groups. S elf C o n cep t T im e 1 % in C o u n try C o n tact S u p p o rt T im e 2 % in C o u n try C o n tact S u p p o rt .0 6 .1 2 .1 0 * .0 5 .0 0 .1 2 * * D istress -.0 2 -.0 6 -.0 9 * -.0 7 .1 6 .1 3 * * * p < .0 5 . * * P < .0 1 . (N u m b ers are stan d ard ized b etas.) -.0 5 -.0 7 -.0 4 .0 6 * -.0 4 .0 0 Network Disruption and Desire to Go Back or Stay in the U. S. • Participants with more convoy members in their country of origin were more likely to say they wanted to go back. 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 Go Back 0.2 Stay Here 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Time 1 Time 2 Conclusions • Child and adolescent networks are disrupted significantly by migration. • Support from close family and new friends may compensate for a loss of extended family support. • Effects of network disruption may emerge over time. • How the dynamics of social network change affect further adaptation remains to be seen. • Characteristics of new friendship networks may be especially salient.