Becoming a Teacher
Ninth Edition
Forrest W. Parkay
Chapter 5
Historical Foundations of U.S. Education
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Focus Questions
1.
Why is educational history important?
2.
What were teaching and schools like in the American
colonies (1620–1750)?
3.
What were the goals of education during the Revolutionary
Period (1750-1820)
4.
How was the struggle won for state-supported common
school (1820-1865)?
5.
How did compulsory education change schools and the
teaching profession (1865-1920)?
6.
What were the aims of education during the Progressive
Era (1920-1945)?
7.
How did education change during the modern postwar era
(1945-2000)?
8.
What are the educational priorities of the new century
(2000 to the present)?
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-2
Why is educational history important?
•
Knowledge of events that influenced schools will help in
evaluation of current proposals for change.
•
Awareness of events that have influenced teaching is a
hallmark of professionalism
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-3
What were teaching and schools like in the
American colonies (1620 – 1750)?
Curriculum
Essentialist reading, writing and math based on religion
Teacher Status
Low, minimal qualifications, high morals
Schools
Puritan – Often harsh schools that taught reading and
writing to learn scriptures
Parochial – Schools based on religious beliefs
Dame – Schools for initial instruction of reading, writing and
arithmetic boys and only school for girls
Reading and Writing – Schools for boys beyond what
parents could teach
Latin Grammar Schools – Schools for boys to prep for
Harvard
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-4
What were teaching and schools like in the
American colonies (1620 – 1750)?
Origins of Mandated Education (Acts)
•
Massachusetts Act of 1642
– First educational law in country – declared children
needed to read and write. If not able parents could
receive fine
•
Massachusetts Act of 1647
– Old Deluder Satan Act – Mandated the establishment and
support of schools
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-5
What were teaching and schools like in the
American colonies (1620 – 1750)?
Education of Students
•
African Americans
– received training from masters or church groups, also
Philadelphia African School
•
Native Americans
– Received education from Quaker Indian Schools
•
Mexican Americans
– Received training from missionaries
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-6
What were the goals of education during the
Revolutionary Period (1750-1820)?
Ben Franklin
Started Philadelphia Academy - secular academic supported
privately
•
Wrote “Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania”
Sarah Pierce
Started Sarah Pierce’s Female Academy – emphasized
essentialist curriculum
Female Seminaries
•
Troy Seminary – One of the first women’s colleges
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-7
What were the goals of education during the
Revolutionary Period (1750-1820)?
Thomas Jefferson
•
Viewed education of the common people most effective
means of preserving liberty
•
For a society to remain free, it must support a continuous
system of public education
•
Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge – called
for state controlled schools that would teach at no cost to
parents 3 yrs of reading, writing and arithmetic
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-8
What were the goals of education during the
Revolutionary Period (1750-1820)?
Webster’s Speller
Written by Noah Webster
“The Old Blue-Back”
Purpose was to “instill first rudiments of language, some
just ideas of religion, morals and domestic economy”
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-9
How was the struggle won for state-supported
common schools (1820-1865)?
Common Schools
state supported high schools
•
In favor – city residents, nontaxpayers, democratic leaders,
philanthropist, humanitarians
•
Opposed – rural residents, taxpayers, aristocratic and
conservative groups, private school owners, conservative
religious groups, Southerners and Non-English speaking
groups
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-10
How was the struggle won for state-supported
common schools (1820-1865)?
Horace Mann
•
•
Champion of Common School Movement
– free public local schools
Improved Massachusetts schools
•
Convince Conservative moneyed classes
– free schools were cheapest means of self – protection and
insurance
•
Started Normal Schools
– general knowledge course and courses in pedagogy for
teacher preparation
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-11
How was the struggle won for state-supported
common schools (1820-1865)?
McGuffey Reader
•
Written by Reverend William Holmes McGuffey
•
Readers (books) emphasized virtues of hard work, honesty,
truth, charity and obedience
Morrill Land Grant Act
Provided federal land for states to either sell or rent for funds
for the establishment of colleges of agriculture and
mechanical arts
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-12
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Compulsory Education Laws
•
Required common school attendance
•
More students attended school
•
Increased attendance created need for management
•
Scientific Management
•
Top down management taken from big business
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-13
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Higher Education for African Americans
Booker T. Washington
•
Founded Tuskegee Institute – Industrial school for African
Americans in rural Alabama
•
Believed that as the race grows in knowledge, experience,
culture, taste and wealth that the wants of the people will
become more diverse and to satisfy this the number of
professional business men and women will increase
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-14
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
W.E.B. Dubois
First Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
Founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP)
Called to educate the most talented tenth of the African
American population to equip them for leadership
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-15
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Kindergarten
Garden where children grow
Founded by Friedrich Froebel
Stress motor development and self activity before children
began formal schooling
Professionalization of Teaching
Professional Teacher Organizations Started
National Education Association (NEA)
American Federation of Teachers (AFT)
Worked to increase teacher salaries and professionalize
teaching.
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-16
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Committee of Ten
Funded by NEA
Decided primary function of high schools to take intellectually
elite students and prepare for life
Stressed mental discipline in humanities, languages and
science
Committee of Fifteen
NEA appointed committee to examine elementary curriculum
Introduced Latin, modern languages, and algebra into
curriculum
Elementary curriculum should be organized around 5
subjects: grammar, literature, arithmetic, geography and
history
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-17
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Reorganization of Secondary Education
•
Called for high school curriculum to accommodate individual
instruction
•
Determined 7 goals to provide focus for schooling at all
levels: health, command of individual processes, worthy
home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of
leisure time, and ethical character
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-18
How did compulsory education change schools
and the teaching profession (1865-1920)?
Women’s Influence on Teaching
•
Greater demand for teachers
•
Linked schools with social service agencies and institutions
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-19
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
Progressivism
Belief that life is evolving in positive direction, people should
be trusted to act in own best interest
Education should focus on children’s interests and practical
needs
Teachers served as guides
John Dewey’s Laboratory School
– Gave students meaningful relevant education
– Test principles
– Curriculum should be a natural outgrowth of child interests
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-20
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
Maria Montessori’s Method
•
Believed children’s mental, physical and spiritual
development should be enhanced by providing them with
developmentally appropriate activities
•
Teachers created learning environments based on student’s
level of development and readiness to learn new material
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-21
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
•
Decline in progressivism due to public criticism
•
Lasting effects of progressivism
•
Inquiry or discovery learning
•
Self paced instructional approaches
•
Field trips
•
Flexible scheduling
•
Open Concept classrooms
•
Non-graded schools
•
Small group activities
•
School-based counseling
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-22
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
Education of Immigrants and Minorities
•
Goal – rapid assimilation into English-speaking AngloEuropean society
• Children often punished for speaking native language
• Ethnic groups established separate schools to preserve
culture
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-23
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
Education of Immigrants and Minorities
•
Native Americans – Federal Government placed tribes on
reservations and tribal children in boarding schools to
assimilate them into the dominate culture
•
The Problem of Indian Administration
• Recommended Native American Education be
restructured
• Built day schools
• Revised curricula to reflect tribal cultures and needs
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-24
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
Mary McLeod Bethune
•
Started what became Bethune-Cookman College
•
Directed Office of Minority Affairs in the National Youth
Administration (NYA)
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-25
What were the aims of education during the
Progressive Era (1920-1945)?
World War II and Federal Government Influences
•
Lanham Act Provided funding for:
– Worker training
– Construction of school in military areas
– Childcare for working parents
•
G.I. Bill of Rights provided funding for tuition and board at
colleges and universities for veterans
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-26
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
Trends
•
How can full and equal educational opportunity be extended
to all groups?
•
What knowledge and skills should be taught?
•
How should knowledge and skills be taught?
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-27
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
1950s
National Defense Education Act of 1958
• Started in response to Russian Satellite – Sputnik first into
space
• Education is the first line of defense
• New math, science, social studies and foreign language
programs
Desegregation
•
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
•
Separation is unequal
•
Schools order to desegregate
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-28
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
1960s
•
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
• Allocated funds on the basis of the number poor children
•
Title VII – The Bilingual Education Act
• Provided federal aid to low-income children of limited
English-speaking ability
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-29
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
1970s
– Accountability of teachers demanded
– Back-to-basics Movement
– Title IX
○ No person in the United State shall on the basis of sex be
excluded from education or activity receiving federal
assistance
– Education for All Handicapped Children (PL94-142)
○ Referred to as Mainstreaming Law
○ Children with special needs will receive a free and
appropriate education in the least restrictive environment
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-30
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
1980s
Nation at Risk
– Gave evidence that schools were failing
Paideia Proposal
– Response to Nation at Risk
– Proposal for perrenialist core curriculum
High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America
– Suggested strengthening academic core curriculum
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-31
How did education change during the modern
postwar era (1945-2000)?
1990s
Challenges
– Greater diversity
– Greater international competition
– Less support for public education
– Decentralization and deregulation of schools
Response
– Teacher leadership and collaboration
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-32
What are the educational priorities of the new
century (2000-present)?
Equity for all students
The achievement gap
Excellence
2010 ESEA reauthorization
Race to the Top grants
Accountability
Holding schools, teachers, and administrators accountable
for student learning.
Becoming At Teacher, 9e, Forrest W. Parkay
ISBN: 0132767465
© 2013, 2010, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
5-33
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