BY: Stephen Reading
&
Karan Patel
Early Life of Peron
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Born in Argentina in 1895
Abandoned by his father during his youth
Entered in the military academy at 16
Was through and through a military man
Peron Forms Ideology
• Visited Germany and Italy
– Admired their nationalistic ideas and military
focus
• Preferred Mussolini over Hitler
• Became member of group of united officers,
which sought to bring the nationalism of Italy
and Germany to Argentina
Political Career
• Military revolution of group of united officers
• In 1945, arrested during military during
another coup but freed during the efforts of
Eva Duarte and some union leaders.
• Married Eva Duarte; gave him political sway
with the poor which allowed him to win next
presidential election
Political Career
• Reformed working and social conditions and
allowed women to vote which gave him
unmatched political power with the labor unions
• Evita dies; economic crises arise from Peron’s
reforms
• Attempts to maintain power through dictoral
measures
• These measures angered many people in the
labor unions, which led to coups by the military
Exile and later life
• Peron exiled after successful coup for 18 years
• In his absence, the economic crisis in Argentina
became worse and unions lost power
• A movement to bring Peron back rose in
Argentina; came back in 1973 and won the
presidency
• Attempted to fix economic problems but made
them worse
• Died in 1974; his wife took control of the govt.
and was taken out by military coup in 1976
Historical Context
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Economic Boom Post WWI
Politically run by small oligarchy
Powerful labor movement
Argentina destabilized by WWII
The war split the country politically
Military was key piece to political power, but
military became too powerful and took the
power themselves
• After military did their coups, they took power
and became successful factions
Historical Context
• Argentina in political trouble for staying
neutral
• Argentine Presidents came to office either
through coup d'états or frauds in elections
• After Great Depression, there was a need to
overcome the country’s economic
vulnerability
• Economic independence was strengthened
after World War II
The Elimination of Opposition
• Peron did not need to oppress the opposition
due to his popularity with the people
• However, he still purged 70% of university
professors and replaced Supreme Court
justices to maintain control of media
• 1949- Redrafting of the constitution- allowed
re-elected Congress to repress opposition
Long-Term Factors
• Problems:
– Lack of genuine democracy
– Widespread corruption
– Middle class voices not heard
– Intellectuals felt politically frustrated, since they
couldn’t voice their ideas against fraud &
nepotism
– Working class lacked organization to fight against
the system
Short-Term Factors
• Problems:
1. Argentina and World War II
 When WWII broke out in 1939, Argentina declared its
neutrality in the conflict
 USA put pressure on Argentine govt. to break up
diplomatic relations with the Axis
 Armed forces interfered in political life to prevent this
from happening and to continue with their neutral
position
Short-Term Factors
• Problems:
2. Military Secret Society – The GOU
Juan Peron, founding member, of the GOU
Claimed to end corruption and fraud and restore the
Argentine constitution
Believed that Argentina had to develop its national
industry and strengthen its defenses
Considered it better to introduce improvements in the
living and working conditions of employees
HOW ????????
• Peron’s social and economic policies that
benefited Argentineans
• Eva Peron’s ability to gain support of women
and urban workers
• BOTH ALLOWED PERON TO REMAIN IN
POWER IN ARGENTINA
Peron Improves Argentina’s Economy
• Nationalized central bank, telephones,
railroads, and other parts of economy
• Peron pays off national debt of Argentina
• Five Year Plan – Industrialize the economy
• Employment and wage increase
• High tax revenue
Peron Improves Argentina’s Economy
• Second Five Year Plan – Focus on agriculture
(exporting agricultural products to finance
industrialization)
• IAPI (The Argentine Institution for the
Promotion of Trade) – bought products at low
prices, but sold exports at high prices
– This would fund welfare projects and
industrialization
Peronism
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Justicialismo – doctrine that unites society
All industries had trade unions
Social security
Free education
Low-income housing
Workers had free medical care, recreation
centers, labor unions, 8-hour work days, and
ability to make complaints to labor courts
Peronism
• Organization of labor vital for success of state in
asserting workers’ rights
• Higher wages
• System of collective bargaining
• Greater levels of unionization
• Better living conditions for working class and
poor
• Represented a meaning of citizenship, and it
challenged traditional forms of authority
Popularity of Evita, and her appeal to
Argentineans
• Eva Peron Foundation – welfare projects
• Female Peronist Party – Women Suffrage
(1947)
• Women gain right to vote – gain support from
women
• Had influence from urban workers, gaining
more support for her husband
• Charms people
Works Cited
• http://www.columbia.edu/~lnp3/mydocs/state_and_revolution/arg
entina3.htm
• http://learning.londonmet.ac.uk/languages/pwr/peronism.htm
• http://ibhistory.wikidot.com/13
• http://schoolworkhelper.net/juan-peron-policies-and-practices/
• http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1950peronism2.html
• "Peronism." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed.
William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Macmillan Reference
USA, 2008. 214-215. Gale World History In Context. Web. 18 Dec.
2012.
• http://assets.pearsonglobalschools.com/asset_mgr/current/201219
/HistoryASPStatesChapter2.pdf
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JUAN PERON (The Argentine Dictator)